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6 



^ ft. a*«l«»i«,; ^ 

<*^ PRINCETON, N. J. ^^jj 



PRESENTED BY 

THE PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION 



I 



"R L 






THE 



MAEKOW 



OF 



MODERN DIVINITY: 



IN TWO PARTS. 



PART I. 

THE COVENANT OF WORKS AND THE COVENANT OP GRACE. 

PART II. 

AN EXPOSITION OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 



BY EDWARD FISHER, A.M 

WITH NOTES 

BY THE REV. THOMAS BOSTON. 

MINISTER OF THE GOSPEL, ETTRICK. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF PUBLICATION, 

NO. 821 CHESTNUT STREET. 



STEREOTYPED B . 

JESPER HARDING&SON, 
INQDIRER nXTILDING, SOUTH THIRD STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



CONTENTS 



PART I. 



The Preface, - Page 9 

The Dedication, 13 

Address to the Reader 15 

Introduction.— Sect. I. Difference about the law, 21. — 2. A threefold law, 22 

Chap. I. — Of the Law of Works, or Covenant of Works. 

Sect. I. The nature of the covenant of works, 27. — Sect. II. Adam's fall, 
33. — Sect. III. The sinfulness and misery of mankind by the fall, 34, — 
Sect. lY. No recovery by the law, or covenant of works, 36. — Sect. V. 
The covenant of works binding, though broken, 39. 

Chap. II. — Of the Law of Faith, or Covenant of Grace. 

Sect. I. Of the eternal purpose of grace, 40. — Sect. II. Of the promise, 
44. — 1. The promise made to Adam, ib. — 2. The promise renewed to 
Abraham, 49. — 3. The law, as the covenant of works, added to the pro- 
mise, 53. — 4. The promise and covenant with Abraham, renewed with 
the Israelites, 65. — 5. The covenant of grace under the Mosaic dis- 
pensation, 68. — 6. The natural bias towards the covenant of works 84. 
— 7. The Antinomiau faith rejected, 94". — 6. The evil of legalism, 98. — 
Sect. III. Of the performance of the promise, 100. — 1. Christ's fulfilling 
of the law in the room of the elect, 101. — 2. Believers dead to the law 
as the covenant of works, 109. — 3. The warrant to believe in Christ. 
126. — 4. Evangelical repentance a consequent of faith, 142. — 5. The 
spiritual marriage with Jesus Christ, 150. — 6. Justification before faith, 
refuted, 156. — 7. Believers freed from the commanding and condemning 
power of the covenant of works, 158. 

Chap. III.— Of the Law of Christ. 

Sect. I. The nature of the law of Christ, 172.-2. The law of the ten 
commandments a rule of life to believers, 176. — 3. Antinomian objec- 
tions answered, 180. — 4. The necessity of marks and signs of grace, 
186. — 5. Antinomian objections answered, 190. — 6. Holiness and good 
works attained to only by faith, 192. — 7. Slavish fear and servile hope 
not the springs of true obedience, 200. — 8. The efficacy of faith for 
holiness of heart and life, 207. — 9. Use of means for strengthening of 
faith, 216. — 10. The distinction of the law of works, and law of Christ, 
applied to six paradoxes, 217. — 11. The use of that distinction in prac- 
tice, 221.— 12. That distinction a mean betwixt legalism and Antino- 
mianism, 233. — 13. How to attain to assurance, 234. — 14. Marks and 
evidences of true faith, 237. — 15, How to recover lost evidences, 239. — 
16. Marks and signs of union with Christ, 240. 

(3) 



4 CONTENTS; 

Chap. IV. — Of the Heart's ITappiness, or Soul's Rest 

Sect. I. No rest for the soul till it come to God, 244. — 2. How the soul 
is kept from rest in God, 247. — 3. God in Christ the only true rest for 
the soul, 254. 

The Conclusion, 260 

PART n. 

Dedication, 265 

The Author to the Reader, 267 

Introduction, 269 

Ignorant men confine the meaning of the ten commandments, . . 270 
The ten commandments an epitome of the law of God, . . . .271 

Six rules for the right expounding of the ten commandments, . . 271 

The sum of the first commandment, &c., 272 

Wherein the first and second commandments differ, &c., . . . 278 

Wherein the second and third commandments differ, &c. ... 283 

The difference between the third and fourth commandments, &c., . . 291 

The sura of the fifth commandment, 294 

The sum of the sixth commandment, 302 

The sum of the seventh commandment, ....... 305 

The sum of the eighth commandment, 307 

The sum of the ninth commandment, 310 

The sum of the tenth commandment, 312 

The Lord requireth perfect obedience to all the ten commandments, . 315 
All men by nature under sin, wrath, and eternal death, . . . .317 
Christ hath redeemed believers from the curse of the law, . . .317 

Every man's best actions are corrupted and defiled with sin, . . . 320 
The least sinful thought makes man liable to eternal damnation, . .323 
Though man cannot be justified by his obedience to the law, yet shall not 

his obedience be in vain, 325 

Man is naturally apt to think he must do something towards his own jus- 
tification, and act accordingly, 327 

Christ requires that believers do desire and endeavour to yield perfect 

obedience to all the ten commandments, 331 

Believers shall be rewarded for their obedience, and with what, . . 332 
After what manner believers are to make confession of their sins upon a 

day of humiliation, 334 

Why and to what end believers are to receive the sacrament of the 

Lord's Supper, . 336 

The Difference Between the Law and the Gospel, . . . 337 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 



I HAVE perused this ensuing Dialogue, and find it tending to peace 
and holiness ; the author endeavouring to reconcile and heal those un- 
happy differences, which have lately broken out afresh amongst us, about 
the points therein handled and cleared ; for which cause I allow it to be 
printed, and recommend it to the reader, as a discourse stored with 
many necessary and seasonable truths, confirmed by Scripture, and avowed 
by many approved writers : all composed in a familiar, plain, moderate 
style, without bitterness against, or uncomely reflections upon others, — 
which flies have lately corrupted many boxes of otherwise precious 
ointment. 

May 1, 1645. Jos. Caryl. 

The marrow of the second bone is like that of the first, sweet and 
good. The commandments of God are marrow to the saints, as well as 
the promises ; and they shall never taste the marrow of the promise who 
distaste the commandments. This little treatise breaketh the bone, the 
hard part of commandments, by a plain exposition, that so all, even babes in 
Christ, yea, such as are yet out of Christ, may suck out and feed upon the 
marrow by profitable meditation. 

Sept. 6, 1648. Jos. Caryl. 

If thou wilt please to peruse this little book, thou shalt find great 
worth in it. There is a line of a gracious spirit drawn through it, which 
has fastened many precious truths together, and presented them to thy view : 
according to the variety of men's spirits, the various ways of presenting 
known truths are profitable. The grace of God has helped this author in 
making his work. If it in like manner help thee in reading, thou shalt have 
cause to bless God for these truths thus brought to thee, and for the labours 
of this good man, whose ends, I believe, a^-e very sincere for God and thy 
good. 

Jer. Burroughs. 

Occasionally lighting upon the dialogue, under the approbation of a learned 
and judicious divine, I was thereby induced to read it, and afterwards, on a 
serious consideration of the usefulness of it, to commend it to the people in my 
public ministry. 

Two things in it especially took with me : First, The matter ; the main 
substance being distinctly to discover the nature of the two covenants, 
upon which all the mysteries, both of the law and gospel, depend. To 
see the first Adam to be primus fmleratus in the one, and the second Adam 
in the other : to distinguish rightly betwixt the law standing alone as a 
covenant, and standing in subordination to the gospel as a servant : this I 
assure myself to be the key which opens the hidden treasure of the gospel. 
As soon as God had given Luther but a glimpse hereof, he professes that 
he seemed to be brought into paradise again, and the whole face of the 
Scripture to be changed to him : and he looked upon every truth with another 
eye. 

Secondly, The manner ; because it is an irenicunu and tends to an accommo- 
1* (5) 



6 RECOMMENDATIONS. 

dation and a right understanding. Times of reformation have always been 
times of division. Satan will cast out a flood after the woman, as knowing" 
that more die by the disagreement of the humours of their own bodies, than by 
the sword ; and that, if men be once engaged, they will contend, if not for 
truth, yet for victory. 

Now, if the difference be in things of lesser consequence, the best way to 
quench it were silence. But if the difference be of greater concernment than 
this is, the best way to decide it, is to bring in more light, which this 
author has done with much evidence of Scripture, backed with the authority 
of most modern divines. So that whosoever desires to have his judgment 
cleared in the main controversy between us and the Antinomians, with a 
small expense, either of money or time, he may here receive ample satis- 
faction. This I testify upon request, professing myself a friend both to truth 
and peace. 

W. Strong. 

This book, at first well accommodated with so valuable a testimony as 
Mr. Caryl's, besides its better approving itself to the choicer spirits every 
where, by the speedy distribution of the whole impression ; it might seem 
a needless or superfluous thing to add any more to the praise thereof; 
yet meeting with detracting language from some few, by reason of some 
phrases, by them either not duly pondered, or not rightly understood, it 
is thought meet, in this second impression, to relieve that worthy testi- 
mony, which still stands to it, with fresh supplies, not for any need the 
truth therein contained hath thereof, but because either the prejudice or 
darkness of some men's judgments does require it. I, therefore, having 
thoroughly perused it, cannot but testify, that if I have any the least 
judgment, or relish of truth, he that finds this book finds a good thing, 
and not unworthy of its title ; and may account the saints to have ob- 
tained favour with the Lord in the ministration of it, as that which, with 
great plainness and evidence of truth, comprises the chief, if not all the 
differences that have been lately engendered about the law. It has, I 
must confess, not only fortified my judgment, but also warmed my heart 
in the reading of it ; as- indeed inculcating, throughout the whole dia- 
logue, the clear and familiar notion of those things by which we live, as 
Ezek. xvi. speaks in another case ; and it appears to me to be written 
from much experimental knowledge of Christ, and teaching of the Spirit. 
Let all men that taste the fruit of it confess, to the glory of God, he is no 
respecter of persons ; and endeavour to know no man henceforth after the 
flesh, nor envy the compiler thereof the honour to be accounted, as God has 
made him in this point, a healer of breaches, and a restorer of the overgrown 
paths of the gospel. As for my own part, I am so satij^fied in this testimony 
1 lend, that I reckon whatever credit is thus pawned, will be a glory to the 
name that stands by and avows this truth, so long as the book shall endure 
to record it. 

Joshua Sprigge. 

I HAVE, according to your desire, read over your book, and find it full 
of evangelical light and life ; and I doubt not but the oftener I read it, the 
more true comfort I shall find in the knowledge of Christ thereby ; the 
matter is pure, the method is apostolical, wherein the works of love, in the 
right place, after the life of faith, be effectually required. God has endowed 
h\a Fishcr with the net of a trying understanding, and discerning judgment and 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 7 

judgment and discretion, whereby, out of the christaline streams of the 
well of life, you have taken a mess of the sweetest and wholesomest fish that 
the world can afford, which, if I could daily have enough of, I should not care 
for the flesh, or the works thereof. 

Samuel Prettie. 

This book came into my hand by a merciful and most unexpected 
disposure of providence, and I read it with great and sweet complacence. 
It contains a great deal of the marrow of revealed and gospel truth, 
selected from authors of great note, clearly enlightened, and of ^ most di- 
gested experience ; and some of them were honoured to do eminent and 
heroical services in their day. Thus the Christian reader has the flower 
of their labours communicated to him very briefly, yet clearly and 
powerfully. And the manner of conveyance, being by way of amicable 
conference, is not only fitted to afford delight to the judicious reader, but 
lays him also at the advantage of trying, through grace, his own heart 
the more exactly, according to what echo it gives, or how it relishes, or 
is displeased with the several speeches of the communers. Here we 
have the greatest depths, and most painted delusions of hell, in opposi- 
tion to the only way of salvation, discovered with marvellous brevity and 
evidence, and that by the concurring suffrages of burning and shining 
lights, men of the clearest experience, and honoured of God to do eminent 
service in their ,day, for advancing the fnterests of our Lord's kingdom and 
gospel. 

The reluctance of gospel light has been the choice mean blessed by the 
Lord, for the effecting of great things, in the several periods of the 
Church, since that light brake up in paradise, after our first sin and fall ; 
and ever since, the balance has swayed, and will sway, according to the 
better or worse state of matters in that important regard. When gospel 
light is clear, and attended with power, Satan's kingdom cannot stand 
before it ; the prince and powers of darkness must fall as lightning from 
heaven. And upon the contrary, according to the recessions from thence, 
Christian churches went off, by degrees, from the only foundation, even 
from the rock Christ, until the man of sin, the great antichrist, did mount 
the throne. Nevertheless, while the world is wandering after the beast, 
behold ! evangelical light breaks forth in papal darkness, and hereupon 
antichrist's throne shakes, and is at the point of falling ; yet his wounds 
are cured, and he recovers new strength and spirits, through a darkening 
of the glorious gospel, and perversion thereof, by anti-evangelical errors and 
heresies. 

That the tares of such errors are sown in the reformed churches, and by 
men who profess reformed faith, is beyond debate ; and these, who lay to 
heart the purity of gospel doctrine. Such dregs of antichristianism do 
yet remain, or are brought in amongst us. Herein- the words of the apostle 
are verified, viz : " Of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse 
things to draw away disciples after them :" and as this renders the 
essays for a further diffusion of evangelical light the more necessary and 
seasonable, so there is ground to hope, that in these ways the churches 
of Christ will gradually get the ascendant over their enemies, until the 
great antichrist shall fall, as a trophy before a gospel dispensation. For 
the Lord will "destroy him by the breath of his mouth, and with the 
brightness of his coming." That this excellent and spiritual piece may be 
blessed to the reader, is the prayer of their sincere well-wisher and servant in 
the work of the gospel, 

Carnock, December 4, 1717. James Hog. 



8 RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The Act about the " Marrow'' occasioned great thoughts of heart among 
us. I have been acquainted with that book about 18 or 19 years, and many 
times have admired the gracious conduct of holy Providence which brought it 
to my hand, having occasionally lighted upon it in a house of the parish 
where I was first settled. As to any distinct uptakings of the doctrine of the 
gospel I have, such as they are, I owe them to that book. — Extract of a Letter 
from Mr. Boston to Mr. Hog. 

I NEVER read the " Marrow" with Mr. Boston's Notes, till this present 
time, 1755 ; and I find, by not having read it, I have sustained a considera- 
ble loss. It is a most valuable book ; the doctrines it contains are the life 
of my soul, and the joy of my heart. Might my tongue or pen be made 
instrumental to recommend and illustrate, to support and propagate such 
precious truths, I should bless the day wherein I was born. Mr. Boston's 
Notes on the " Marrow" are, in my opinion, some of the most judicious and 
valuable that ever were penned. — Extract of a Letter from Mr. Hervey to 
Mr. William Hog. 

I HAVE frequently perused, with great satisfaction, the " Marrow of 
Modern Divinity," first and second parts ; and, as far as I can judge, it 
will be found, by those that read it, very useful for illustrating the differ- 
ence between the law and the gospel, and preventing them from splitting, 
either on the rock of legality on the one hand, or that of Antinomianism on 
the other ; and, accordingly, recommend it [by desire] as a book filled 
with precious, seasonable, and necessary truth, clearly founded upon the 
sacred oracles. 

Falkirk, December 9, 1788. # John Belfrage. 

It is considered necessary to add the following account of the author of 
" The Marrow of Modern Divinity" from Wood's Athenge Oxonienses, vol. ii. 
p. 198 : — " Edward Fisher, the eldest son of a knight, became a gentle- 
man-commoner of Brasen-nose College, August 25, 1627, took on his degree 
in arts, and soon after left that house. Afterwards, being called home 
by his relations, who were then, as I have been informed, much in debt, 
he improved that learning which he had obtained in the university so 
much, that he became a noted person among the learned, for his great 
reading in ecclesiastical history, and in the fathers, and for his admirable 
skill in the Greek and Hebrew languages. His works are, — 1. * An Ap- 
peal to the Conscience, as thou wilt answer it at the great and dreadful 
day of Jesus Christ.' Oxford, 1644. Quarto. — 2. 'The Marrow of Modern 
Divinity.' 1646, Octavo. — 3. ' A Christian Caveat to Old and New Sabba- 
tarians,' 1650. — 4. ' An Answer to Sixteen Queries, touching the Rise and 
Observation of Christmas.',' 



PREFACE. 



' C»8i ' 



Whosoever thou art into whose hands this book shall 
come, I presume to put thee in mind of the divine command, 
binding on thy conscience, Deut. i. 17: "Ye shall not respect 
persons in judgment ; but ye shall hear the small as well as 
the great." Eeject not the book with contempt, nor with in- 
dignation neither, when thou findest it entitled The Marrow 
of Modern Divinity^ lest thou do it to thine own hurt. Ee- 
member, that our blessed Lord himself was " accounted a 
friend of publicans and sinners," Matt. xi. 19. — "Many said 
of him, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him ?" John 
X. 20. The apostle Paul was slanderously reported to be an 
Antinomian ; one who, by his doctrine, encouraged men to do 
evil, and " make void the law," Eom. iii. 8, 81. And the first 
martyr, in the days of the gospel, was stoned for pretended 
"blasphemous words against Moses and against the law," 
Acts vi. 11, 13. 

The gospel method of sanctification, as well as of justifi- 
cation, lies so far out of the ken of natural reason, that if all 
the rationalists in the world, philosophers and divines, had con- 
sulted together to lay down a plan for repairing the lost image 
of God in man, they had never hit upon that which the divine 
wisdom has pitched upon, viz : that sinners should be sancti- 
fied in Christ Jesus, 1 Cor. i. 2, by faith in him, Acts xxvi. 
18 ; nay, being laid before them, they would have rejected it 
with disdain, as foolishness, 1 Cor. i. 23. 

In all views which fallen man has towards the means of his 
own recovery, the natural bent is to the way of the covenant 
of works. This is evident in the case of the vast multitudes 
throughout the world, embracing Judaism, Paganism, Maho- 
metanism, and Popery. All these agree in this one principle, 

(9) 



10 PKEFACB. 

that it is by doing men must live, thougli they hugely difler as 
to the things to be done for life. 

The Jews, in the time of Julian the Apostate, attempted to 
rebuild their temple, after it had lain many years in ruins, by 
the decree of heaven never to be built again ; and ceased not, 
till by an earthquake, which shook the old foundation and 
turned all down to the ground, they were forced to forbear, as 
Socrates the historian tells us. But the Jews were never more 
addicted to that temple, than mankind naturally is to the build- 
ing on the first covenant: and Adam's children will by no 
means quit it, until Mount Sinai, where they desire to work 
what they do work, be all on a fire about them. Oh, that those 
who have been frightened from it were not so ready to go back 
towards it ! 

Howbeit, that can never be the channel of sarrctification, 
whatsoever way men prepare it and fit it out for that purpose, 
because it is not, by divine appointment, the "ministration of 
righteousness and life," 2 Cor. iii. 

And hence it is always to be observed, that as the doctrine 
of the gospel is corrupted, to introduce a more rational sort of 
religion, the flood of looseness and licentiousness swells propor- 
tionably ; insomuch that morality, brought in for doctrine, in 
room and stead of the gospel of the grace of God, never fails 
to be, in effect, a signal for an inundation of immorality in 
practice. A plain instance hereof is to be seen in the grand 
apostasy from the truth and holiness of the gospel, as exem- 
plified in Popery. And on the other hand, real and thorough 
reformation in churches is always the effect of gospel light, 
breaking forth again, from under the cloud which had gone 
over it ; and hereof the Church of Scotland, among others, 
has, oftener than once, had comfortable experience. 

The real friends of true holiness, then, do exceedingly mis- 
take their measures, in affording a handle, on any occasion 
whatsoever, for advancing the principles of legalism, for bring- 
ing under contempt the good old way in which our fathers 



PREFACE. 11 

found rest to their souls, and for removing the ancient land- 
marks which they set. 

It is now above fourscore years since this book made its 
first entrance into the world, under the title of The Marrow 
of Modern Divinity^ at that time not unfitly prefixed to it ; but 
it is too evident it has outlived the fitness of that title. The 
truth is, the divinity therein taught is now no longer the 
modern, but the ancient divinity, as it was recovered from un- 
derneath the Antichristian darkness ; and as it stood before the 
tools of the late refiners on the Protestant doctrine were lifted 
up upon it — a doctrine which, being from God, must needs be 
according to godliness. 

It was to contribute towards the preserving of this doctrine, 
and the withstanding of its being run down, under the odious 
name of Antinomianism, in the disadvantageous situation it has 
in this book, whose undeserved lot it is to be everywhere 
spoken against, that the following notes were written. 

And herein two things chiefly have had weight : one is, lest 
that doctrine, being put into such an ill name, should become 
the object of the settled aversion of sober persons, and they be 
thereby betrayed into legalism. The other is, lest in these 
days of God's indignation so much appearing in spiritual judg- 
ments, some taking up the principles of it, from the hand of 
this author and ancient divines, for truths, should take the 
sense, scope, and design of them, from (now) common fame ; 
and so be betrayed unto real Antinomianism. 

Eeader, lay aside prejudices, — look and see with thine own 
eyes, — call things by their own names, and do not reckon Anti- 
Baxterianism or Anti-Neonomianism to be Antinomianism, 
and thou shalt find no Antinomianism taught here ; but thou 
wilt be perhaps surprised to find, that that tale is told of Luther 
and other famous Protestant divines, under the borrowed name 
of the despised Mr. Fisher, author of The Marrow of Modern 
Divinity. 

In the Notes, obsolete or ambiguous words, phrases, and 



12 PREFACE. 

things are explained ; trntli cleared, confirmed, and vindicated ; 
tlie annotator making no scruple of declaring his dissent from 
the author, where he saw just ground for it. 

I make no question but he will be thought by some to have 
constructed too favourably of several passages ; but, as it is 
nothing strange that he inclines to the charitable side, the book 
having been many years ago blessed of God to his own soul ; 
so, if he has erred on that side, it is the safest of the two for 
thee and me, judging of the words of another man, whose in- 
tention, I believe, with Mr. Burroughs, to have been very sin- 
cere for God and the reader's good. However, I am satisfied 
he has dealt candidly in that matter, according to his light. 

Be advised always to read over a lesser section of the book, 
before reading any of the notes thereupon, that you may have 
the more clear understanding of the whole. 

I conclude this preface, in the words of two eminent pro- 
fessors of theology, deserving our serious regard : — 

" I dread mightily that a rational sort of religion is coming 
in among us : I mean by it, a religion that consists in a bare 
attendance on outward duties and ordinances, without the 
power of godliness : and thence people shall fall into a way of 
serving God, which is a mere deism, having no relation to Jesus 
Christ and the Spirit of God."* 

" I warn each one of you, and especially such as are to be 
directors of the conscience, that you exercise yourselves in study, 
reading, meditation, and prayer, so as you may be able to in- 
struct and comfort both your own and other's consciences in 
the time of temptation, and to bring them back from the law 
to grace, from the active (or working) righteousness, to the 
passive (or received) righteousness ; in a word, from Moses to 
Christ." t 

* Memoirs of Mr. Halyburton's Life, page 199. 
f Lutli. Comment, in Epist. ad Gal. page 27. 



HON. COLONEL JOHN DOWNES, 

One of the Members of the Honourable House of Commons, &c., E. F. wishes 
the true knowledge of God in Jesus Christ. 

Most Honoured Sir, 

Although I do observe that new editions, accompanied 
with new additions, are sometimes published with new dedica- 
tions; yet so long as he who formerly owned the subject does 
yet live, and has the same affections towards it, I conceive there 
is no need of a new patron, but of a new epistle. 

Be pleased then, most honoured sir, to give me leave to tell 
you, that your eminency of place did somewhat induce me, 
both now and before, to make choice of you for its patron ; but 
your endowments with grace did invite me to it, God having 
bestowed upon you special spiritual blessings in heavenly 
things in Christ : for it has been declared unto me, by them 
that knew you when you were but a youth, how Christ met 
with you then, and by sending his Spirit into your heart, first 
convinced you of sin, as was manifest by those conflicts which 
your soul then had both with Satan and itself, whilst you did 
not believe in Christ ; secondly, of righteousness, as was mani- 
fest by the peace and comfort which you afterwards had, by 
believing that Christ was gone to the Father, and appeared in 
his presence as your advocate and surety that had undertaken 
for you ; thirdly, of judgment, as has been manifest ever since, 
in that you have been careful with the true godly man. Psalm 
cxii. 5, to " guide your affairs with judgment," in walking ac- 
cording to the mind of Christ. 

I have not forgotten what desires you have expressed to 
know the true difference between the covenant of luorks and the 
covenant of grace ; and experimentally to be acquainted with 
the doctrine of free grace, the mysteries of Christ, and the life 
of faith. Witness not only your high approving of some heads 
of a sermon, which I once heard a godly minister preach, and 
repeated in your hearing, of the life of faith; but also your 
earnest request to me to write them out fair, and send them 
to you into the country ; yea, witness your highly approving 
2 (13) 



14 PREFACE. 

of this dialogue, when I first acquainted yon with the contents 
thereof, encouraging me to expedite it to the press, and your 
kind acceptance, together with your cordial thanks for my love 
manifested in dedicating it to your honourable name. 

Since then, worthy sir, it has pleased the Lord to enable me 
both to amend and enlarge it, I hope your afi'ection will also 
be enlarged towards the matter therein contained, considering 
that it tends to the clearing of those forenamed truths, and, 
through the blessing of God, may be a means to root them 
more deeply in your heart. And truly, sir, I am confident, 
the more they grow and flourish in any man's heart, the more 
will all heart-corruptions wither and decay. O sir, if the truths 
contained in this dialogue were but as much in my heart, as 
they are in my head, I were a happy man ; for then should I be 
more free from pride, vain glory, wrath, anger, self-love, and 
love of the world, than I am ; and then should I have more 
humility, meekness, and love, both to God and man, than I 
have. Oh ! then should I be content with Christ alone, and 
live above all things in the world ; — then should I experimen- 
tally know both how to abound and how to want ; — and then 
should I be fit for any condition : nothing could come amiss 
to me. Oh, that the Lord would be pleased to write them in 
our hearts by his blessed Spirit ! 

Most humbly beseeching you still to pardon my boldness, 
and vouchsafe to take it into your patronage and protection, I 
humbly take my leave of you, and remain, your obliged servant 
to be commanded, 

EDWAED FISHEE. 



TO ALL SUCH HUMBLE-HEARTED READERS, 

AS SEE ANY NEED TO LEARN EITHER TO KNOW THEMSEL\T:S, OR GOD IN CHRIST. 

Loving Christians, 

Consider, I pray you, that as the first Adam did, as a 
common person, enter into covenant with God for all mankind, 
and brake it, whereby they became sinful and guilty of ever- 
lasting death and damnation ; even so Jesus Christ, the second 
Adam, did, as a common person, enter into covenant with God 
his Father, for all the elect,* that is to say, all those that have, 
or shall believe on his name,t and for them kept it ; :j: whereby 
they become righteous, and heirs of everlasting life and salva- 
tion ; § and therefore it is our greatest wisdom, and ought to be 
our greatest care and endeavour, to come out || and from the 
first Adam, unto and into the second Adam ; T that so we 
" may have life through his name," John xx. 31. 

And yet, alas ! there is no point in all practical divinity that 
we are naturally so much averse and backward to as unto this ; 
neither does Satan strive to hinder us so much from doing any- 
thing else as this ; and hence it is, that we are all of us na- 
turally apt to abide and continue in that sinful and miserable 
state that the first Adam plunged us into, without either 
taking any notice of it, or being at all affected with it, so far 
are we from coming out of it. And if the Lord be pleased by 
any means to open our eyes to see our misery, and we do 

* " The covenant (viz : of works) being made with Adam, not only for 
himself but for his posterity, all mankind, descending from him by or- 
dinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in his first trans- 
gression." Shorter Catechism, quest. 16. — " The covenant of grace was made 
with Christ, as the second Adam, and in him, with all the elect, as his seed." 
Larger Cat., quest. 31. 

t See chap. 2. sect. 3. note.J 

X Namely, by doing and dying for them, viz : the elect. 

§ Thus the impetration or purchase of redemption, and the application 
of it, are taught to be of the same extent ; even as Adam's representation, 
and the ruins by his fall are : the former extending to the elect, as the latter 
unto all mankind. 

II Of 

^ Uniting with Christ by faith. 

(15) 



16 TO THE READER. 

thereupon begin to step out of it, yet, alas! we are prone 
rather to go backwards towards the first Adam's pure state,* 
in striving and struggling to leave sin, and perforin duties, and 
do good works ; hoping thereby to make ourselves so righteous 
and holy, that God will let us into paradise again, to eat of the 
tree of life, and live for ever : and this we do, until we see 
the " flaming sword at Eden's gate turning every way to keep 
the way of the tree of life," f Gen. iii. 24. Is it not ordinary, 
when the Lord convinceth a man of his sin (either by means 
of his word or his rod) to cry after this manner : Oh ! I am a 
sinful man! for I have lived a very wicked life, and therefore 
surely the Lord is angry with me, and will damn me in hell! 
Oh ! what shall I do to save my soul ? And is there not at hand 
some ignorant, miserable comforter, ready to say. Yet do not 
despair, man, but repent of thy sins, and ask God forgiveness, 
and reform your life, and doubt not but he will be merciful 
unto you ; J for he has promised, you know, " that at what 
time soever a sinner repenteth him of his sins, he will forgive 
him." § 

* That is, to the way of the covenant of works, which innocent Adam was 
set upon. 

f That is, till we be brought to despair of obtaining salvation in the way 
of the covenant of works. Mark here the spring of legalism, namely, the 
natural bias of man's heart towards the way of the law, as a covenant of 
works, and ignorance of the law, in its spirituality and vast extent, Rom. vii. 
9 ; X. 2, 3. 

X There is not one word of Jesus Christ the glorious Mediator, nor of faith 
in his blood, in all the advice given by this casuist to the afflicted ; and 
agreeable thereto is the effect it has upon the afflicted, who takes comfort 
to himself, without looking unto the Lord Jesus Christ at all, as appears 
from the next paragraph. 

Behold the Scripture pattern in such a case : Acts ii. 37, 38, " Men and 
brethren, what shall we do? Then Peter said unto them, Repent and be 
baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of 
sins." Chap. xvi. 30, 31, "Sirs, what must I do to be saved? and they 
said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved."' And thus 
the Directory, title " Concerning Visitation of the Sick." " If it appear that 
he hath not a due sense of his sins, endeavours ought to be used to convince 
him of his sins — to make known the danger of deferring repentance, and of 
salvation at any time offered, to awaken the conscience, and to rouse him 
out of a stupid and secure condition, to apprehend the justice and wrath of 
God ; " — here this miserable comforter finds the afflicted, and slionld have 
taught him concerning an offended God, as there immediately follows — 
" before whom none can stand but he that, being lost in himself, layeth hold 
upon Christ by faith." 

§ This sentence, taken from the English service-book, is in the Prac- 
tice of Piety," p. 122, cited from Ezek. xxxiii. 14, 16, and is reckoned 
amongst these Scriptures, an ignorant mistake of which keeps back a sinner 



TO THE READER. It 

And does lie not hereupon comfort himself, and say in his 
heart at least, Oh ! if the Lord will but spare my life, and 
lengthen out my days, I will become a new man ! I am very 
sorry that I have lived such a sinful life ; but I will never do 
as I have done for all the world ! Oh ! you shall see a great 
change in me ! believe it ? 

And hereupon he betakes himself to a new course of life ; 
and, it may be, becomes a zealous professor of religion, per- 
forming all Christian exercises, both public and private, and 
leaves off his old companions, and keeps company with reli- 
gious men ; and so, it may be, goes on till his dying day, and 
thinks himself sure of heaven and eternal happiness ; and yet, 
it may be, all this while is ignorant of Christ and his righteous- 
ness, and therefore establisheth his own. 

Where is the man, or where is the woman that is truly come 
to Christ, that has not had some experience in themselves of 
such a disposition as this ? If there be any that have reformed 
their lives, and are become professors of religion, and have 
not taken notice of this in themselves more, or less, I wish they 
may have gone beyond a legal professor, or one still under 
the covenant of works. 

Nay, where is the man or woman, that is truly in Christ, 
that findeth not in themselves an aptness to withdraw their 
hearts from Christ, and to put some confidence in their own 
works and doings ? If there be any that do not find it, I wish 
their hearts may not deceive them. 

Let me confess ingenuously, I was a professor of religion at 
least a dozen of years before I knew any other way to eternal 
life, than to be sorry for my sins, and ask forgiveness, and 
strive and endeavour to fulfil the law, and keep the command- 
ments, according as Mr. Dod and other godly men had ex- 
pounded them; and truly, I remember I was in hope I should 
at last attain to the perfect fulfilling of them ; and, in the mean 
time, I conceived that God would accept the will for the deed; 
or what I could not do, Christ had done for me. 

And though at last, by means of conferring with Mr. Thomas 
Hooker in private, the Lord was pleased to convince me that 
I was yet but a proud Pharisee, and to show me the way of 



from the practice of piety. But the truth is, it is not to be found in the Old 
or New Testament ; and therefore it was objected ascaiiist, as standing in the 
service-book under the name of a " Sentence of Scripture," pretended to be 
cited from Ezekiel xviii. 2i, 22.— Reasons Showing the Necessity of Ee- 
formation, &c. p. 26. 
2* 



18 TO THE EEADER. 

faith and salvation by Christ alone, and to give me, I hope, a 
heart in some measure to embrace it ; yet, alas ! through the 
weakness of my faith, I have been, and am still apt to turn 
aside to the covenant of works ; and therefore have not at- 
tained to that joy and peace in believing, nor that measure of 
love to Christ, and man for Christ's sake, as I am confident 
many of God's saints do attain unto in the time of this life. 
The Lord be merciful unto me, and increase my faith ! 

And are there not others, though I hope but few, who be- 
ing enlightened to see their misery, by reason of the guilt of 
sin, though not by reason of the filth of sin, and hearing of 
justification freely by grace, through the redemption which is 
in Jesus Christ, do applaud and magnify that doctrine, follow- 
ing them that do most preach and press the same, seeming to 
be, as it were, ravished with the hearing thereof, out of a con- 
ceit that they are by Christ freely justified from the guilt of 
sin, though still they retain the filth of sin ? * These are they 
that content themselves with a gospel knowledge, with mere 
notions in the head, but not in the heart ; glorying and rejoic- 
ing in free grace and justification by faith alone ; professing 
faith in Christ, and yet are not possessed of Christ ; — these are 
they that can talk like believers, and yet do not walk like be- 
lievers ; these are they that have language like saints, and yet 
have conversation like devils ; — these are they that are not 
obedient to the law of Christ, and therefore are justly called 
Antinomians. 

Now, both these paths f leading from Christ, have been 
justly judged as erroneous ; and to my knowledge, not only 
a matter of eighteen or twenty years ago, but also within these 
three or four years, there has been much ado, both by preach- 
ing, writing, and disputing, both to reduce men out of them, 
and to keep them fi'om them ; and hot contentions have been 
on both sides, and all, I fear, to little purpose : for has not the 
strict professor according to the law, whilst he has striven to 
reduce the loose professor according to the gospel out of the 
Antinomian path, entangled both himself and others the faster 

* Mark here the spring of Antinomianism ; namely, the want of a sound 
conviction of the odiousness and filtliiness of sin, renderinp: the soul loath- 
some and abominable in the sight of a holy God. Plence, as the sinner 
sees not his need of, so neither will he receive and rest on Christ for all 
his salvation, but will go about to halve it, grasping at his justifying blood, 
neglecting his sanctifying Spirit, and so falls short of all purt or" lot in that 
matter. 

f Namely, legalism and Antinomianism. 



TO THE READER. 19 

in the yoke of bondage ? Galatians v, 1. And has not the 
loose professor according to the gospel, whilst he has striven 
to reduce the strict professor according to the law out of the 
legal path, " by promising liberty from the law, taught others, 
and been himself the servant of corruption?" 2 Peter ii. 19. 

For this cause 1, though I be nothing, have by the grace of 
God endeavoured, in this Dialogue, to walk as a middle man 
betwixt them both, in showing to each of them his erroneous 
path, with the middle path, (which is Jesus Christ received 
truly, and walked in answerably,)"^ as a means to bring them 
both unto him, and make them both one in him ; and Oh ! that 
the Lord would be pleased so to bless it to them, that it might 
be a means to produce that effect ! 

I have, as you may see, gathered much of it out of known 
and approved authors ; and yet have therein wronged no man, 
for I have restored it to the right owner again. Some part of 
it my manuscripts have afforded me ; and of the rest I hope I 
may say, as Jacob did of his venison. Gen. xxvii. 20, " the 
Lord hath brought it unto me." Let me speak it without 
vain glory, I have endeavoured herein to imitate the laborious 
bee, who out of divers flowers gathers honey and wax, and 
thereof makes one comb : if any souls feel any sweetness in it, 
let them praise God, and pray for me, who am weak in faith, 
and cold in love. 

E. F. 

* A short and pithy description of the middle path, the only pathway to 
heaven — "Jesus Christ (the way, John xiv. 6) received truly (by faith, John 
i. 12 ; this is overlooked by the legalist) and walked in answerably," by holi- 
ness of heart and life, Col. ii. 6 ; this is neglected by the Antinomian. The 
Antinomiau's faith is but pretended, and not true faith, since he walks not in 
Christ answerably. The legalist's holiness is but pretended, and not true holiness, 
since he hath not " received Christ" truly, and therefore is incapable of walking 
in Christ, which is the only true holiness competent to fallen mankind. Thus, 
both the legalist and Antinomian are each of them destitute of true faith and 
true holiness ; forasmuch as there can be no walking in Christ, without a true 
receiving of him ; and there cannot be a true receiving of him without walking 
in him : so both of them are off the only way of salvation, and, continuing so, 
must needs perish. Wherefore it concerns every one who has a value for his 
own soul, to take heed that he be found in the middle path. 



A Catalogue of tJiose Writers' Names, out of loliom I have col- 
lected much of the matter contained in this ensuing Dialogue. 

Mr. Thos. Hooker, 
Mr. Laestanno, 
Mr. Lightfoot, 



Mr. Ainsworth, 
Dr. Ames, 
Bishop Babington, 
Mr. Ball, 
Mr. Bastingius, 
Mr. Beza, 

Mr. Eobert Bolton, 
Mr. Samuel Bolton, 
Mr. Bradford, 
Mr. Bullinger, 
Mr. Calvin, 
Mr. Careless, 
Mr. Caryl, 
Mr. Cornwall, 
Mr. Cotton, 
Mr. Culverwell, 
Mr. Dent, 
Mr. Diodati, 
Mr. D. Dixon, 
Mr. Down ham, 
Mr. Du Plesse, 
Mr. Dyke, 
Mr. Elton, 
Mr. Forbes, 
Mr. Fox, 
Mr. Frith, 
Mr. Gibbons, 
Mr. Thos. Godwin, 
Mr. Gray, jun., 
Mr. Green ham, 
Mr. Grotius, 
Bishop Hall, 



Dr. Luther, 

Mr. Marbeck, 

Mr. Marshal, 

Peter Martyr, 

Dr. Mayer, 

Wolfgangus Musculus, 

Bernardine Ochin, 

Dr. Pemble, 

Mr. Perkins, 

Mr. Polanus, 
Dr. Preston, 
Mr. Eeynolds, 
Mr. Pollock, 
Mr. Eouse, 
Dr. Sibs, 
Mr. Slater, 
Dr. Smith, 
Mr. Stock, 
Mr. Tindal, 
Mr. Eobert Town, 
Mr. Yaughan, 
Mr. Yaumeth, 
Dr. Urban Eegius, 
Dr. Ursinus, 
Mr. Walker, 
Mr. Ward, 
Dr. Willet, 
Dr. Williams, 
Mr. Wilson. 



(20) 



THE 

MAUROW 

or 

MODERN DIVINITY 



EvANGELisTA, a Minister of the Gospel. 
NoMisTA, a Legalist. 
Antinomista, an Antinomian. 
Neophytus, a Young Christian. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Sect. 1. Differences about the Law. — 2. A threefold Law. 

JSfomista. Sir, my neighbour, Keophytus and I having lately 
had some conference with this our friend and acquaintance, 
Antinomista, about some points of religion, wherein he, dif- 
fering from us both, at last said he would be contented to be 
judged by our minister : therefore, have we made bold to 
come unto you, all three of us, to pray you to hear us, and 
judge of our differences. 

Evan. You are all of you very welcome to me ; and if you 
please to let me hear what your differences are, I will tell you 
what I think. 

Sect. 1. — Norn. The truth is, sir, he and I differ in very many 
things; but more especially about the law: for I say, the law 
ought to be a rule of life to a believer ; and he says, it ought not. 

Neo. And surely, sir, the greatest difference betwixt him 
and me, is this ; — he would persuade me to believe in Christ ; 
and bids me rejoice in the Lord, and live merrily, though I 
feel never so many corruptions in my heart, yea, though I be 
never so sinful in my life ; the which I cannot do, nor, I think, 
ought to do ; but rather to fear, and sorrow, and lament for 
my sins. 

(21) 



22 THE MARROW OF 

Ant. The truth is, sir, the greatest diflference betwixt my 
friend Nomista and me, is about the law ; and therefore that is 
the greatest matter we come to you about. 

Evan. I remember the Apostle Paul willeth Titus to "avoid 
contentions and strivings about the law, because they are un- 
profitable and vain," Tit. iii. 9 ; and so I fear yours have been. 

Nom. Sir, for my own part, I hold it very meet, that every 
true Christian should be very zealous for the holy law of God ; 
especially now, when a company of these Antinomians do set 
themselves against it, and do what they can quite to abolish it, 
and utterly to root it out of the church : surely, sir, I think 
it not meet they should live in a Christian commonwealth. 

Evan. I pray you, neighbour Nomista, be not so hot, neither 
let us have such unchristian-like expressions amongst us ; but 
let us reason together in love, and with the spirit of meekness, 
1 Cor. iv. 21, as Christians ought to do. I confess with the 
apostle, " It is good to be zealously affected always 'in a good 
thing," Gal. iv. 18. But yet, as the same apostle said of the 
Jews, so I fear I may say of some Christians, that " they are 
zealous of the law," Acts xxi. 20 ; yea, some would be doctors 
of the law, and yet neither understand " what they say, nor 
whereof they afftrm," 1 Tim. i. 7. 

Nom. Sir, I make no doubt but that I both know what I say, 
and whereof I affirm, when I say and affirm that the holy law 
of God ought to be a rule of life to a believer ; for I dare 
pawn my soul on the truth of it. 

Evan. But what law do you mean ? 

Nom. Why, sir, what law do you think I mean ? Are there 
any more laws than one ? 

Sect. 2. — Evan. Yea, in the Scriptures there is mention made 
of divers laws, but they may all be comprised under these 
three, viz. — the law of works, the law of faith, and the law of 
Christ ; * Kom. iii. 27, Gal. vi. 2 ; and, therefore, I pray you, 



* These terms are scriptural, as appears from the whole texts quoted 
by onr author, namely, Rom. iii. 27, " Where is boasting then ? it is ex- 
cluded. By what law? of works? nay: but by the law of faith." — Gal. 
vi. 2, " Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ." By 
the law of works is meant the law of the ten commandments, as the co- 
venant of works. By the law of faith, the gospel, or covenant of grace ; 
for justification being tlie point upon which the apostle there states the 
opposition betwixt these two laws, it is evident that the former only is the 
law that doth not exclude boasting ; and that the latter only is it, by 
which a sinner is justified in a way that doth exclude boasting. By the 



MODERN DIVINITY. 23 

tell me, when you say the law ought to be a rule of life to a 
believer, which of these three laws you mean. 

Nom. Sir, I know not the difference betwixt them ; but 
this I know, that the law of the ten commandments, com- 
monly called the moral law^ ought to be a rule of life to a 
believer. 

law of Christ, is meant the same law of the ten commandments, as a rule 
of life, in the hand of a Mediator, to believers already justified, and not 
any one command of the law only ; for " bearing one another's burdens" 
is a " fulfilling of the law of Christ," as it is a loving one another : but, 
according to the Scripture, that love is not a fulfilling of one command 
only, but of the whole law of the ten commands, Rom. xiii. 8-10. — " He 
that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not com- 
mit adultery. Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear 
false witness, Thou shalt not covet ; and if there be any other command- 
ment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely. Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law." It 
is a fulfilling of the second table directly, and of the first table indirectly 
and consequentially : therefore, by the law of Christ is meant, not one 
command only, but the whole law. 

The law of works is the law to be done, that one may be saved ; the 
law of faith is the law to be believed, that one may be saved ; the law of 
Christ is the law of the Saviour, binding his saved people to all the duties 
of obedience, Gal. iii. 12 ; Acts xvi. 31. 

The term law is not here used univocally ; for the law of faith is neither 
in the Scripture sense, nor in the sense of our author, a law, properly so 
called. The apostle uses that phrase only in imitation of the Jews' man- 
ner of speaking, who had the law continually in their mouths. But since 
the promise of the gospel proposed to faith, is called in Scripture " the 
law of faith," our author was sufficiently warranted to call it so too. So 
the law of faith is not a proper preceptive law. 

The law of works, and the law of Christ, are in substance but one law, 
even the law of the ten commandments — the moral law — that law which 
was from the beginning, continuing still the same in its own nature, but 
vested with different forms. And since that law is perfect, and sin is 
any want of conformity unto, or transgression of it, whatever form it be 
vested with, whether as the law of works or as the law of Christ, all com- 
mands of God unto men must needs be comprehended under it, and par- 
ticularly the command to repent, common to all mankind, pagans not ex- 
cepted, who doubtless are obliged, as well as others, to turn from sin unto 
God ; as also the command to believe in Christ, binding all to whom the 
gospel revelation comes, though, in the meantime, this law stands under 
different forms to those who are in a state of union with Christ by faith, 
and to those who are not so. The law of Christ is not a new, proper, pre- 
ceptive law, but the old, proper, preceptive law, which was from the beginning, 
under a new accidental form. 

The distinction between the law of works and the law of faith cannot 
be controverted, since the apostle doth so clearly distinguish them, Rom. 
iii. 27. 

The distinction between the law of works and the law of Christ, as 
above explained according to the Scriptures, and the mind of our author, 
is the same in effect with that of the law, as a covenant of works, and as 



24 THE MARKOW OF 

Evan. But the law of the ten commandments, or moral law 
may be either said to be the matter of the law of works, or the 
matter of the law of Christ : and therefore I pray you to tell me, 
in whether of these senses you conceive it ought to be a rule 
of life to a believer ? 

Nom. Sir, I must confess, I do not know what you mean 

a rule of life to believers, and ought to be admitted, (Westm. Confess. 
chap, 19, art. 6.) For, (1.) Believers are not under, but dead to the law 
of works, Rom. vi. 14, *' For ye are not under the law, but under grace." 
— Chap. vii. 4, " Wherefore my brethren, ye also are become dead to the 
law, that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised 
from the dead." — 1 Cor. ix. 21. " Being not without law to God, but under 
the law of Christ." Some copies read here " of God," and " of Christ ;" 
which I mention, not out of any regard to that different reading, but that 
upon the occasion thereof the sense is owned by the learned to be the 
same either way. To be under the law to God is, without question, to 
be under the law of God ; whatever it may be judged to import more, it 
can import no less ; therefore to be under the law to Christ, is to be under 
the law of Christ. This text gives a plain and decisive answer to the 
question, '' How is the believer under the law of God ?" namely, as he is 
under the law to Christ. (2.) The law of Christ is an " easy yoke," and 
a " light burden," Matt, xi. 30 ; but the law of works, to a sinner, is an 
insupportable burden, requiring works as the condition of justification 
and acceptance with God, as is clear from the whole of the apostle's 
reasoning, Rom. iii. (and therefore it is called the law of works, for other- 
wise the law of Christ requires works too,) and cursing " every one that 
continues not in all things written in it to do them," Gal. iii. 10. The 
apostle assures us, that " what things soever the law saith, it saith to thera 
who are under the law," Rom. iii. 19. The duties of the law of works, 
as such, are, as I conceive, called by our Lord himself, " heavy burdens, 
and grievous to be borne," Matt, xxiii. 4. — " For they," viz : the Scribes 
and Pharisees, "■ bind heavy burdens, and grievous to be borne, and lay 
them on men's shoulders ; but they themselves will not move them with 
one of their fingers." These heavy burdens were not human traditions, 
and rites devised by men ; for Christ would not have commanded the 
observing and doing of these, as in this case he did, verse 3, '' Whatsoever 
they bid you observe, that observe and do ;" neither were they the Mo- 
saic rites and ceremonies, which were not then abrogated, for the Scribes 
and Pharisees were so far from not moving these burdens with one of 
their own fingers, that the whole of their religion was confined to them, 
namely to the rites and ceremonies of Moses' law, and those of their own 
devising. But the duties of the moral law they laid on others, binding 
them on with the tie of the law of works, yet made no conscience of them 
in their own practice : the which duties, nevertheless, our Lord Jesus 
commanded to be observed and done. 

" He who hath believed on Jesus Christ, (though he be freed from the 
curse of the law,) is not freed from the command and obedience of the 
law, but tied thereunto by a new obligation, and a new command from 
Christ. Which new command from Christ importeth help to obey the 
command." — Practical Use of Saving Knowledge, title, The Third Warrant 
to Believe, fi^. 5. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 25 

by .this distinction ; but this I know, that God requires that 
every christian should frame and lead his life according to 
the ten commandments ; the which if he do, then may he ex- 
pect the blessing of God both upon his own soul and body ; 
and if he do not, then can he expect nothing else but his 
wrath and curse upon them both. 

Evan. The truth is, Nomista, the law of the ten command- 
ments, as it is the matter of the law of works, ought not to be 
a rule of life to a believer. But in thus saying, you have af- 
firmed that it ought; and therefore therein you have erred 
from the truth. And now, Antinomista, that I may also know 
your judgment, when you say the law ought not to be a rule 
of life to a believer, pray tell me what law you mean ? 

Ant. Why, I mean the law of the ten commandments. 

Evan. But whether do you mean that law, as it is the 
matter of the law of works, or as it is the matter of the law 
of Christ ? 

Ant. Surely, sir, I do conceive, that the ten commandments 



What this distinction amounts to is, that thereby a difiference is con- 
stituted betwixt the ten commandments as coming from an absolute God 
out of Christ unto sinners, and the same ten commandments as coming 
from God in Christ unto them ; a difference which the children of God, 
assisting their consciences before him to " receive the law at his mouth," 
will value as their life, however they disagree about it in words and man- 
ner of expression. But that the original indispensable obligation of the 
law of the ten commandments is in any measure weakened by the be- 
liever's taking it as the law of Christ, and not as the law of works ; or 
that the sovereign authority of God the Creator, which is inseparable 
from it for the ages of eternity, in what channel soever it be conveyed 
unto men, is thereby laid aside, — will appear utterly groundless, upon an 
impartial consideration of the matter. For is not our Lord Jesus Christ, 
equally with the Father and the Holy Spirit, Jehovah, the Sovereign, 
Supreme, Most High God, Creator of the world? Isa. xlvii. 4 ; Jer. xxiii. 
6 ; with Psalm kxxiii. 18 ; John i. 3 ; Kev. iii. 14. Is not the name (or 
sovereign authority) of God in Christ? Exod. xxiii. 21. Is not he in the 
Father, and the Father in him? John xiv. 11. Nay, doth not all the 
fulness of the Godhead dwell in him? Col. ii. 9. How, then, can the 
original obligation of the law of the ten commandments, arising from the 
authority of the Creator, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, be weakened by 

its being issued unto the believer from and by that blessed channel, the 

Lord Jesus Christ ? 

As for the distinction betwixt the law of faith and the law of Christ, 

the latter is subordinated unto the former. All men by nature are under 

the law of works ; but taking the benefit of the law of faith, by believmg 
. in the Lord Jesus Christ, they are set free from the law of works, and brought 

under the law of Christ.— Matt. xi. 28, 29, " Come unto me, all ye that labour 

and are heavy laden — take my yoke upon you." 
3 



26 THE MAKROW OF 

are no way to be a rule of life to a believer ; for Christ hath 
delivered him from them. 

Evan. But the truth is, the law of the ten commandments, 
as it is the matter of the law of Christ, ought to be a rule of 
life to a believer ;* and therefore you having affirmed the con- 
trary, have therein also erred from the truth. 

* The law of the ten commandments, being the natural law, was writ- 
ten on Adam's heart on his creation ; while as yet it was neither the law 
of works, nor the law of Christ, in • the sense wherein these terms are 
used in Scripture, and by our author. But after man was created, and 
put into the g-arden, this natural law, having made man liable to fall away 
from God, a threatening of eternal death in case of disobedience, had also 
a promise of eternal life annexed to it in case of obedience ; in virtue of 
which he, having done his work, might thereupon plead and demand the 
reward of eternal life. Thus it became the law of Avorks, whereof the 
ten commandments were, and are still the matter. All mankind being 
ruined by the breach of this law, Jesus Christ obeys and dies in the room 
of the elect, that they might be saved ; they being united to him by faith, 
are, through his obedience and satisfaction imputed to them, freed from 
eternal death, and become heirs of everlasting life ; so that the law of 
works being fully satisfied, expires as to them, as it would have done of 
course in the case of Adam's having stood the time of his trial : howbeit it 
remains in full force as to unbelievers. But the natural law of the ten 
commandments (which can never expire or determine, but is obligatory 
in all possible states of the creature, in earth, heaven, or heli) is, from 
the moment the law of works expires as to believers, issued forth to them 
(still liable to infirmities, though not to falling away like Adam) in the 
channel of the covenant of grace, bearing a promise of help to obey, 
(Ezek. xxxvi. 27,) and, agreeable to their state before the Lord, having 
annexed to it a promise of the tokens of God's fatherly love, for the sake 
of Christ, in case of that obedience ; and a threatening of God's fatherly 
displeasure in case of their disobedience. John xiv. 21, "He that hath my 
commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me ; and he that 
loveth me, shall be loved of my Father ; and I will love him, and will 
manifest myself to him." — Psalm Ixxxix. 31 — 33, " If they break my sta- 
tutes, and keep not my commandments ; then will I visit their trans- 
gression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes. Nevertheless, my 
loving kindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithful- 
ness to fail." I'hus it becomes the law of Christ to them ; of which law 
also the same ten commandments are likewise the matter. In the threat- 
enings of this law there is no revenging wrath ; and in the promises of it 
no proper conditionalty of Avorks ; but here is the order in the covenant 
of grace, to which the law of Christ belongs ; a beautiful order of grace, 
obedience, particular favours, and chastisements for disobedience. Thus 
the ten commandments stand, both in the law of works and in the law of 
Christ at the same time, being the common matter of both ; but as they 
are the matter of (?'. e. stand in) the law of works, they are actually a 
part of the law of works ; howbeit, as they are the matter of, or stand in, 
the law of Christ, they are actually a part, not of the law of works, but- 
of the law of Christ. And as they stand in the law of Christ, our author 
expressly asserts, against the Antiuomian, that they ought to be a rule of 



MODERN DIVINITY. 27 

lifom. The truth is, sir, I must confess I never took any 
notice of this threefold law, which, it seems, is mentioned in 
the New Testament. 

Ant. And I must confess, if I took any notice of them, I 
never understood them. 

Evan. Well, give me leave to tell you, that so far as any 
man comes short of the true knowledge of this threefold law,* 
so far he comes short both of the true knowledge of God and 
of himself ; and therefore I wish you both to consider of it. 

Nom. Sir, if it be so, you may do well to be a means to in- 
form us, and help us to the true knowledge of this threefold 
law ; and therefore, I pray you, first tell us what is meant by 
the law of works. 



CHAPTER I. 

OR COVENANT OF WORKS. 

Sect. 1. The Nature of the Covenant of Works.— 2. Adam's Fall.— 3. The 
Sinfulness and Misery of Mankind by the Fall. — 4. No Recovery by 
the Law, or Covenant of Worlds. — 5. Tlie Covenant of Works binding, 
though broken. 

Sect. 1. — Evan. The law of* works, opposed to the law of 
faith, (Rom. iii. 27,) holds forth as much as the covenant of 
works ; for it is manifest, says Musculus, that the word which 
signifies covenant^ or bargain, is put for law: so that you see 
the law of works is as much as to say, the covenant of works ; 
the which covenant the Lord made with all mankind in Adam 
before his fall ; the sum whereof was, " Do this, and thou 
shalt live," Lev. xviii. 5 ; " and if thou do it not, thou shalt 
die the death," Gen. ii. 17. In which covenant there was 
contained first a precept, " Do this ;" secondly a promise 
joined unto it, " If thou do it thou shalt live ;" thirdly, a like 

life to a believer ; but that they ought to be a rule of life to a believer, as 
they stand in the law of works, he justly denies, against the legalist. Even 
as when one and the same crime stands forbidden in the laws of dififerent in- 
dependent kingdoms, it is manifest that the rule of life to the subjects in that 
particular is the prohibition, as it stands in the law of that kingdom whereof 
they are subjects respectively, and not as it stands in the law of that kingdom 
of which they are not subjects. 

* Not_ of the terms here used to express it by, but of the things thereby 
meant, viz : the covenant of works, the covenant of grace, and the law as a 
rule of life to believers, in whatever terms these things be expressed. 



28 THE MARROW OF 

threatening, "If thou do it not, thou shalt die the death." 
Imagine, says Musculus, that God had said to Adam, Lo, to 
the intent that thou may est live, I have given thee liberty to 
eat, and have given thee abundantly to eat : let all the fruits 
of paradise be in thy power, one tree excepted, which see thou 
touch not, for that I keep to mine own authority : the same is 
" the tree of knowledge of good and evil ;" if thou touch it, the 
meat thereof shall not be life, but death. 

Nom. But, sir, you said, that the law of the ten command- 
ments, or moral law, may be said to be the matter of the law 
of works ; and you have also said, that the law of works is as 
much as to say the covenant of works, whereby it seems to me, 
you hold that the law of the ten commandments was the mat- 
ter of the covenant of works, which God made with all man- 
kind in Adam before his fall. 

Evan. That is a truth agreed upon by all authors and inter- 
preters that I know. And indeed the law of works (as a 
learned author says) signifies the moral law ; and the moral 
law, strictly and properly taken, signifies the covenant of works."^ 

* The moral law is an ambiguous term among divines. (1.) The 
moral law is taken from the decalogue, or ten conmiandments, simply. 
So the law in the ten commandments is owned to be commonly called the 
moral law, Westm. Confess, chap. xix. art. 2, 3. And thus our author 
has hitherto used that term, reckoning the moral law not the covenant of 
works itself, but only the matter of it. (2.) The moral law is taken for 
the ten commandments, having the promise of life, and threatening of 
death annexed to them ; that is for the law, or covenant of works. Thus 
the moral law is described to be, " the declaration of the will of God to 
mankind, directing and binding every one to personal, perfect, and per- 
petual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition 
of the whole man, soul and body, and in performance of all these duties 
of holiness and righteousness, which he oweth to God and man, promising 
life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it." 
Larger Catech. Quest. 93. That this is the covenant of works, is clear 
from Westm. Confess, chap. xix. art. 1, " God gave to Adam a law, as a 
covenant of works, by which he bound him and all his posterity to per- 
sonal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience ; promised life upon the 
fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it." And this our 
author owns to be the sense of that term, strictly and properly taken ; 
the reason whereof I conceive to be, that the moral law, properly signi- 
fying the law of manners, answers to the Scripture term, the law of 
works, by which is meant the covenant of works. And if he had added, 
that in this sense believers are delivered from it, he had said no more 
than the Larger Catechism doth, in these words : " They that are regenerate, 
and believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works," 
Quest. 97. But, in the meantime, it is evident he does not here use that term 
in this sense ; and in the next paragraph, save one, he give* a reason why he 
did not so use it. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 29 

Noyii. But, sir, what is the reason you call it but the matter 
of the covenant of works ? 

Evan. The reason why I rather choose to call the law of 
the ten commandments the matter of the covenant of works, 
than the covenant itself, is, because I conceive that the matter 
of it cannot properly be called the covenant of works, except 
the form be put upon it ; that is to say, except the Lord re- 
quire, and man undertake to yield perfect obedience thereunto, 
upon condition of eternal life and death. 

And therefore, till then, it was not a covenant of works be- 
twixt God and all mankind in Adam ; as, for example, you 
know, that although a servant"^ have an ability to do a mas- 
ter's work, and though a master have wages to bestow upon 
him for it ; yet is there not a covenant betwixt them till they 
have thereupon agreed. Even so, though a man at the first 
had power to yield perfect and perpetual obedience to all the 
ten commandments, and God had an eternal life to bestow upon 
him ; yet was there not a covenant betwixt them till they were 
thereupon agreed. 

Noyyi. But, sir, you know there is no mention made in the 
book of Genesis of this covenant of works, which, you say, 
was made with man at first. 

Evan. Though we read not the word " covenant" betwixt 
God and man, yet have we there recorded what may amount 
to as much ; for God provided and promised to Adam eternal 
happiness, and called for perfect obedience, which appears 
from God's threatening. Gen. ii. 17 ; for if man must die if 
he disobeyed, it implies strongly, that God's covenant was with 
him for life, if he obeyed. 

Nom. But, sir, you know the word " covenant" signifies a 
mutual promise, bargain, and obligation betwixt two parties. 
Now, though it is implied that God promised man to give him 
life if he obeyed, yet we read not, that man promised to be 
obedient. 

Eva7i. I pray take notice, that God does not always tie 
man to verbal expressions, but doth often contract the cove- 



* Not a hired servant, for there is a coveDant betwixt such an one and 
the master, but a bond-servant, bought with money, of another person, or 
born in the master's house, who is obliged to serve his master, and is liable to 
punishment in case he do not, but cannot demand wages, since there is no cov- 
enant between them. 

This was the case of mankind, with relation to the Creator, before the cov- 
enant of works was made. 
3* 



30 THE MARROW OF 

nant in real impressions in the heart and frame of the crea- 
ture,* and this was the manner of covenanting with man at 
the first ;f for God had furnished his soul with an understand- 
ing mind, whereby he might discern good from evil, and right 
from wrong : and not only so, but also in his will was most 
great uprightness, Eccl. vii. 29 ; and his instrumental parts;]: 
were orderly framed to obedience. The truth is, God did en- 
grave in man's soul wisdom and knowledge of his will and 
works, and integrity in the whole soul, and such a fitness in 
all the powers thereof, that neither the mind did conceive, nor 
the heart desire, nor the body put in execution, anything but 
that which was acceptable to God ; so that man, endued with 
these qualities, was able to serve God perfectly. 

Nom. But, sir, how could the law of the ten commandments 
be the matter of this covenant of works, when they were not 
written, as you know, till the time of Moses ? 

Evan. Though they were not written in tables of stone until 
the time of Moses, yet were they written in the tables of man's 
heart in the time of Adam : for we read that man was created 
in the image or likeness of God, Gen. i. 27. And the ten 
commandments are a doctrine agreeing with the eternal wis- 
dom and justice that is in God ; wherein he hath so painted 
out his own nature, that it does in a manner express the very 
image of God, Col. iii. 10. And does not the apostle say, 
(Eph. iv. 24,) that the image of God consists in knowledge, 
righteousness, and true holiness ? And is not knowledge, 
righteousness, and true holiness, the perfection of both the 
tables of the law ? And indeed, says Mr. Eollock, it could not 
well stand with the justice of God, to make a covenant with 
man, under the condition of holy and good works, and perfect 
obedience to his law, except he had first created man holy and 
pure, and engraven his law in his heart, whence those good 
works should proceed. 

* The soul approving, embracing, and consenting to the covenant ; which, 
without any more, is plain language, though not unto men, yet unto God, who 
knoweth the heart. 

f The covenant being revealed to man created after God's own image, he 
could not but perceive the equity and benefit of it ; and so heartily approve, 
embrace, accept, and consent to it. And this accepting is plainly intimated 
in Eve's words to the serpent, Gen. iii. 2, 3, " AVe may eat of the fruit of 
the trees of the garden ; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of 
the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest 
ye die." 

X Executive faculties and powers, whereby the good known and willed was 
to be done. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 31 

No^n. But yet I cannot but marvel that God, in making the 
covenant with man, did make mention of no other command- 
ment than that of the forbidden fruit. 

Evan. Do not marvel at it: for by that one species of sin 
the whole genus or kind is shown ; as the same law, being 
more clearly unfolded, doth express, Deut. xxviii. 26; Gal. iii. 
10. And, indeed, in that one commandment the whole wor- 
ship of God did consist; as obedience, honour, love, confi- 
dence, and religious fear ; together with the outward abstinence 
from sin, and reverend respect to the voice of God ; yea, 
herein also consisted his love, and so his whole duty to his 
neighbour ;^ so that, as a learned writer says, Adam heard as 
much (of the law) in the garden, as Israel did at Sinai ; but 
only in fewer words, and without thunder. 

Nom. But, sir, ought not man to have yielded perfect obe- 
dience to God, though this covenant had not been made be- 
twixt them ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed ; perfect and perpetual obedience was 
due from man unto God, though God had made no promise 
to man ; for when God created man at first, he put forth an 
excellency from himself into him ; and therefore it was the 
bond and tie that lay upon man to return that again unto God ;f 
so that man being God's creature, by the law of creation he 
owed all obedience and subjection to God his Creator. 

Nom. Why, then, was it needful that the Lord should make 
a covenant with him, by promising him life, and threatening 
him with death ? 

Evan. For answer hereunto, in the first place, I pray you 
understand, that man was a reasonable creature ; and so, out 
of judgment, discretion, and election, able to make choice of 
his way, and therefore it was meet there should be such a co- 
venant made with him, that he might, according to God's ap- 
pointment, serve him after a reasonable manner. Secondly^ 
It was meet there should be such a covenant made with him. 



* That one commandment was in effect a summary of the whole duty of 
man, the which clearly appears, if one considers that the breach of it was a 
transgressing of all the ten commandments at once, as our author afterwards 
distinctly shows. 

t God having given man a being after his own image, a glorious excellency, 
it was his natural duty to make suitable returns thereof unto the Giver, in a 
way of duty, being and acting for him ; even as the waters, which originally 
are from the sea, do in brooks and rivers return to the sea again. Man, being 
of God as his first cause, behoved to be to him as his chief and ultimate end, 
Kom. xi. 36. 



32 THE MARROW OF 

to sliow that lie was not such a prince on earth, but that he 
had a sovereign Lord : therefore, God set a punishment upon 
the breach of his commandment ;"^ that man might know his 
inferiority, and that things betwixt him and God were not as 
betwixt equals. Thirdly^ It was meet there should be such a 
covenant made with him, to show that he had nothing by per- 
sonal, immediate, and underived right, but all by gift and 
gentleness : so that you see it was an equal covenant,'!' which 
God, out of his prerogative-royal, made with mankind in Adam 
before his fall. 

Nom. Well, sir, I do perceive that Adam and all mankind 
in him were created most holy. 

Evan. Yea, and most happy, too : for God placed him in 
paradise in the midst of all delightful pleasures and contents, 
wherein he did enjoy most near and sweet communion with 
his Creator, in whose presence is fulness of joy, and at whose 
right hand are pleasures evermore. Psalm xvi. 11. So that 
if Adam had received of the tree of life, by taking and 
eating it, while he stood in the state of innocency before his 
fall, he had certainly been established in a happy estate for 
ever, and could not have been seduced and supplanted by 
Satan, as some learned men do think, and as God's own words 
seem to imply. Gen. iii. 224 

* The punishment of death upon the breach of his commandment touching 
the forbidden fruit. 

f That is, an equitable covenant, fair and reasonable. 

X The author says, that some learned men think so, and that the words, 
Gen. iii. 22, seem to imply so much ; but all this amounts not to a posi- 
tive determination of the point. The words are these, " Behold, the man 
is become as one of us, to know good and evil ; and now, lest he put 
forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever," 
&c. Whether or not these words seem to imply some such things, I leave 
to the judgment of the reader, whom I incline not to entertain with mine 
own or others' conjectures upon this head ; but three things I take to be 
plain, and beyond conjecture, in this text, (1.) That there is no irony 
nor scoff here, as many think there is ; but, on the contrary, a most pa- 
thetic lamentation over fallen man. The literal version and sense of the 
former part of the text runs thus : " Behold the man that was one of us," 
&c., compare for the version. Lam. iii. 1 ; Psalm iii. 7 ; and for the sense, 
Gen. i. 26, 27, "And God said. Let us make man in our image.— So 
God created man in his own image," &c. The latter part of the text I 
would read thus, "And eat that he may live for ever." Compare for this 
version, Exod. iv. 23 ; 1 Sam. vi. 8. It is evident the sentence is broken 
off abruptly ; the words, " I will drive him out," being suppressed ; even 
as in the case of a father, with sighs, sobs, and tears, putting his son out 
of doors. (2.) That it was God's design, to prevent Adam's eating of the 
tree of life, as he had of the forbidden tree, " lest he take also of the tree 



MODERN DIVINITY. 30 

Sect. 2. — Nom. But it seemeth that Adam did not continue 
in that holy and happy estate. 

Evan. No, indeed ; for he disobeyed God's express command, 
in eating the forbidden fruit, and so became guilty of the 
breach of the covenant. 

Nom. But, sir, how could Adam, who had his understanding 
so sound, and his will so free to choose good, be so disobedient 
to God's express command ? 

Evan. Though he and his will were both good, yet were 
they mutually good ; so that he might stand or fall, at his own 
election or choice. 

Nom. But why then did not the Lord create him immutable? 
or, why did he not so over-rule him in that action, that he 
might not have eaten the forbidden fruit ?^ 

Evan. The reason why the Lord did not create him immu- 
table, was because he would be obeyed out of judgment and 
free choice, and not by fatal necessity and absolute determina- 
tion ;f and withal, let me tell you, it was not reasonable to 
restrain God to this point, to make man such an one as would 
not, nor could not sin at all, for it was at his choice to create 
him how he pleased. But why he did not uphold him with 
strength of steadfast continuance ; that resteth hidden in God's 

of life ;" thereby mercifully taking care that our fallen father, to whom 
the covenant of grace was now proclaimed, might not, according to the 
corrupt natural inclination of fallen mankind, run back to the covenant 
of works for life and salvation, by partaking of the tree of life, a sacra- 
ment of that covenant, and so reject the covenant of grace, by eating of 
that tree now, as he had before broken the covenant of works, by eating 
of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. (3.) That at this time Adam 
did think, that by eating of the tree of life he might live for ever. Farther I 
dip not here in this matter. 

* These are two distinct questions, both of them natively arising from 
a legal temper of spii-it : and I doubt if ever the heart of a sinner shall 
receive a satisfying answer as to either of them, until it come to embrace 
the gospel-way of salvation ; taking up its everlasting rest in Christ, for wis- 
dom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. 

f Immutability, properly so called, or absolute unchangeableness, is an 
incommunicable attribute of God, Mai. iii. 6 ; James i. 17 ; and mutability, 
or changeableness, is so of the nature of a creature, that it should cease 
to be a creature, or a dependent being, if it should cease to be mutable. 
But there is an immutability, improperly so called, which is competent to 
the creature, whereby it is free from being actually liable to change in 
some respect; the which, in reference to man, may be considered two 
ways. \. As putting him beyond the hazard of change by another hand 
than his own. 2. As putting him beyond the hazard of change by him- 
self. In the former sense, man was indeed made immutable in point of 
moral goodness ; for he could only be made sinful or evil by himself, and 



84 THE MARROW OF 

secret council. Howbeit, this we may certainly conclude, that 
Adam's state was such as served to take away from him all 
excuse ; for he received so much, that of his own will he 
wrought his own destruction ;* because this act of his was a 
wilful transgression of a law, under the precepts whereof he 
was most justly created ; and under the malediction whereof he 
was as necessarily and righteously subject, if he transgressed : 
for, as being God's creature, he was to be subject to his will, 
so by being God's prisoner, he was as justly subject to his 
wrath ; and that so much the more, by how much the precept 
was most just, the obedience more easy, the transgression 
more reasonable, and the punishment more certain. 

Sect. 8. — Nom. And was Adam's sin and punishment im- 
puted unto his whole offspring ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed ; for says the apostle, Rom. v. 12, 
" Death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned ;" or, " in 
whom all have sinned," that is, in Adam. The very truth is, 
Adam by his fall threw down our whole naturef headlong 
into the same destruction, and drowned his whole offspring in 
the same gulf of misery,:}: and the reason is, because, by God's 
appointment, he was not to stand or fall as a single person only, 
but as a common public person, representing all mankind to 
come of him :§ therefore, as all that happiness, all those gifts, 
and endowments, which were bestowed upon him, were not 
bestowed upon him alone, but also upon the whole nature of 
man, and as that covenant which was made with him, was 
made with the whole of mankind ; even so he by breaking 

not by any other. If he had been made immutable in the latter sense, 
that immutability behoved either to have been woven into his very nature, 
or else to have arisen from confirming grace. Now God did not create 
man thus immutable in his nature ; which is it that the first question 
aims at ; and that for this very good reason, viz : that, at that rate, man 
would have obeyed by fatal necessity and absolute determination, as one 
not having so much as a remote power in his nature to change himself. 
And neither glorified saints, nor angels, are thus immutable ; their im- 
mutability in goodness entirely depending on confirming grace. As for 
immutability by confirming grace, which is it that the second question 
aims at, it is conferred on glorified saints and angels ; but why it was not 
afforded to Adam at his creation, our author wisely declines to give any 
reason. " The reason, says he, why the Lord did not create him immu- 
table was, because," &c. ; but why he did not uphold him with strength of 
steadfast continuance, that resteth hidden in God's secret counsel. 

* That is, he received so much strength, that it was not of weakness, but 
wilfulness, that he destroyed himself. 

f That is, all mankind. % With himself. 

I By virtue of the blessing of fruitfulness given before the fall. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 85 

covenant lost all, as well for us as for himself. As he re- 
ceived all for himself and us, so he lost all both for himself 
and us. 

Noiyi. Then, sir, it seemeth by Adam's breach of covenant, 
all mankind were brought into a miserable condition ? 

Evan. All mankind by the fall of Adam received a twofold 
damage: First^ A deprivation of all original goodness. 
Secondly^ An habitual natural proneness to all kind of wicked- 
ness. For the image of God, after which they were created, 
was forthwith blotted out ; and in place of wisdom, righteous- 
ness, and true holiness, came blindness, uncleanness, falsehood, 
and injustice. The very truth is, our whole nature ^ was 
thereby corrupted, defiled, deformed, depraved, infected, made 
infirm, frail, malignant, full of venom, contrary to God ; yea, 
enemies and rebels unto him. So that, says Luther, this is 
the title we have received from Adam : in this one thing we 
may glory, and in nothing else at all ; namely, that every in- 
fant that is born into this world, is wholly in the power of sin, 
death, Satan, hell, and everlasting damnation. Nay, says Mus- 
culus, " The whirlpool of man's sin in paradise is bottomless 
and unsearchable." 

Nom. But, sir, methinks it is a strange thing that so small 
an oftence, as eating of the forbidden fruit seems to be, 
should plunge the whole of mankind into such a gulf of 
misery. 

Evan. Though at first glance it seems to be a small offence, 
yet, if we look more wistfullyf upon the matter it will appear 
to be an exceeding great oftence ; for thereby intolerable in- 
jury was done unto God ; as, first, His dominion and authority 
in his holy command was violated. Secondly, His justice, 
truth, and power, in his most righteous threatenings, were 
despised. Thirdly, His most pure and perfect image, wherein 
man was created in righteousness and true holiness, was 
utterly defaced. Fourthly, His glory, which, by an active 
service, the creature should have brought to him, was lost and 
despoiled. Nay, how could there be a greater sin committed 
than that, when Adam, at that one clap, broke all the tea 
commandments ? 

No7n. Did he break all the ten commandments, say you ? 
Sir, I beseech you show me wherein. 

Evan. 1. He chose himself another God when he followed 
the devil. 

* That is, all maukiud. f I1iat is, earnestly. 



36 THE MARROW OF 

2. He idolized and deified his own belly f as the apostle's 
phrase is, " He made his belly his God." 

3. He took the name of God in vain, when he believed him 
not. 

4. He kept not the rest and estate wherein God had set him. 

5. He dishonoured his Father who was in heaven ; and 
therefore his days were not prolonged in that land which the 
Lord his God had given him. 

6. He massacred himself and all his posterity. 

7. From Eve he was a virgin, but in eyes and mind he com- 
mitted spiritual fornication. 

8. He stole, like Achan, that which God had set aside not 
to be meddled with ; and this his stealth is that which troubles 
all Israel, — the whole world. 

9. He bare witness against God, when he believed the wit- 
ness of the devil before him. 

10. He coveted an evil covetousness, like Amnon, which 
cost him his life,t and all his progeny. Now, whosoever con- 
siders what a nest of evils here were committed at one blow, 
must needs, with Musculus, see our case to be such, that we 
are compelled every way to commend the justice of God,:j: 
and to condemn the sin of our first parents, saying, concerning 
all mankind, as the prophet Hosea does concerning Israel, 
*' Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself," Hos. iii. 9. 

Sect. 4. — Nom. But, sir, had it not been possible for Adam 
both to have helped himself and his posterity out of his mis- 
ery, by renewing the same covenant with God, and keeping it 
so afterwards ? 

Evan. No, by no means; for the covenant of works was a 
covenant no way capable of renovation.§ When he had once 
broken it, he was gone for ever ; because it was a covenant 



* That is, as the apostle's, &c. f 2 Sam. xiii. 

% That is, to justify God. 

I The coveDant of works could by no means be renewed by fallen Adam, 
so as thereby to help himself and his posterity out of his misery, the which 
is the only thing in question here ; otherwise, indeed, it might have been 
renewed, which is evident by this sad token, that many do actually renew it 
in their covenanting with God, being prompted thereto by their ignorance of 
the high demands of the law, their own utter inability, and the way of sal- 
vation by Jesus Christ. And from the same principle our legalist here 
makes no question but Adam might have renewed it, and kept it too, for the 
after-time; only, he questions whether or not Adam might thereby have 
helped himself and his posterity too, out of the misery they were brought into 
by his sin. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 37 

between two friends, but now fallen man was become an ene- 
my. And besides it was an impossible thing for Adam to have 
performed the conditions which now the justice of God did 
necessarily require at his hands ; for he was now become lia- 
ble for the payment of a double debt, viz : the debt of satis- 
faction for his sin committed in time past, and the debt of 
perfect and perpetual obedience for the time to come ; and he 
was utterly unable to pay either of them. 

Nom. Why was he unable to pay the debt of satisfaction for 
his sin committed in time past? 

Evan. Because his sin in eating the forbidden fruit (for 
that is the sin I mean)"^ was committed against an infinite and 
eternal God, and therefore merited an infinite and eternal 
satisfaction ; which was to be either some temporal punish- 
ment, equivalent to eternal damnation, or eternal damnation 
itself. Now Adam was a finite creature, therefore, between 
finite and infinite there could be no proportion ; so that it was 
impossible for Adam to have made satisfaction by any tem- 
poral punishment ; and if he had undertaken to have satisfied 
by an eternal punishment, he should always have been satis- 
fying, and never have satisfied, as is the case of the damned in 
hell. 

Noyn. And why was he unable to pay the debt of perfect 
and perpetual obedience for the time to come ? 

Evan. Because his former power to obey was by his fall 
utterly impaired ; for thereby his understanding was both en- 
feebled and drowned in darkness ; and his will was made per- 
verse, and utterly deprived of all power to will well ; and his 
affections were quite set out of order ; and all things belonging 
to the blessed life of the soul were extinguished, both in him 
and us ; so that he was become impotent, yea, dead, and 
therefore not able to stand in the lowest terms to perform the 
meanest condition. The very truth is, our father Adam fall- 
ing from God, did, by his fall, so dash him and us all in pieces, 
that there was no whole part left, either in him or us, fit to 
ground such a covenant upon. And this the apostle wit- 
nesseth, both when he says, " We are of no strength ;" and, 
'' The law was made weak, because of the flesh," Rom. v. 6, 
and viii. 3. 

Nom. But, sir, might not the Lord have pardoned Adam's 
sin without satisfaction ? 



* That being the sin in which all mankind fell with him, Rom. v. 15. 
4 



38 THE MARROW OF 

Evan. O no ! for justice is essential in God, and it is a 
righteous thing with God, that every transgression receive a 
just recompense:* and if recompense be just, it is unjust to 
pardon sin without satisfaction. And though the Lord had 
pardoned and forgiven his former transgression, and so set him 
in his former condition of amity and friendship, yet having no 
power to keep the law perfectly, he could not have continued 
therein. f 

Nom. And is it also impossible for any of his posterity to 
keep the law perfectly ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, it is impossible for any mere man in the 
time of this life to keep it perfectly ; yea, though he be a re- 
generate man ; for the law requireth of man that he " love the 
Lord with all his heart, soul, and might ;" and there is not the 
holiest man that lives, but he is flesh as well as spirit in all 
parts and faculties of his soul, and therefore cannot love the 
Lord perfectly. Yea, and the law forbiddeth all habitual con- 
cupiscence, not only saying, "Thou shalt not consent to lust," 
but, " Thou shalt not lust :" it doth not only command the bind- 
ing of lust, but forbids also the being of lust : and who in this 
case can say, " My heart is clean ?" 

Ant. Then, Nomista, take notice, I pray, that as it was al- 
together impossible for Adam to return into that holy and 
happy estate wherein he was created, by the same way he went 
from it,:}: so is it for any of his posterity ; and therefore, I re- 
member one says very wittingly, " The law was Adam's lease 
when God made him tenant of Eden ; the conditions of which 
bond when he kept not, he forfeited himself and all for us." 
God read a lecture of the law to him before he fell, to be a 
hedge to him to keep him in paradise ; but when Adam would 
not keep within compass, this law is now become as the 



* 2 Thess. i. 6, " Seeing it is a righteous thing with God, to recom- 
pense tribulation to them that trouble you."— Heb. ii. 2, " Every trans- 
gression and disobedience received a just recompense." 

f But would have sinned again, and so fallen under the curse anew. 

X Walking back by the way of the covenant of works, which he left by 
his sinning. 

Ohjed. "Do we then make void the law," (Eom. iii. 31,) leaving an 
imputation of dishonour upon it, as a disregarded path, by pretending to 
return another way ? Ans. Sinners being united to Christ by faith, re- 
turn, being carried back the same way they came ; only their own feet 
never touch the ground ; but the glorious Mediator, sustaining the per- 
sons of them all, walked every bit of the road exactly, Gal. iv. 4, 5. Thus, 
in Christ, the way of free grace, and of the law, sweetly meet together ; 
and through faith we establish the law. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 89 

flaming sword at Eden's gate, to keep him and his posterity 
out. 

Sect. 5. — Nom. But, sir, you know, that when a covenant 
is broken, the parties that were bound are freed and released 
from their engagements ; and therefore, methinks, both Adam 
and his posterity should have been released from the covenant 
of works when it was broken, especially considering they 
have no strength to perform the condition of it. 

Evan. Indeed it is true, in every covenant, if either party 
fail in his duty, and perform not his condition, the other party 
is thereby freed from his part, but the party failing is not freed 
till the other release him ; and, therefore, though the Lord be 
freed from performing his condition, that is, from giving to man 
eternal life, yet so is not man from his part ; no, though strength 
to obey be lost, yet man having lost it by his own default, the 
obligation to obedience remains still ; so that Adam and his 
offspring are no more discharged of their duties, because they 
have no strength to do them, than a debtor is quitted of his 
bond, because he wants money to pay it. And thus, ISTomista, 
I have, according to your desire, endeavoured to help you to 
the true knowledge of the law of works. 



CHAPTER II. 

OF THE LAW OF FAITH, OR COVENANT OF GRACE. 

Sect. 1. Of the eternal Purpose of Grace.— 2. Of the Promise.— 3. Of the Per- 
formance of the Promise. 

Ant. I BESEECH you, sir, proceed to help us to the true 
knowledge of the law of faith. 

Evan. The law of faith is as much as to say the covenant 
of grace, or the gospel, which signifies good^ merry ^ glad^ and 
joyful tidings; that is to say, that God, to whose eternal 
knowledge all things are present, and nothing past or to come, 
foreseeing man's fall, before all time purposed,* and in time 

* 2 Tim. i. 9, " Who hath saved us according to his own purpose and grace, 
which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.' —Eph. iii. 11, 
" According to the eternal purpose, which he purposed in Christ Jesus our 
Lord." 



40 THE MARROW OF 

promised,* and in the fulness of time performed, f the sending 
of his Son Jesus Christ into the world, to help and deliver 
fallen mankind.:]: 

SECTION I. 

OF THE ETERNAL PURPOSE OF GRACE. 

Ant. I beseech you, sir, let us hear more of these things ; 
and first of all, show how we are to conceive of God's eternal 
purpose in sending of Jesus Christ. 

Evan, Why, here the learned frame a kind of conflict in 
God's holy attributes ; and by a liberty, which the Holy Ghost, 
from the language of holy Scripture, alloweth them, they speak 
of God after the manner of men, as if he were reduced to 
some straits and difficulties, by the cross demands of his seve- 
ral attributes.g For Truth and Justice stood up and said, 
that man had sinned, and therefore man must die ; and so 
called for the condemnation of a sinful, and therefore worthily 
a cursed creature; or else they must be violated: for thou 
saidst, (said they to God,) " In that day that thou eatest of the 
tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt die the death." 
Mercy^ on the other side, pleaded for favour, and appeals to 

* Eom. i. 1, 2, "The gospel of God, which he had promised afore by his 
prophets in the holy Scriptures." 

f Gal. iv. 4, 5, " But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth 
his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were 
under the law." 

X These are the good tidings, this is the law of faith, i. e. the law to 
be believed for salvation, which the apostle plainly teacheth. Kom. i. 16, 
" The gospel is the power of God unto salvation to every one that be- 
lieveth ;" and, verse 17, " For therein is the righteousness of God revealed 
from faith to faith." In this last text, clouded witb a great variety of 
interpretations, I think there is a transposition of words to be admitted, 
and would read the whole verse thus : " For therein is revealed the 
righteousness of God by faith unto faith ; as it is written, But the just by 
faith shall live." The key to this construction and reading of the words 
in the former part of the verse, is, the testimony adduced by the apostle 
in the latter part of it, from Hab. ii. 4, where the original text appears to 
me to determine the version of that testimony as here offered. The sense 
is, the righteousness which is by faith, namely, the rigliteousness of 
Christ, the only righteousness in which a sinner can stand before God, is in the 
gospel revealed unto faith, ?'. e. to be believed. See a like phrase, 1 Tim. iv. 
3, translated after this manner. 

I " How shall I give thee up, Ephraim ? How shall I deliver thee, 
Israel ? How shall I make thee as Admah ? How shall I set thee as Ze- 
boim ? Mine heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together." 
Hosea xi. 8. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 41 

the great court in heaven : and there it pleads, saying, Wisdom, 
and power, and goodness, have been all manifest in the crea- 
tion ; and anger and justice have been magnified in man's 
misery that he is now plunged into by his fall : but I have not 
yet been manifested."^ O let favour and compassion be shown 
towards man, wofully seduced and overthrown by Satan ! Oh I 
said theyt unto God, it is a royal thing to relieve the dis- 
tressed ; and the greater any one is, the more placable and 
gentle he ought to be. But Justice replied. If I be offended, 
I must be satisfied and have my right ; and therefore I require, 
that man, who hath lost himself by his disobedience, should, 
for remedy, set obedience against it, and so satisfy the judg- 
ment of God. Therefore the wisdom of God became an um- 
pire, and devised a way to reconcile them ; concluding, that 
before there could be reconciliation made, there must be two 
things effected; (1.) A satisfaction of God's justice. (2.) A 
reparation of man's nature : which two things must needs be 
effected by such a middle and common person that had both 
zeal towards God, that he might be satisfied ; and compassion 
towards man, that he might be repaired : such a person, as, 
having man's guilt and punishment translated on him, might 
satisfy the justice of God, and as having a fulness of God's 
Spirit and holiness in him, might sanctify and repair the nature 
of man.:}: And this could be none other but Jesus Christ, 
one of the Three Persons of the blessed Trinity ; therefore 



* Mercy requires an object in misery. 

t Favour and compassion. 

% As man lay in ruins, by the fall guilty and unclean, there stood in the 
way of his salvation, by mercy designed, 1. The justice of God, which 
could not admit the guilty creature ; and, 2. The holiness of God, which 
could not admit the unclean and unholy creature to communion with him. 
Therefore, in the contrivance of his salvation, it was necessary that provi- 
sion should be made for the satisfaction of God's justice, by payment of 
the double debt mentioned above ; namely, the debt of punishment and the 
the debt of perfect obedience. It was also necessary that provision should 
be made for the sanctification of the sinner, the repairing of the lost image 
of God in him. And man being as unable to sanctify himself, as to satisfy 
justice, (a truth which proud nature cannot digest,) the Saviour behoved, 
not only to obey and suffer in his stead, but also to have a fulness of the 
Spirit of holiness in him to communicate to the sinner, that his nature 
might be repaired through sanctification of the Spirit. Thus was the 
groundwork of man's salvation laid in the eternal counsel ; the sanctification 
of the sinner, according to our author, being as necessary to his salvation 
as the satisfaction of justice ; for indeed the necessity of the former, as well aG 
of the latter, ariseth from the nature of God, and therefore is an absolute ne- 
cessity. 

4* 



42 THE MARROW OF 

he, by his Father's ordination, his own voluntary offering, and 
the Holy Spirit's sanctification, was fitted for the business. 
Whereupon there was a special covenant, or mutual agree- 
ment made between God and Christ, as is expressed, Isa. 
liii. 10, that if Christ would make himself a sacrifice for sin, 
then he should " see his seed, he should prolong his days, 
and the pleasure of the Lord should prosper by him." So 
in Psalm Ixxxix. 19, the mercies of this covenant between 
God and Christ, under the type of God's covenant with 
David, are set forth : " Thou spakest in vision to thy holy 
One, and saidst, I have laid help upon One that is mighty :" 
or, as the Chaldee expounds it, " One mighty in the law." 
As if God had said concerning his elect, I know that these 
will break, and never be able to satisfy me ; but thou art a 
mighty and substantial person, able to pay me, therefore I 
will look for my debt of thee.^* As Pareus well observes, 
God did, as it were, say to Christ, What they owe me I re- 
quire all at thy hands. Then said Christ, " Lo, I come to 
do thy will ! in the volume of the book it is written of me, 
I delight to do thy will, O my God ! yea, thy law is in my 
heart," Psalm xl. 7, 8. Thus Christ assented, and from ever- 
lasting struck hands with God, to put upon him man's person, 
and to take upon him his name, and to enter in his stead in 
obeying his Father, and to do all for man that he should re- 
quire, and to yield in man's flesh the price of the satisfaction 
of the just judgment of God, and, in the same flesh, to suffer 
the punishment that man had deserved; and this he under- 
took under the penalty that lay upon man to have undergone.f 
And thus was justice satisfied, and mercy by the Lord Jesus 
Christ ; and so God took Christ's single bond ; whence Christ 
is not only called the " surety of the covenant for us," Heb. 
vii. 22, but the covenant itself, Isa. xlix. 8. And God laid all 

* That is, the debt which the elect owe to me. Thus was the covenant made 
betwixt the Father and the Sou for the elect, that he should obey for them, 
and die for them. 

f The Son of God consented to put himself in man's stead, in obeying his 
Father, and so to do all for man that his Father should require, that satisfac- 
tion should be made: farther, he consented, in man's nature, to satisfy and 
sufifer the deserved punishment, that the same nature that sinned might satisfy ; 
and yet farther, he undertook to bear the very same penalty that lay upon 
man, by virtue of the covenant of works, to have undergone ; so making him- 
self a proper surety for them, who, as the author observes, must pay the sum 
of money that the debtor oweth. This I take to be the author's meaning ; 
but the expression of " Christ's undertaking under the penalty," &c., is harsh 
and unguarded. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 43 

upon him, that he might be sure of satisfaction ; protesting 
that he would not deal with us, nor so much as expect any 
payment from us ; such was his grace. And thus did our 
Lord Jesus Christ enter into the same covenant of works that 
Adam did to deliver believers from it :^ he was contented to 
be under all that commanding, revenging authority, which that 
covenant had over them, to free them from the penalty of it ; 
and in that respect, Adam is said to be a type of Christ, as 
you have it, Kom. v. 14, " who was the type of him that was 
to come." To which purpose, the titles which the apostle 
gives these two, Christ and Adam, are exceeding observable : 
he calls Adam the " first man," and Christ our Lord the 
" second man," 1 Cor. xv. 47 ; speaking of them as if there 
never had been any more men in the world besides these two ; 
thereby making them head and root of all mankind, they having, 
as it were, the rest of the sons of men included in them. The 
first man is called the "earthy man ;" the second man, Christ, 
is called the " Lord from heaven," 1 Cor. xv. 47. The earthy 
man had all the sons of men born into the world included in 
him, and is so called, in conformity unto them, the "first 
man :"f the second Man, Christ, is called the " Lord from 
heaven," who had all the elect included in him, who are said 
to be the "first born," and to have their "names written in 
heaven," Heb. xii. 23, and therefore are appositely called 
" heavenly men ;" so that these two, in God's account, stood 



* Our Lord Jesus Christ became surety for the elect in the second cove- 
nant, Heb. viii. 22 ; and in virtue of that suretyship, whereby he put him- 
self in the room of the principal debtors, he came under the same cove- 
nant of works that Adam did ; in so far as the fulfilling of that covenant 
in their stead was the very condition required of him, as the second Adam 
in the second covenant. Gal. iv. 4, 5, " God sent forth his Son ; made 
under the law, to redeem them that were under the law." Thus Christ 
put his neck under the yoke of the law as a covenant of works, to redeem 
them who were under it as such. Hence he is said to be the " end of the 
law for righteousness to every one that believeth," Rom. x. 4 ; namely, 
the end for consummation, or perfect fulfilling of it by his obedience and 
death, which pre-supposeth his coming under it. And thus the law as a 
covenant of works was magnified and made honourable ; and it clearly 
appears how " by faith we establish the law," Rom. iii. 31. How then is 
the second covenant a covenant of grace ? In re.'^pect of Christ, it was 
most properly and strictly a covenant of works, in that he made a proper, 
real, and full satisfation in behalf of the elect ; but in respect of them, 
it is purely a covenant of richest grace, in as much as God accepted the 
satisfaction from a surety, which he might have demanded of them ; pro- 
vided the surety himself, and gives all to them freely for his sake. 

t And so, in relation to them, is called the " first man." 



44 THE MARROW OF 

for all the rest."^ And thus you see, that the Lord, willing to 
show mercy to the fallen creature, and withal to maintain the 
authority of his law, took such a course as might best mani- 
fest his clemency and severity. Christ entered into covenant, 
and became surety for man, and so became liable to man's 
engagements : for he that answers as a surety must pay the 
same sam of money that the debtor oweth. 

And thus have 1 endeavoured to show you, how we are to 
conceive of God's eternal purpose in sending of Jesus Christ to 
help and deliver fallen mankind. 

SECT, n.— Of the Promise. 

Sect. 1. The Promise made to Adam. — 2. The Promise renewed to Abra- 
ham. — 3. The Law, as the Covenant of Works, added to the Promise. — 
4. The Promise and Covenant with Abraham renewed with the Israelites. 
— 5. Tlie Covenant of Grace, under the Mosaic Dispensation. — 6. The 
natural bias towards the Covenant of Works. — 7. The Antinomian 
Faith rejected. — 8. The evil of Legalism. 

Sect. 1. — Ant. I beseech you, sir, proceed also to the se- 
cond thing ; and first tell us, when the Lord began to make a 
promise to help and deliver fallen mankind. 

Evan. Even the same day that he sinned,t which, as I 
suppose, was the very same day he was created.:j: For Adam, 

* Thus Adam represented all mankind in the first covenant, and Christ 
represented all the elect in the second covenant. — See the first note on 
the Preface. 

fThis, our author does here positively assert, and afterwards confirm. 
And there is plain evidence for it from the holy Scriptures, which deter- 
mines the time of our Lord's calling our guilty first parents before him, 
at the which time he gave them the promise. Gen. iii. 8, "And they 
heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the 
day ;" {Heh, " At the wind of that day," as Junius and Tremellius, Pis- 
cator and Picherellus, read it ;) the which, as soon as it began to blow, 
might convince them that their aprons of fig-leaves were not fit covers for 
their nakedness. 

J Our author is far from being singular in this opinion. The learned 
Gataker, (apud Pol. Synop. Crit. in Gen. iii. 23,) owns it to be the com- 
mon opinion, though he himself is of another mind, " That man fell, and 
was cast out of paradise, the same day in which he was created." And 
he tells us, (Ibid, in Psalm xlix. 13,) that " Broughton does most confi- 
dently assert Adam not to have stood in his integrity so much as one day ; 
and that he saith, out of Maimonides, This is held by all the Jews, as also 
by the Greek fathers." That this opinion is less received than formerly, 
is, if I mistake not, not a little owing to the cavils of the Deists ; who, to 
weaken the credit of the inspired history, allege it to be incredible that 
the events recorded. Gen. i. 24 — 26, and ii. 7, 18, to the end of the third 
chapter, could all be crowded into one day. (See Nichol's Conference 



MODERN DIVINITY. 45 

by his sin, being become the child of wrath, and both in body 
and in soul subject to the curse, and seeing nothing due to him 
but the wrath and vengeance of God, was " afraid, and 
sought to hide himself from the presence of God," Gen. iii. 10, 
whereupon the Lord promised Christ unto him, saying to the 
serpent, " I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and 
between thy seed and her seed ;" he (that is to say, the seed 
of the woman, for so is the Hebrew text) " shall break thy 
head, and thou shalt bruise his heel." This promise of Christ, 
the woman's seed, (ver. 15,) was the gospel ; and the only com- 
fort of Adam, Abel, Enoch, Noah, and the rest of the godly 
fathers, until the time of Abraham.* 

with a Theist.) The reasons to support it, taken from the learned Sharp, 
one of the six ministers banished in the year 1606. (Curs. Theol. Loc. 
de Peccato.) 1. " Because of the devil's envy, who, it is likely, could not 
long endure to see a man in a happy state. 2. If man had stood more 
days, the blessing of marriage would have taken place, Adam would have 
known his wife, and begot a child without original sin. 3. The Sabbath 
was not so much appointed for meditating on the works of creation, as 
on the work of redemption. 4. It appears from the words of the serpent, 
and of the woman, that she had not yet tasted any fruit. 5. When the 
Holy Ghost speaks of the sixth day, Gen. i, and of the day of the fall, it 
is with He emphatic. (Compare Gen. i. ult. and iii. 8.) 6. He fell so 
soon, that the work of redemption might be the more illustrious, since 
man could not stand one day without the Mediator's help." How the 
Sabbath was broken by Adam's sin, though committed the day before, 
may be learned from the Larger Catechism, on the fourth commandment, 
which teaches, that " The Sabbath is to be sanctified — and to that end we are 
to prepare our hearts — that we may be the more tit for the duties of that day ;" 
and that " the sins foi-bidden in the fourth commandment, are all omissions of 
the duties required," &c. 

* In this promise was revealed, 1. Man's restoration unto the favour of 
God, and his salvation ; not to be effected by man himself, and his own 
works, but by another. For our first parents, standing condemned for 
breaking of the covenant of works, are not sent back to it, to essay the 
mending of the matter, which they had marred before ; but a new cove- 
nant is purposed, — a Saviour promised as their only hope. 2. That this 
Saviour was to be incarnate, to become man, " the seed of the woman." 
3. That he behoved to suffer ; his heel, namely his humanity, to be 
bruised to death. 4. That by his death he should make a full conquest 
over the devil, and destroy his works, who had now overcome and de- 
stroyed mankind ; and so recover the captives out of his hand : " he shall 
bruise thy head, viz : while thou bruisest his heel." This encounter was 
on the cross : there Christ treading on the serpent, it bruised his heel, 
but he bruised its head. 5. That he should not be held by death, but 
Satan's power should be broken irrecoverably : the Saviour being only bruised 
in the heel, but the serpent in the head. 6. That the saving interest in him, 
and his salvation, is by faith alone, believing the promise with particular ap- 
plication to one's self, and so receiving him," forasmuch as these things are re- 
vealed by way of a simple promise. 



46 THE MARROW OF 

Noyn. I pray you, sir, what ground have you to think that 
Adam fell the same day he was created ? 

Evan. My ground for this opinion is, Psalm xlix. 12 ; which 
text Mr. Ainsworth makes to be the 13th verse, and reads it 
thus, " But man in honour doth not lodge a night ; he is likened 
unto beasts that are silenced."* That may be minded, says 
he, both for the first man Adam, who continued not in his 
dignity, and for all his children. 

Ant. But, sir, do you think that Adam and those others did 
understand that promised seed to be meant of Christ? 

Evan. Who can make doubt, but that the Lord had ac- 
quainted Adam with Christ, betwixt the time of his sinning 
and the time of his sacrificing, though both on one day ? 

Ant. But did Adam offer sacrifice ? 



* " From this text the Hebrew doctors, also in Bereshit Rabba, do ga- 
ther, that the glory of the first man did not night with him, and that in 
the beginning of the Sabbath his splendour was taken away from him, 
and he was driven out of Eden."— (Cartwright apud Pol. Synops. Crit. in 
Loc.) The learned Leigh, (in his Crit. Sacr. in voc. Lun,) citing this 
text, says, " Adam lodged not one night in honour, for so are the words, 
if they be properly translated." He repeats the same in his annotations 
on the book of Psalms, and points his reader to Ainsworth, whose version 
does evidently favour this opinion, and is here faithfully cited by our 
author, though without the marks of composition — " lodge a night," there 
being no such marks in my copy of Ainsworth's version or annotations, 
printed at London, 1639. However the word lun may signify, to abide or 
continue, it is certain the proper and primary signification of it is, to- 
night (at, in, or with). I must be allowed the use of this word to express 
the true import of the original one." Thus we have it rendered, Gen. 
xxviii. 11, " tarried all night."-—Judges xix. 9, 10, 13, " Tarry all night — 
tarry that night — lodged all night." And since this is the proper and 
primary signification of the word, it is not to be receded from, without 
necessity ; the which I cannot discover here. The text seems to me to 
stand thus, word for word, the propriety of the tenses also observed : 
" Yet Adam in honour could not night ; he became like as the beasts, 
they were alike." Compare the Septuagint, and the vulgar Latin ; with 
which, according to Pool, (in Synop. Crit.,) the Ethiopic, Syriac, and 
Arabic, do agree, though unhappy in not observing the difference between 
this and the last verse of the Psalm. Nothing can be more agreeable to 
the scope and context. Worldly men boast themselves in the multitude 
of their riches, verse 6, as if their houses should continue for ever, verse 
11 ; and yet Adam, as happy as he was in paradise, continued not one 
night in his honour ; it quickly left him ; yea, he died, and in that respect 
became like the beasts ; compare veise 14, " Like sheep they are laid in 
the grave, death shall feed on them." And after showing that the worldly 
man shall die, notwithstanding of his worldly wealth and honour, ver^e 
19, this suitable memorial for Adam's sons is repeated with a very small 
variation, verses 20, 21, " Adam was in honour, but could not understand ; he 
became," &c. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 47 

Evan, Can you make any question, but that the bodies of 
those beasts, whose skins went for a covering for his body, 
were immediately before offered in sacrifice for his soul ? 
Surely these skins could be none other but of beasts slain, and 
offered in sacrifice ; for before Adam fell, beasts were not sub- 
ject to mortality nor slaying. And God's clothing of Adam 
and his wife with skins signified, that their sin and shame were 
covered with Christ's righteousness. And, questionless, the 
Lord had taught him, that his sacrifice did signify his acknow- 
ledgment of his sin, and that he looked for the Seed of the 
woman, promised to be slain in the evening of the world, 
thereby to appease the wrath of God for his offence ; the which, 
undoubtedly, he acquainted his sons, Cain and Abel, with, 
when he taught them also to offer sacrifice. 

Ant. But how doth it appear that this his sacrificing was the 
very same day that he sinned ? 

Evan. It is said, John vii. 3, concerning Christ, " That they 
sought to take him, yet no man laid hands on him, because 
his hour was not yet come ;" but after that when the time of 
his suffering was at hand, he himself said, John xii. 23, " The 
hour is come ; " which day is expressly set down by the Evan- 
gelist Mark to be the sixth day, and ninth hour of that day, 
when " Christ, through the eternal Spirit, offered up himself 
without spot to God," Mark xv. 34, 42. Now, if you compare 
this with Exod. xii. 6, you shall find that the paschal lamb, a 
most lively type of Christ, was offered the very same day and 
hour, even the sixth day, and ninth hour of* that day, which 
was at three of the clock in the afternoon: and the Scripture 
testifies, that Adam was created the very same sixth day ; and 
gives us ground to think that he sinned the same day. And 
do not the before alleged Scriptures afford us warrant to be- 
lieve that it was the very same hour of that day. Gen. i. 26 ; 
when Christ entered mystically and typically upon the work 
of redemption, in being offered as a sacrifice for Adam's sin ? "^ 



* That the promise was given the same day that Adam sinned, was 
evinced before : and from the history, Gen. iii, and the nature of the thing 
itself, one may reasonably conclude, that the sacrifices were annexed to the 
promise. And since the hour of Christ's death was all along the time 
of the evening sacrifice, it is very natural to reckon that it was also the 
hour of the first sacrifice ; even as the place on which the temple stood 
was at first designed by an extraordinary sacrifice on that spot, 1 Chron. 
XX. 18 — 28. and xxii. 1. "At three o'clock in the afternoon, Christ yielded 
up the Ghost, ( Mark xv. 34,) the very time when Adam had received the 
promise of this his passion for his redemption."— Lightfoot on Acts ii. 1. 



4:8 THE MAEROW OF 

And surely we may^uppose, that the covenant ( as you heard) 
being broken between God and Adam, justice would not have 
admitted of one hour's respite, before it had proceeded to ex- 
ecution, to the destruction both of Adam and the whole crea- 
tion, had not Christ, at that very time, stood as the ram (or 
rather the lamb) in the bush, and stepped in to perform the 
work of the covenant. And hence I conceive it is, that Saint* 
John calls him the " Lamb slain" from the beginning of the 
worldjf Eev. xiii. 8. For as the first state of creation was 
confirmed by the covenant which God made with man, and all 
creatures were to be upheld by means of observing the law 
and condition of that covenant ; so that covenant being broken 
by man, the world should have come to ruin, had it not been, 
as it were, created anew, and upheld by the covenant of grace 
in Christ. 

Ant. Then, sir, you think that Adam was saved ? 

Evan. The Hebrew doctors hold that Adam was a repent- 
ant sinner, and say, that he was by wisdom, ( that is to say, by 
faith in Christ,) brought out of his fall ; yea, and the Church 
of God doth hold, and that for necessary causes, that he was 
saved by the death of Christ ; yea, says Mr. Vaughan, it is 
certain he believed the promise concerning Christ, in whose 
commemoration he offered continual sacrifice ; and in the 
assurance thereof, he named his wife Hevah, that is to say, 

* This word miglit well have been spared here ; notwithstandhig that 
we so read in the title of the book of the Revelation in our English 
Bibles ; and in like manner, in the titles of other books in the New Tes- 
tament, St. ( i. e. Saint) Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke, &c. ; it is evident, 
there is not such a word to be found in the titles of these books in the 
original Greek ; and the Dutch translators have justly discarded it out of 
their translations. If it is to be retained, because John, Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, &c., were, without controversy, saints, why not on the same ground, 
Saint Moses, Saint Aaron, ( expressly called " the Saint of the Lord," Psalm 
cvi. 16.) &c.? No reason can be given of the difference made in this 
point, but that it pleased Antichrist to canonize these New Testament 
saints, but not the Old Testament ones. Canonizing is an act or sentence 
of the Pope, decreeing religious worship and honours to such men or 
women departed, as he sees meet to confer the honour of saintship on. 
These honours are seven, and the first of them is, " That they are enrolled 
in the catalogue of saints, and must be accounted and called saints by 
all."— Bellarmin Disp. tom. 1. Col. 1496. 

f The benefits thereof (viz : of Christ's redemption) " were communi- 
cated unto the elect from the beginning of the world in and by those pro- 
mises, types, and sacrifices, wherein he was revealed, and signified to be 
the Seed of the woman which should bruise the serpent's head, and the 
Lamb slain from the beginning of the world." — Westm. Confess, chap. 8, 
art. 6. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 49 

life^^ and lie called his son Seth, settled or persuaded in 
Christ. 

Ant. Well, now, I am persuaded that Adam did understand 
this seed of the looman to be meant of Christ. 

Evan. Assure yourself, that not only Adam, but all the rest 
of the godly fathers did so understand it, as is manifest in that 
the Targum, or Chaldee Bible, which is the ancient transla- 
tion of Jerusalem, has it thus : " Between thy son and her 
son ;" adding further, by way of comment, " So long, O ser- 
pent, as the woman's children keep the law, they kill thee ! 
and when they cease to do so, thou stingest them in the 
heel, and hast power to hiy:t them much ; but whereas for 
their harm there is a sure remedy, for thee there is none ; for 
in the last days they shall crush thee all to pieces, by means 
of Christ their king." And this was it which did support and 
uphold their faith until the time of Abraham. 

Sect. 2 — Ant. What followed then ? 

Evan. Why, then, the promise was turned into a covenant 
with Abraham and his seed, and oftentimes repeated, that in 
his seed all nations should be blessed,f Gen. xii. 3 ; xviii. 18 ; 
and xxii. 18 ; which promise and covenant was the very voice 
itself of the gospel, it being a true testimony of Jesus Christ ; 



* So the Septuagint expounds it. Others, an enlivener, not doubting 
but Adam, in giving her this name, had the promised life-giving Seed, 
our Lord Jesus Christ, particularly in view, amongst the " all living " she 
was to be mother of. 

f I'he ancient promise given to Adam was the first gospel, the cove- 
nant of grace ; for man, by his fall, " having made himself incapable of 
life by the covenant of works, the Lord was pleased to make a second, 
commonly called the covenant of grace," Gen. iii. 15. Westm. Confess, 
chap. 7, art. 3. When that promise or covenant, in which the persons it 
respected were not expressly designed, was renewed, Abraham and his 
seed were designed expressly therein ; and so it became a covenant with 
Abraham and his seed. And the promise being still the same as to the 
substance of it, was often repeated, and in the repetition more fully and 
clearly opened. So Jesus Christ, revealed to Adam only as the seed of 
the woman, was thereafter revealed to Abraham as Abraham's own seed ; 
and thus was it believed and embraced unto salvation in the various reve- 
lations thereof. " God did seek Adam again, call upon him, rebuke his 
sin, convict him of the same ; and, in the end, made unto him a most 
joyful promise, viz : that the seed of the woman should break down the 
serpent's head ; that is, he should destroy the works of the devil ; which 
promise, as it was repeated, and made more clear from time to time, so 
was it embraced with joy, and may constantly (z. e. most steadfastly) be 
received of all the faithful, from Adam to Noe, and from Noe to Abra- 
ham, from Abraham to David, and so, forth to the incarnation of Christ 
Jesus." Old Confess, art. 4. 
5 



50 THE MARROW OF 

as the apostle Paul beareth witness, saying, The Scripture fore- 
seeing that God would justify the Gentiles through faith, 
preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, Gal. iii. 8, say- 
ing, " In thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 
And the better to confirm Abraham's faith in this promise of 
Christ, it is said. Gen. xiv. 19, that Melchisedec came forth 
and met him, and blessed him. Now, says the apostle, Heb. 
vii. 1 — 3, and vi. 20, " This Melchisedec was a priest of the 
most high God, and king of righteousness, and king of peace, 
without father and without mother ; and so like unto the Son 
of God, who is a priest for ever, after the order of Melchise- 
dec ;" and both king of righteousness and king of peace, Jer. 
xxiii. 6; Isa. ix. 6; yea, and without father as touching his 
manhood, and without mother as touching his godhead. 
Whereby we are given to understand, that it was the purpose 
of God that Melchisedec should, in these particulars, resemble 
the person and office of Jesus Christ, the Son of God ; and so, 
by God's own appointment, be a type of him to Abraham, to 
ratify and confirm the promise made to him and his seed, in 
respect of the eternal covenant,* namely, that he and his be- 
lieving seed should be so blessed in Christ, as Melchisedec had 
blessed him.f Nay, let me tell you more, some have thought 
it most probable, yea, and have said, if we search out this 
truth without partiality, we shall find that this Melchisedec, 
which appeared unto Abraham, was none other than the Son 
of God, manifest by a special dispensation and privilege unto 
Abraham in the flesh, who is therefore said to have " seen his 
day and rejoiced.":t John viii. 56. Moreover, in Gen. xv., we 
read that the Lord did again confirm this covenant with Abra- 
ham ; for when Abraham had divided the beasts, God came 
between the parts like a smoking furnace and a burning lamp^ 



* That passed betwixt the Father and the Son from everlasting. 

f Melchisedec was unto Abraham a type, to confirm him in the faith, 
that he and his believing seed should be as really blessed in Christ, as he 
was blessed by Melchisedec. 

J This seems to me to be a more than groundless opinion, as being in- 
consistent with the Scripture account of Melchisedec, Gen. xiv, 18 ; Heb. 
vii. 1 — 4 ; howbeit it wants no patrons among the learned ; the declaring 
of which is no just ground to fix it on our author, especially after his 
speaking so plainly of Christ and Melchisedec as two different persons, a 
little before. I'he text, (John viii. 5*6,) alleged by the patrons of that 
opinion, makes nothing for their purpose : " for all (we mean the faithful 
fathers under the law) did see (viz : by faith) the joyful day of Christ 
Jesus, and did rejoice." Old Confess, art. 4. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 



m 



wliich,* as some have thouglit, did primarily typify the tor- 
ment and rending of Christ ; and the farnace and fiery lamp 
did typify the wrath of God which ran between, and yet did not 
consume the rent and torn nature. And the blood of circum- 
cision did typify the blood of Christ ;t and the resolved sacri- 
ficing of Isaac on Mount Moriah, by God's appointment, did 
prefigure and foreshow, that by the offering up of Christ, the 
promised seed, in the very same place, all nations should be 
saved. Now this covenant, thus made and confirmed with 
Abraham, was renewed with Isaac, Gen. xxvi. 4, and made 
known unto Jacob by Jesus Christ himself; for that man 
which wrestled with Jacob was none other but the man Christ 
Jesus ; for himself said, that Jacob should be called Israel, 
a wrestler and prevailer with God ; and Jacob called the name 
of the place Peniel, because he had " seen God face to face," 
Gen. xxxii. 28, 30. And Jacob left it by his last will unto 
his children in these words, " The sceptre shall not depart 
from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, till Shiloh 
come," Gen. xlix. 10 ; that is to say, of Judah shall kings 
come one after another, and many in number, till at last the 
Lord Jesus come, who is King of kings, and Lord of lords ; 
or, as the Targum of Jerusalem and Onkelos do translate it, 
until Christ the Anointed come. 

Norn. But, sir, are you sure that this promised seed was 
meant of Christ ? 

Evan. The apostle puts that out of doubt. Gal. iii. 16, say- 
ing, " Now unto Abraham and to his seed were the promises 
made.J He says not — and to seeds, as of many, but as of 
one, and to thy seed, which is Christ."§ And so no doubt but 
these godly patriarchs did understand it. 

Ant. But, sir, the great promise that was made to them, as 
I conceive, and which they seemed to have most regard to, 
was the land of Canaan. 



* Namely, the passing of the furnace and burning lamp between the pieces. 

t Heb. ix. 22, " And ahiiost all things are by the law purged with blood : 
and without shedding of blood is no remission," Compare Gen. xvii. 14, 
" The uncircumcised man-child shall be cut oflf from his people : he hath 
broken my covenant." 

X Namely, the promises of the everlasting inheritance, typified by the land 
of Canaan : the which promises see in Gen. xii. 7, and xiii. 15. 

I That is, Christ mystical, Christ and the Church, the head and the mem- 
bers ; yet so as the dignity of the head being still reserved — he is to be un- 
derstood here primarily, which is sufficient for our author's purposes ; and his 
members secondarily only. 



52 THE MARROW OF 

Evan. There is no doubt but that these godly patriarchs 
did see their heavenly inheritance (by Christ) through the 
promise of the land of Canaan, as the apostle testifies of 
Abraham, Heb. xi. 9, 10, saying, " He sojourned in a strange 
country, and looked for a city having foundations, whose 
builder and maker is God." " Whereby it is evident," says 
Calvin, (Instit. p. 204,) " that the height and eminency of 
Abraham's faith was the looking for an everlasting life in 
heaven." The like testimony he gives of Sarah, Isaac, and 
Jacob, saying, "All these died in the faith,"* Heb. xi. 13 ; 
implying that they did not expect to receive the fruit of the 
promise till after death. And, therefore in all their travails 
they had before their eyes the blessedness of the life to come ; 
and which caused old Jacob to say at his death, " Lord, I 
have waited for thy salvation," Gen. xlix. 18. The which 
speech the Chaldee paraphrase expounds thus, " Our father 
Jacob said not, I expect the salvation of Gideon, son of Joash, 
which is a temporal salvation, nor the salvation of Samson, 
son of Manoah, which is a transitory salvation, but the salva- 
tion of Christ, the Son of David, who shall come, and bring 
unto himself the sons of Israel, whose salvation my soul de- 
sireth." And so you see that this covenant, made with 
Abraham in Christ, was the comfort and support of these and 
the rest of the godly fathers, until their departure out of 
Egypt. 

Ant. And what followed then ? 

Evan. Why, then, Christ Jesus was most clearly manifested 
unto them in the passover lamb ; for, as that lamb was to be 
without spot or blemish, Exod. xii. 5, even so was Christ, 
1 Pet. i. 19. And as that lamb was taken up the tenth day 
of the first new moon in March, even so on the very same day 
of the same month came Christ to Jerusalem to suffer his 
passion. And as that lamb was killed on the fourteenth day 
at even, just then, on the same day, and at the same hour, did 
Christ give up the ghost ; and as the blood of that lamb was 
to be sprinkled on the Israelites' doors, Exod. xii. 7, even so 
is the blood of Christ sprinkled on believers' hearts by faith, 
1 Pet. i. 2. And their deliverance out of Egypt was a figure 



* That these three, toj^ether with Abraham, are here meant by the apostle, 
and not these mentioned in the first seven verses of the chapter, if it is con- 
sidered, that of them he spoke last, ver. 9. 11. To none before them was the 
promise of Canaan given ; and they were the persons who had opportunity 
to have returned to the country whence they came out, ver. 15. 



MODEKX DIVINITY. gg 

of their redemption by Christ,"^ their passing through the Red 
Sea was a type of baptism, f when Christ should come in the 
flesh, and their manna in the wilderness, and water out of the 
rock, did resemble the sacrament of the Lord's Supper ; and 
hence it is that the apostle says, 1 Cor. x. 2 — 4, " They 
did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same 
spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual Rock that fol- 
lowed them, and that Rock was Christ." And when they 
were come to Mount Sinai, the Lord delivered the ten com- 
mandments unto them. 

Sect. — 3. Ant. But whether were the ten commandments, 
as they were delivered to them on Mount Sinai, the covenant 
of works or no ? 

Evan. They were delivered to them as the covenant of 
works. X 



* That is, the deliverance of the Israelites out of Egypt was a figure 
of the redemption of believers by Christ. 

f Not that it prefigured or represented baptism as a proper and pro- 
phetical type thereof, though some orthodox divines seem to be of that 
mind ; but that, as the author expresses himself, in the case of the manna 
and the water out of the rock, it resembled baptism, being a like figure 
(or type) thereunto, as the apostle Peter determines, concerning Noah's 
ark with the waters of the deluge, 1 Pet. iii. 21, even as the printer's 
types of the letters impressed on the paper, both signifying one and the 
same word. For the ancient church is expressly said to have been '' bap- 
tized in the sea," 1 Cor. x. 1, 2, and as the rock, with the waters flowing 
from it, did not signify the Lord's Supper, but the thing signified by that 
New Testament Sacrament, namely, Christ, ver. 4, so their baptism in 
the sea did not signify our baptism itself, but the thing represented thereby. 
And thus it was a type or figure answering to and resemblino- the bap- 
tism of the New Testament-church ; the one being an extraordinary sa- 
crament of the Old Testament, and the other an ordinary sacrament of 
the New, both representing the same thing. 

X As to this point, there are different sentiments among orthodox di- 
vines ; though all of them do agree, that the way of salvation was the 
same under the Old and New Testament, and that the Sinai covenant, 
whatever it was, carried no prejudice to the promise made unto Abraham, 
and the way of salvation therein revealed, but served to lead men to Jesus 
Christ. Our author is far from being singular in this decision of this 
question. I adduce only the testimonies of three late learned writers. 
"That God. made such a covenant (viz : the covenant of works) with our 
first parents, is confirmed by several parts of Scripture," Hos. vi. 7 ; Gal. 
iv. 24, — •Willison's Sacr. Cat. p. 3. The words of the text last quoted 
are these : " For these are the two covenants, the one from the Mount Sinai 
which gendereth to bondage." Hence it appears, that in the judgment 
of this author, the covenant from ISlount Sinai was the covenant of works, 
otherwise there is no shadow of reason from this text for what it is ad- 
duced to prove. The Rev. Messrs. Flint and M'Claren, in their elaborate 
5* 



54 THE MARROW OF 

Nom. But, by your favour, sir, you know that these people 
were the posterity of Abraham, and therefore under that cove- 
nant of grace which God made with their father ; and therefore 
I do not think that they were delivered to them as the cove- 
nant of works ; for you know the Lord never delivers the cove- 
nant of works to any that are under the covenant of grace. 

Evan. Indeed it is true, the Lord did manifest so much 
love to the body of this nation, that all the natural seed of 
Abraham were externally, and by profession, under the cove- 
nant of grace made with their father Abraham ; though, it is 
to be feared, many of them were still under the covenant of 
works made with their father Adam.* 

Nom, But, sir, you know, in the preface to the ten com- 
mandments, the Lord calls himself by the name of their God 



and seasonable treatises against Professor Simpson's doctrine, ( for which 
I make no question but their names will be in houour with posterity,) 
speak to the same purpose. The former having adduced the fore-cited 
text, Gal. iv. 24, says, Jam duo fcedera, Sfc. , that is, " Now here are two 
covenants mentioned, the first the legal one, by sin rendered ineffectual, 
entered into with Adam, and now again promulgate." [ Exam. Doctr. Joh. 
Simp. p. 125.] And afterwards, speaking of the law of works, he adds, 
Atque hoc est illud fccdus, Sfc, that is, " And this is that covenant promul- 
gate on Mount Sinai, which is called one of the covenants," Gal. iv. 24. 
Ibid. p. 131. The words of the latter, speaking of the covenant of works, 
are these, " Yea, it is expressly called a covenant," Hos. vi. and Gal. iv. 
And Mr. Gillespie proves strongly, that Gal. iv. is understood of the cove- 
nant of works and grace. See his Ark of the Testament, parti, chap. 5. 
p. 180. The New Scheme Examined, p. 176. The delivering of the ten 
commandments on Mount Sinai as the covenant of works, necessarily in- 
cludes in it the delivering of them as a perfect rule of righteousness ; for- 
asmuch as that covenant did always contain in it such a rule, the true 
knowledge of which the Israelites were at that time in great want of, as 
our author afterwards teaches. 

* The strength of the objection in the preceding paragraph lies here, 
namely, that at this rate, the same persons, at one and the same time, 
were both under the covenant of works, and under the covenant of grace, 
which is absurd. Ans. The unbelieving Israelites were under the cove- 
nant of grace made with their father Abraham externally and by profes- 
sion, in respect of their visible church state ; but under the covenant of 
works made with their father Adam internally and really, in respect of 
the state of their souls before the Lord. Herein there is no absurdity ; 
for to this day many in the visible church are thus, in these different re- 
spects, under both covenants. Farther, as to believers among them, they 
were internally and really, as well as externally, under the covenant of 
grace ; and only externally under the covenant of works, and that, not as 
a covenant co-ordinate with, but subordinate and subservient unto, the 
covenant of grace : and in this there is no more inconsistency than in the 
former. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 55 

in general ; and therefore it should seem that they were all of 
them the people of God.'^ 

JEvan. That is nothing to the purpose ;t for many ■wicked 
and ungodly men, being in the visible church, and under the 

* As delivered from the covenant of works, by virtue of the covenant of 
grace. 

f That will not, indeed, prove them all to have been the people of God 
in the sense before given, for the reason here adduced by our author. 

Ilowbeit, the preface to the ten commandments deserves a particular 
notice in the matter of the Sinai transaction, Exod. xx. 2, " I am the 
Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of 
the house of bondage." Hence it is evident to me, that the covenant of 
grace was delivered to the Israelites on Mount Sinai. For the Son of 
God, the messenger of the covenant of grace, spoke these words to a select 
people, the natural seed of Abraham, typical of his whole spiritual seed. 
He avoucheth himself to be their God ; namely, in virtue of the promise, 
or covenant made with Abraham, Gen. xvii. 7, " I will establish my cove- 
nant — to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee :" and their God, 
which brought them out of the land of Egypt ; according to the promise 
made to Abraham at the most solemn renewal of the covenant with him. 
— Gen. XV. 14, " Afterwards shall they come out with great substance. 
And he first declares himself their God, and then requires obedience, ac- 
cording to the manner of the covenant with Abraham, Gen. xvii. 1 ; " I 
am the Almighty God, {i. e., in the language of the covenant. The Al- 
mighty God TO THEE, to make thee for ever blest through the promised 
SEED,) walk thou before me, and be thou perfect." 

But that the covenant of works was also, for special ends, repeated and 
delivered to the Israelites on Mount Sinai, I cannot refuse, 1. Because' of 
the apostle's testimony, Gal. iv. 24, " These are the two covenants ; the 
one from Mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage." For the children 
of this Sinai covenant the apostle here treats of, are excluded from the 
eternal inheritance, as Ishmael was from Canaan, the type of it, ver. 30, 
" Cast out the bond- woman and her son ; for the son of the bond-woman 
shall not be heir with the son of the free woman ;" but this could never 
be said of the children of the covenant of grace under any dispensation, 
though both the law and covenant from Sinai itself, and its children, were 
even before the coming of Christ under a sentence of exclusion, to be 
executed on them respectively in due time. 2. The nature of the covenant 
of works is most expressly in the New Testament brought in, propounded, 
and explained from the Mosaical dispensation. The commands of it from 
Exod. XX. by our blessed Saviour, Matt. xix. 17 — 19, " If thou wilt enter 
into life keep the commandments. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus 
said. Thou shalt do no murder, thou shalt not commit adultery," &c. 
The promise of it, Rom. x. 5, " Moses describes the righteousness which is 
of the law, that the man which doth these things shall live by them." 
The commands and promise of it together, see Luke x. 25 — 28. The ter- 
rible sanction of it, Gal. iii. 10. For it is written, (viz : Deut. xxvii. 26,) 
" Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written 
in the book of the law to do them." 3. To this may be added the opposi- 
tion betwixt the law and grace, so frequently inculcated in the New Testa- 
ment, especially in Paul's epistles. See one text for all. Gal. iii. 12, " And 
the law is not of faith, but the man that doeth them shall live in them." 



56 THE MARROW OF 

external covenant, are called the chosen of God, and the people 
of God, though they be not so. In like manner were many of 
tliese Israelites called the people of God, though indeed they 
were not so. 

4. The law from Mount Sinai was a covenant, Gal. iv. 24, " These are the 
two covenants, the one from the Mount Sinai ;" and such a covenant as 
had a semblance of disannulling the covenant of grace, Gal. iii. 17, " The 
covenant that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law which was 
430 years after, cannot disannul ;"' yea, such a one as did, in its own na- 
ture, bear a method of obtaining the inheritance, so far different from 
that of the promise, that it was inconsistent with it ; " For if the inhe- 
ritance be of the law, it is no more of promise," Gal. iii. 18, wherefore 
the covenant of the law from Mount Sinai could not be the covenant of 
grace, unless one will make this last not only a covenant seeming to 
destroy itself, but really inconsistent : but it was the covenant of works, 
w^hich indeed had such a semblance, and in its own nature did bear such 
a method as before noted ; howbeit, as Ainsworth says, " The covenant of 
the law now given could not disannul the covenant of grace," GaL iii. 17. 
Annot. on Exod. xix. 1. 

Wherefore I conceive the two covenants to have been both delivered on 
Mount Sinai to the Israelites. First, The covenant of grace made with 
Abraham, contained in the preface, repeated and promulgate there unto 
Israel, to be believed and- embraced by faith, that they might be saved ; 
to which were annexed the ten commandments, given by the Mediator 
Christ, the head of the covenant, as a rule of life to his covenant people. 
Secondly, the covenant of works made with Adam, contained in the same 
ten commands, delivered with thunderings and lightnings, the meaning of 
which was afterwards cleared by Moses, describing the righteousness of 
the law and sanction thereof, repeated and promulgate to the Israelites 
there, as the original perfect rule of righteousness, to be obeyed ; and yet 
were they no more bound hereby to seek righteousness by the law than the 
young man was by our Saviour's saying to him. Matt. xix. 17, 18, " If thou 
wilt enter into life, keep the commandments — ^Thou shalt do no murder," &c. 
The latter was a repetition of the former. 

Thus there is no confounding of the two covenants of grace and works ; 
but the latter was added to the former as subservient unto it, to turn their 
eyes towards the promise, or covenant of grace : *' God gave it to Abra- 
ham by promise. AVherefore then serveth the law ? it was added, because 
of transgressions, till the Seed should come," Gal. iii. 18, 19. So it was 
unto the promise given to Abraham, that this subservient covenant was 
added ; and that promise we have found in the preface to the ten com- 
mands. To it, then was the subservient covenant, according to the 
apostle, added, put, or set to, as the word properly signifies. So it was 
no part of the covenant of grace, the which was entire to the fathers, be- 
fore the time that was set to it ; and yet is, to the New Testament 
church, after that is taken away from it : for, says the apostle, " It was 
added till the seed should come." Hence it appears that the covenant of 
grace was, both in itself, and in God's intention, the principal part of the 
Sinai transaction : nevertheless, the covenant of works was the most con- 
spicuous part of it, and lay most open to the view of the people. 

According to this account of the Sinai transaction, the ten commands, 
there delivered, must come under a twofold notion or consideration ; 



MODERN DIVINITY. 57 

Kom. But, sir, was the same covenant of works made with 
them that was made with Adam ? 

Evan. For the general substance of the duty, the law de- 
livered on Mount Sinai, and formerly engraven on man's heart, 
was one and the same ; so that at Mount Sinai the Lord de- 
livered no new thing, only it came more gently to Adam 
before his fall, but after his fall came thunder with it. 

Nom. Ay, sir, but as yourself said, the ten commandments, 
as they were written in Adam's heart, were but the matter of 
the covenant of works, and not the covenant itself, till the 
form was annexed to them, that is to say, till God and man 
were thereupon agreed : now, we do not find that God and 
these people did agree upon any such terms at Mount Sinai. 

Evan. No f say you so ? do you not remember that the 



namely, as the law of Christ, and as the law of works : and this is not 
strange, if it is considered, that they were twice written on tables of stone, 
by the Lord himself, — the first tables the work of God, Exod. xxxii. 16, 
which were broken in pieces, ver. 19, called the tables of the covenant, 
Deut. ix. 11, 15, — the second tables, the work of Moses, the typical 
Mediator, Exod. xxxiv. 1, deposited at first (it would seem) in the taber- 
nacle mentioned, chap, xxxiii. 7, afterward, at the rearing of the taber- 
nacle with all its furniture, laid up in the ark within the tabernacle, chap. 
XXV. 16 ; and whether or not, some such thing is intimated, by the double 
accentuation of the decalogue, let the learned determine ; but to the 
ocular inspection it is evident, that the preface to the ten commands, 
Exod. XX. 2, and Deut. v. 6, stands in the original, both as a part of a 
sentence joined to the first commands, and also as an entire sentence, 
separated from it, and shut up by itself. 

Upon the whole, one may compare with this the first promulgation of 
the covenant of grace, by the messenger of the covenant in paradise, 
Gen. iii. 15, and the flaming sword placed there by the same hand, "turn- 
ing every way to keep the way of the tree of life." 

^Here, there is a large addition in the 9th edition of this book, Lon- 
don, 1699. It well deserves a place, and is as follows : " I do not say, 
God made the covenant of works with them, that they might obtain life 
and salvation thereby ; no, the law was become weak through the flesh, as 
to any such purpose, Rom. viii. 3. But he repeated, or gave a new 
edition of the law, and that, as a covenant of works, for their humbling 
and conviction ; and so do his ministers preach the law to unconverted 
sinners still, that they who * desire to be under the law may hear what 
the law says,' Gal. iv. 21. And as to what you say of their not agreeing 
to this covenant, I pray take notice, that the covenant of works was made 
with Adam, not for himself only, but as he was a public person repre- 
senting all his posterity, and so that covenant was made with the whole 
nature of man in him, as appears by Adam's sin and curse coming upon 
all, Rom. V. 12, &c.. Gal. iii. 10. * Hence all men are born under that 
covenant, whether they agree to it or no; though, indeed, there is by 
nature such a proneness in all to desire to be under that covenant, and 
to work for life, that if natural men's consent were asked, they would 



58 THE MAKROW OF 

Lord consented and agreed, when he said, Lev. xviii. 5, 
" Ye shall therefore keep ray statutes and my judgments, which 
if a man do, he shall live in them ;" and in Deut. xxvii. 26, 
when he said, *' Cursed is he that confirmeth not all the words 
of this law, to do them?" And do you not remember that 
the people consented, Exod. xix. 8, and agreed, when they 
said, "All that the Lord hath spoken we will do?" And 
doth not the apostle Paul give evidence that these words were 
the form of the covenant of works, when he says, Kom. x. 5, 
" Moses describeth that righteousness which is of the law, that 
the man that doeth these things shall live in them ;" and when 
he says, Gal. iii. 10, " For it is written. Cursed is every one 
that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law 
to do them ?"^ And in Deut. iv. 13, Moses, in express terms, 
calls it a covenant, saying, " And he declared unto you his 
covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even the ten 
commandments, and he wrote them upon tables of stone." 
Now, this was not the covenant of grace ; for Moses after- 
wards, Deut. V. 3, speaking of this covenant, says, " God 
made not this covenant with your fathers, but with you ;" and 
by "fathers" all the patriarchs unto Adam may be meant, 
(says Mr. Ainsworth,) who had the promise of the covenant of 
Christ.f Therefore, if it had been the covenant of grace, he 
would have said, God did make this covenant with them, 
rather than that he did not-ij: 

readily (though iguorantly) take upon them to do all that the Lord re- 
quireth ; for do you not remember," &c. 

^ That the conditional promise, Lev. xviii. 5, (to which agrees Exod. 
xix. 8,) and the dreadful threatening, Deut. xxvii. 26, were both given to 
the Israelites, as well as the ten commands, is beyond question ; and 
that according to the apostle, Rom. x. 5 ; Gal. iii. 10, they were the form 
of the covenant of works, is as evident as the repeating of the words, and 
expounding them so, can make it. How, then, one can refuse the cove- 
nant of works to have been given to the Israelites, I cannot see. Mark 
the Westminster Confession upon the head of the covenant of works ; 
" The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein 
life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition 
of perfect and personal obedience." And this account of the being 
and nature of that covenant is there proved from these very texts among 
others, Rom. x. 5 ; Gal. iii. 10 ; chap. 7, art. 2. 

f " But the covenant of the law [adds he] came after, as the apostle 
observeth, Gen. iii. 17. — They had a greater benefit than their fathers ; 
for though the law could not give them life, yet it was a schoolmaster 
unto, i. e., to bring them unto, Christ." Gal. iii. 21 — 24. Ainsworth on 
Deut. V. 3. 

J The transaction at Sinai or Horeb (for they are but one mountain) 
was a mixed dispensation ; there was the promise or covenant of grace, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 59 

Nom. And do any of our godly and modern writers agree 
with you on this point ? 

Evan. Yes, indeed. Polonus says, "The covenant of 
works is that in which God promiseth everlasting life unto a 
man that in all respects performeth perfect obedience to the 
law of works, adding thereunto threatenings of eternal death, 
if he shall not perform perfect obedience thereto. God made 
this covenant in the beginning with the first man Adam, 
whilst he was in the first estate of integrity : the same cove- 
nant God did repeat and make again by Moses with the people 
of Israel." And Dr. Preston, on the New Covenant, (p. 317,) 
says, "The covenant of works runs in these terms, 'Do this 
and thou shalt live, and I will be thy God.' This was the 
covenant which was made with Adam, and the covenant that 
is expressed by Moses in the moral law." And Mr. Pemble 
(Vind. Fid. p. 152) says, "By the covenant of works, we 
understand what we call in one word ' the law,' namely, that 
means of bringing man to salvation, which is by perfect obe- 
dience unto the will of God. Hereof there are also two several 
administrations ; the first is with Adam before his fall, when 
immortality and happiness were promised to man, and confirmed 
by an external symbol of the tree of life, upon condition that 
he continued obedient to God, as well in all other things, as 
in that particular commandment of not eating of the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil. The second administration of 
this covenant was the renewing thereof with the Israelites at 
Mount Sinai; where, after the light of nature began to grow 
darker, and corruption had in time worn out the characters of 
religion and virtue first graven in man's heart,^ God revived 
the law by a compendious and full declaration of all duties 
required of man towards God or his neighbour, expressed in 
the decalogue ; according to the tenor of which law God 

and also the law ; the one a covenant to be believed, the other a covenant to 
be done, and thus the apostle states the difference betwixt these two, Gal. iii. 
12, "And the law is not of faith, but the man that doeth them shall live in 
them." As to the former, viz : the covenant to be believed, it was given to 
their fathers as well as to them. Of the latter, viz : the covenant to be 
done, Moses speaks expressly, Deut. iv. 12, 13, "The Lord spake unto you 
out of the midst of the fire, and he declared unto you his covenant, which he 
commanded you to perform (or do) even ten commandments." And chap. 
V. 3, he tells the people no less expressly, that " the Lord made not this cove- 
nant with their fathers." 

* That is, had worn them out, in the same measure and degree as the light 
of nature was darkened ; but neither the one nor the other was ever fully done. 
Rom. ii. 14, 15 ^ 



60 THE MAKROW OF 

entered into covenant with the Israelites, promising to be their 
God in bestowing upon them all blessings of life and happi- 
ness, upon condition that they would be his people, obeying 
all things that he had commanded; which condition they ac- 
cepted of, promising an absolute obedience, Exod. xix. 8, 'All 
things which the Lord hath said we will do ;' and also sub- 
mitting themselves to all punishment in case they disobeyed, 
saying, 'Amen' to the curse of the law, ' Cursed be every one 
that confirmeth not all the words of the law : and all the peo- 
ple shall say, Amen.' " And Mr. Walker, on the Covenant, (p. 
128,) says, that " the first part of the covenant, which God 
made with Israel at Horeb, was nothing else but a renewing 
of the old covenant of works,* which God made with Adam 
in paradise." And it is generally laid down by our divines, 
that we are by Christ delivered from the law as it is a cove- 
nant.! 

Nom. But, sir, were the children of Israel at this time 
better able to perform the condition of the covenant of works, 
than either Adam or any of the old patriarchs were, that God 
renewed it now with them, rather than before? 

Evan. No, indeed ; God did not renew it with them now, 
and not before, because they were better able to keep it, but 
because they had more need to be made acquainted what the 
covenant of works is, than those before. For though it is true 
the ten commandments, which were at first perfectly written 
in Adam's heart, were much obliterated % by his fall, yet some 
impressions and relics thereof still remained ; § and Adam him- 
self was very sensible of his fall, and the rest of the fathers 
were helped by tradition ; || and, says Cameron, " God did 



■* "Wherein I differ from this learned author as to this point, and for what 
reasons, may be seen, p. 55. note f. 

f But not as it is a rule of life, which is the other member of that distinction. 

X Both in the heart of Adam himself, and of his descendants in the first 
ages of the world. 

I Both with him and them. 

IJ The doctrine of the fall, with whatsoever other doctrine was necessary 
to salvation, was handed down from Adam, the fathers communicating 
the same to their children and children's children. There were but eleven 
patriarchs before the flood ; 1. Adam, 2. Seth, 3. Enos, 4. Cainau, 5. 
Mahalaleel, 6. Jared, 7. Enoch, 8. Methuselah, 9. Lamech, 10. Noah, 11. 
Shem. Adam having lived 930 years, Gen. v. 5, was known to Lamech, 
Noah's father, with whom he lived 66 years, and much longer with 
the rest of the fathers before him ; so that Lamech, and those before him, 
might have the doctrine from Adam's own mouth. Methuselah lived 
with Adam 243 years, and with Shem 98 years before the deluge. See 



MODERN DIVINITY. 61 

speak to the patriarchs from heaven, yea, and he spake unto 
them by his angels ;"* but now, by this time, sin had ahnost 
obliterated and defaced the impressions of the law written in 
their hearts ;t and by their being so long in Egypt, they were 
so corrupted, that the instructions and ordinances of their 
fathers were almost worn out of mind; and their fall in Adam 
was almost forgotten, as the apostle testifies, Eom. v. 13, 14, 
saying, " Before the time of the law, sin was in the world, but 
sin is not imputed when there is no law." Nay, in that long 
course of time betwixt Adam and Moses, men had forgotten 
what was sin ; so, although God had made a promise of bless- 
ing to Abraham, and to all his seed, that would plead interest 
in it,:t yet these people at this time were proud and secure, and 
heedless of their estate ; and though " sin was in them, and 
death reigned over them," yet they being without a law to 
evidence this sin and death unto their consciences, § they did 
not impute it unto themselves, they would not own it, nor 
charge themselves with it ; and so, by consequence, found no 
need of pleading the promise made to Abraham ;|1 Eom. v. 20, 
therefore, " the law entered," that Adam's offence and their 
own actual transgression might abound, so that now the Lord 
saw it needful, that there should be a new edition and publi- 
cation of the covenant of works, the sooner to compel the elect 
unbelievers to come to Christ, the promised seed, and that the 
grace of God in Christ to the elect believers might appear the 
more exceeding glorious. So that you see the Lord's inten- 
tion therein was, that they, by looking upon this covenant 

Gen. V. And what Shem, who, after the dehige, lived 502 years, Gen. 
xi. 10, 11, had learned from Methuselah, he had occasion to teach Ar- 
phaxad, Salah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abraham, Isaac, 
Gen. xxi. 5, and Jacob, to whose .51st year he (viz: Shem) reached, Gen. 
xi. 10, and xxi. 5, and xxv. 26, compared. [Vid. Bail. Op. Hist. Chron. 
p. 2, 3.] Thus one may perceive, how the nature of the law and cove- 
nant of works given to Adam, might be far better known to them, than 
to the Israelites after their long bondage in Egypt. 

* That is, and besides all this, God spake to the patriarchs immediately 
and by angels. But neither of these do we find during the time of the 
bondage in Egypt, until the angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in the 
bush, and ordered him to go and bring the people out of Egypt, Exod. iii. 

fThe remaining impressions of the law on the hearts of the Israelites. 

X By faith ; believing, embracing, and appropriating it to themselves, 
Heb. xi. 13 ; Jer. iii. 4. 

§ Inasmuch as the remaining impressions of the law on their hearts 
were so weak, that they were not sufficient for the purpose. 

II By faith proposing it as their only defence, and opposing it to the 
demands of the law or covenant of works, as their only plea. 
G 



62 THE MARKOW OF 

miglit be put in mind what was their duty of old, when they 
were in Adam's loins ; yea, and what was their duty still, if 
they would stand to that covenant, and so go the old and 
natural way to work; yea, and hereby they were also to see 
what was their present infirmity in not doing their duty :* 
that so they seeing an impossibility of obtaining life by that 
way of works, first appointed in paradise, they might be hum- 
bled, and more heedfully mind the promise made to their father 
Abraham, and hasten to lay hold on the Messiah, or promised 
seed. 

Nom. Then, sir, it seems that the Lord did not renew the 
covenant of works with them, to the intent that they should 
obtain eternal life by their yielding obedience to it ? 

Evan. No, indeed ; God never made the covenant of works 
with any man since the fall, either with expectation that he 
should fulfil it,t or to give him life by it ; for God never ap- 
points any thing to an end, to the which it is utterly unsuit- 
able and improper. Now the law, as it is the covenant of 
works, is become weak and unprofitable to the purpose of sal- 
vation ',X and, therefore, God never appointed it to man, since 
the fall, to that end. And besides, it is manifest that the pur- 
pose of God, in the covenant made with Abraham, was to give 
life and salvation by grace and promise; and, therefore, his pur- 
pose in renewing the covenant of works, was not, neither could 
be, to give life and salvation by working ; for then there would 
have been contradictions in the covenants, and instability in him 
that made them. Wherefore let no man imagine that God 
published the covenant of works on Mount Sinai, as though 
he had been mutable, and so changed his determination in that 
covenant made with Abraham ; neither yet let any man sup- 
pose, that God now in process of time had found out a better 
way for man's salvation than he knew before : for, as the cove- 
nant of grace made with Abraham had been needless, if the 
covenant of works made with Adam would have given him and 
his believing seed life ; so, after the covenant of grace was 
once made, it was needless to renew the covenant of works, to 
the end that righteousness of life should be had by the obser- 

* How far they came short of, and could not reach unto the obedience 
they owed unto God, according to the perfection of the holy law. 

t Nor before the fall neither, properly speaking ; but the expression is 
agreeable to Scripture style, Isa. v. 4, " Wherefore when I looked it 
should bring forth grapes, brought it forth wild grapes ?" 

X Rom. viii. 3, " For what the law could not do, in that it was weak 
through the flesh ; God sending his own Son," &c. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 63 

vation of it. The whicli will yet more evidently appear, if we 
consider, that the apostle, speaking of the covenant of works 
as it was given on Mount Sinai, says, " It was added because 
of transgressions," Gal. iii. 19. It was not set up as a solid 
rule of righteousness, as it was given to Adam in paradise, but 
was added or put to ;* it was not set up as a thing in gross by 
itself. 

Nom. Then, sir, it should seem that the covenant of works 
was added to the covenant of grace, to make it more complete. 

Evan. no ! you are not so to understand the apostle, as 
though it were added by way of ingrediency as a part of the 
covenant of grace, as if that covenant had been incomplete 
without the covenant of works ; for then the same covenant 
should have consisted of contradictory materials, and so it 
should have overthrown itself; for, says the apostle, "If it be 
by grace, then it is no more of works ; otherwise grace is no 
more grace : but if it be of works, then it is no more of grace ; 
otherwise work is no more work," Kom. xi. 6. But it was 
added by way of subserviency and attendance^ the better to ad- 
vance and make effectual the covenant of grace ; so that al- 
though the same covenant that was made with Adam was 
renewed on Mount Sinai, yet I say still, it was not for the same 
purpose. For this was it that God aimed at, in making the 
covenant of works with man in innocency, to have that which 
was his due from man if but God made it with the Israelites 
for no other end, than that man, being thereby convinced of 
his weakness, might flee to Christ. So that it was renewed 
only to help forward and introduce another and a better cove- 
nant ; and so to be a manuduction unto Christ, viz : to discover 
sin, to waken the conscience, and to convince them of their 
own impotency, and so drive them out of themselves to Christ. 



* It was not set up by itself as an entire rule of righteousness, to which 
alone they were to look who desired righteousness and salvation, as it 
was in the case of upright Adam, " For no man, since the fall, can attain 
to righteousness and life by the moral law," Lar. Cat. ques. 94. But it 
was added to the covenant of grace, that by looking at it men might see 
what kind of righteousness it is by which they can be justified in the 
sight of God ; and that by means thereof, finding themselves destitute of 
that righteousness, they might be moved to embrace the covenant of grace, 
in which that righteousness is held forth to be received by faith. 

f This was the end of the work, namely, of making the covenant of 
works with Adam, but not of the repeating of it at Sinai ; it was also the 
end or design of the worker, namely of God, who made that covenant 
with Adam, to have his due from man, and he got it from the Man Christ 
Jesus. 



64 THE MAKROW OF 

Know it then, I beseecli you, that all this while there was no 
other way of life given, either in whole, or in part, than the 
covenant of grace. All this while God did but pursue the 
design of his own grace ; and, therefore, was there no incon- 
sistency either in God's will or acts ; only such was his mercy, 
that he subordinated the covenant of works, and made it sub- 
servient to the covenant of grace, and so to tend to evangelical 
purposes. 

Nom. But yet, sir, methinks it is somewhat strange that the 
Lord should put them upon doing the law, and also promise 
them life for doing, and yet never intend it. 

Evan. Though he did so, yet did he neither require of them 
that which was unjust, nor yet dissemble with them in the 
promise ; for the Lord may justly require perfect obedience at 
all men's hands, by virtue of that covenant which was made 
with them in Adam ; and if any man could yield perfect obe- 
dience to the law, both in doing and suffering, he should have 
eternal life ; for we may not deny ( says Calvin) but that the 
reward of eternal salvation belongeth to the upright obedience 
of the law.* But God knew well enough that the Israelites 
were never able to yield such an obedience : and yet he saw it 
meet to propound eternal life to them upon these terms ; that 
so he might speak to them in their own humour, as indeed it 
was meet : for they swelled with mad assurance in themselves, 
saying, " All that the Lord commandeth we will do," and be 
obedient, Exod. xix. 8. Well, said the Lord, if you will 
needs be doing, why here is a law to be kept ; and if you can 
fully observe the righteousness of it, you shall be saved: send- 
ing them of purpose to the law, to awaken and convince them, 
to sentence and humble them, and to make them see their own 
folly in seeking for life that way ; in short, to make them see 
the terms under which they stood, that so they might be brought 
out of themselves, and expect nothing from the law, in relation 
to life, but all from Christ. For how should a man see his 
need of life by Christ, if he do not first see that he is fallen 
from the way of life ? and how should he understand how far 
he had strayed from the way of life, unless he do -first find 
what is that way of life? Therefore it was needful that the 
Lord should deal with them after such a manner to drive them 
out of themselves, and from all confidence in the works of the 



* That is, the perfect obedience of the law ; as it is said, Eccl. vii. 29, 
" God made man ui^right." 



MODERN DIVmiTY. 'i5 

law ; that so, by faith in Christ, they might obtain righteous- 
ness and life. And just so did our Saviour also deal with that 
young expounder of the law, Matt. xix. 16, who it seems, was 
sick of the same disease:. "Good Master," says he, *' what 
shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?" He doth not, 
says Calvin, simply ask, which way or by what means he 
should come to eternal life, but what good he should do to get 
it ; whereby it appears, that he was a proud justiciary, one 
that swelled in fleshly opinion that he could keep the law, and 
be saved by it ; therefore he is worthily sent to the law to 
work himself weary, and to see need to come to Christ for rest. 
And thus you see that the Lord, to the former promises made 
to the fathers, added a fiery law ; which he gave from Mount 
Sinai, in thundering and lightning, and with a terrible voice, 
to the stubborn and stiff-necked Israel ; whereby to break and 
tame them, and to make them sigh and long for the promised 
Kedeemer. 

Sect. 4. — A7it. And, sir, did the law produce this effect in 
them ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, it did ; as will appear, if you consider, 
that although, before the publishing of this covenant, they were 
exceeding proud and confident of their own strength to do all 
that the Lord would have them do ; yet when the Lord came 
to deal with them as men under the covenant of works, in 
showing himself a terrible judge sitting on the throne of justice, 
like a mountain burning with fire, summoning them to come 
before him by the sound of a trumpet, (yet not to touch the 
mountain without a mediator,) Heb. xii. 19, 20, they were not 
able to endure the voice of words, nor yet to abide that which 
was commanded, insomuch, as Moses himself did fear and 
quake ; and they did all of them so fear, and shake, and shiver, 
that their peacock feathers were now pulled down. This ter- 
rible show wherein God gave his law on Mount Sinai, says 
Luther, did represent the use of the law : there was in the 
people of Israel that came out of Egypt a singular holiness ; 
they gloried and said, " We are the people of God ; we will 
do all that the Lord commandeth." Moreover, Moses sancti- 
fied them, and bade them wash their garments, and purify 
themselves, and prepare themselves against the third day : 
there was not one of them but was full of holiness. The 
third day, Moses bringeth the people out of their tents to the 
mountain in the sight of the Lord, that they might hear his 
voice. What followed then ? why, when they beheld the hor- 
rible sight of the mountain smoking and burning, the black 
6* 



66 THE MARROW OF 

clouds and the lightnings flashing up and down in this horri- 
ble darkness, and heard the sound of the trumpet blowing long, 
and waxing louder and louder, they were afraid, and standing 
afar off, they said not to Moses as before, " All that the Lord 
commandeth we will do ; but talk thou with us, and we will 
hear, but let not God talk with us, lest we die." So that now 
they saw they were sinners, and had offended God ; and, there- 
fore, stood in need of a mediator to negotiate peace, and en- 
treat for reconciliation between God and them ; and the Lord 
highly approved of their words, as you may see, Deut. v. 2S, 
where Moses, repeating what they had said, adds further : 
" The Lord heard the voice of your word, when ye spake to 
me, and the Lord said unto me, I have heard the voice of the 
words of this people, which they have spoken unto thee, they 
have well said, all that they have spoken," viz : in desiring a 
mediator. Wherefore, I pray you, take notice, that they were 
not commended for saying, " All that the Lord commandeth 
we will do." " Ko," says a godly writer, " they were not 
praised for any other thing, than for desiring a mediator ;"^ 
whereupon the Lord promised Christ unto them, even as Mo- 
ses testifies, saying, " The Lord thy God shall raise up unto 
thee a prophet like unto me, from among you, even of your 
brethren ; unto him shall you hearken, according to all that 
thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in Horeb, in the day of the 
assembly, when thou saidst, Let me hear the voice of the 
Lord my God no more, nor see this great fire any more, that 
I die not : and the Lord said unto me. They have well spoken, 
I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren like 



* I see no warrant for restraining the sense of this text to their de- 
siring a mediator. The universal term, "All that they have spoken," in- 
cludes also their engaging to receive the law at the mouth of the mediator, 
which is joined with their desire, ver. 27 : " Go thou near, and hear 
all that the Lord our God shall say ; and speak thou unto us all that the 
Lord our God shall speak unto thee, and we will hear and do," ver. 28. 
And the Lord said, " They have well said all that they have spoken." 
But there is a palpable difference between what they spoke, Exod. xix. 
8, and what they spoke here, relative to their own practice. The for- 
mer runs thus : " All that the Lord hath spoken we will do ;" the lat- 
ter thus : " And we will hear and do ;" the original text bears no 
more. The one relates to obedience only, the other to faith also, — 
'• We will HEAR," i. e , believe, Isa. Iv. 3 ; John ix. 27. Hence the object 
of faith, that which is to be believed, is called a report, properly a hear- 
ing, Isa. liii. 1 ; Rom. x. 16. The former speaks much blind self-confi- 
dence ; the latter a sense of duty and a willing mind, but with all a sense of 
duty and fear of mismanagement. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 67 

unto thee, and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall 
speak unto them all that I command him ;" and to assure us 
that Christ was the prophet here spoken of, he himself says 
unto the Jews, John v. 46, " If you had believed Moses, you 
would have believed me ; for he wrote of me ;" and that this 
was it which he wrote of him, the apostle Peter witnesses, 
Acts iii. 22 ; and so doth the martyr Stephen, Acts vii. 37. 
Thus you see, when the Lord had, by means of the covenant 
of works made with Adam, humbled them, and made them 
sigh for Christ the promised Seed, he renewed the promise 
with them, yea, and the covenant of grace made with Abraham.* 

A?it. I pray, sir, how doth it appear that the Lord renewed 
that covenant with them ? 

Evan. It plainly appears in this, that the Lord gave them 
by Moses the Levitical laws, and ordained the tabernacle, the 
ark, and the mercy-seat, which were all types of Christ. 
Moreover, Lev. i. 1, "The Lord called unto Moses and 
spake unto him out of the tabernacle, "f and commanded him 
to write the Levitical laws, and the tabernacle ordinances ; 
telling him withal, Exod. xxxiv. 27, "that after the tenor of 
these words, he had made a covenant with him, and with 
Israel.":!: So Moses wrote those laws, Exod. xxiv. 4, not in 



* Making a promise of Christ to them, not only as "the seed of the 
woman," but as '' the seed of Abraham," and yet more particularly, as " the 
seed of Israel ; the Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet, from the 
midst of THEE, of THY BRETHREN," Dcut. xviii. 15. And here it is to be ob- 
served, that this renewing of the promise and covenant of grace with them 
was immediately upon the back of the giving of the law on Mount Sinai, for 
at that time was their speech which the Lord commended as well spoken : 
this appears from Exod. xx. 18, 19, compared with Deut. v. 23 — 28, and upon 
that speech of theirs was that renewal made, which is clear from Deut. xviii. 
17, 18. 

t From the mercy-seat, which was within the tabernacle. The tabernacle 
was an eminent type of Christ, Heb. ix. 11, as the temple also was, John ii. 
19, 21. So this represented God's speaking in a Mediator, in Jesus Christ. 
Here was a change agreeable to the people's desire on Mount Sinai. God 
speaks, not from a burning mountain as before, but out of the tabernacle ; nor 
with terrible thunderings as at Sinai, but in a still small voice, intimated to 
us, and intimated by the extraordinary smallness of one letter in the original 
word rendered called, as the Hebrew doctors do account for that irregularity 
of writing in that word. 

X Moses exceedingly feared and quaked, Heb. xxii. 21, while he stood 
amongst the rest of the Israelites at Mount Sinai during the giving of 
the law, Exod. xix. 25, with chap. xx. 21. But here he is represented as 
Israel's federal head in this covenant, he being the typical mediator ; 
which plainly intimates the covenant of grace to have been made with 
Christ, and with him in all the elect : " I have made a covenant with thee 



68 THE MARROW OF 

tables of stone, but in an authentical book,"^ says Ainswortb, 
called the Book of the Covenant, which book Moses read in 
the audience of the people, Exod. xxiv. 7, and the people 
consented unto it. Then Moses having before sent young 
men of the children of Israel, who were first-born, f and there- 
fore priests until the time of the Levites, to offer sacrifices of 
burntofterings and peace-offerings unto the Lord, " took the 
blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the 
blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you 
concerning these things ;" whereby they were taught, that by 
virtue of blood, this covenant betwixt God and them was con- 
firmed, and that Christ, by his blood shed, should satisfy for 
their sins ; for, indeed, the covenant of grace was, before the 
coming of Christ, sealed by his blood in types and figures.:]: 

Sect. 5. — A7it. But, sir, was this every way the same cove- 
nant that was made with Abraham ? 

Uvan. Surely I do believe, that reverend Bullinger spake 
very truly, when he said that God gave unto these people no 
other religion, in nature, substance, and matter itself, differing 
from the laws of their fathers ; though, for some respects, he 
added thereunto many ceremonies and certain ordinances; the 



and with Israel," says the text. — See the first note on the preface, in the 
Larger Catechism, quest. 31. 

* Moses was twice on the Mount with God forty days. In the time of 
the second forty days he received the order to write, mentioned Exod. 
xxxiv. 27, as appears by comparing ver. 27 with 28. This comprehended 
his writings of the Levitical laws, but not of the decalogue or ten com- 
mandments ; for these last, God himself wrote on tables of stone, verse 
28 compared with verse 1. This peremptory divine order, Moses, no 
doubt, did obey ; understanding it of writing in a book, since he was not 
commanded to write another way. So, in a like case, before he went up 
into the Mount for the first forty days, he wrote Levitical laws in a book 
called the Book of the Covenant, Exod. xxiv. 4, 7, "And Moses wrote 
all the words of the Lord. And he took the book of the covenant and read." 
Compare verse 18. This writing also comprehended Levitical laws, but not 
the ten commandments. For all the words of the Lord which Moses wrote, 
were all the words of the Lord which Moses told the people. And what these 
were, appears from his commission received for that effect : chap. xx. 21, 22, 
"And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness 
where God was ; and the Lord said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the 
children of Israel," &c. So " all the words" were these which follow to the end 
of the 23d chapter. 

t In the original text, {verse 5,) they are called emphatically the young men 
(or ministers, or servants, 1 Sam. ii. 13, 15 ; Esth. ii. 2,) of the children of 
Israel, to signify that they were first-born. And so Onkelos reads it, " the 
first-born of the children of Israel." 

X The blood of the sacrifices representing the precious blood of Christ. 



MODERN DIVINITY. m 

which he did to keep their minds in expectation of the coming 
of Christ whom he had promised unto them ; and to confirm 
them in looking for him, lest they should wax faint. And as 
the Lord did thus by the ceremonies, as it were, lead them by 
the hand to Christ ; so did he make them a promise of the 
land of Canaan, and outward prosperity in it, as a type of 
heaven, and eternal happiness; so that the Lord dealt with 
them as with children in their infancy and under age, leading 
them on by the help of earthly things, to heavenly and spi- 
ritual, because they were but young and tender,* and had not 
that measure and abundance of the Spirit which he had be- 
stowed upon his people now under the gospel. 

Ant. And, sir, do you think that these Israelites at this 
time did see Christ and salvation by him in these types and 
shadows ? 

Evan. Yes ; there is no doubt but Moses and the rest of 
the believers among the Jews did see Christ in them, " For," 
says Tindal, " though all the sacrifices and ceremonies had a 
star-light of Christ, yet some of them had the light of the 
broad day, a little before the sun-rising;" and did express him, 
with the circumstances and virtue of his death, as plainly, as 
if his passion had been acted upon a scaffold : " Insomuch," 
says he, " that I am fully persuaded, and cannot but believe, 
that God had showed Moses the secrets of Christ, and the very 
manner of his death aforehand ;" and, therefore, no doubt but 
that they offered their sacrifices by faith in the Messiah, as 
the apostle testifies of Abel, Heb. xi. 4. I say, there is no 
question but every spiritual believing Jew, when he brought 
his sacrifice to be offered, and, according to the Lord's com- 
mand, laid his hands upon it whilst it was yet alive, Lev. i. 4, 
did, from his heart, acknowledge that he himself had de- 
served to die ; but by the mercy of God he was saved,t and 
his desert laid upon the beast \X ^iid as that beast was to die, 
and be offered in sacrifice for him, so did he believe that the 
Messiah should come and die for him, upon whom he put his 
hands, that is, laid all his iniquities by the hand of faith.§ So 

*The church was in her minority under the law, Gal. iv. 1 — 3. 

t From the death he had deserved by his sin. 

% Typically. 

§"The mystical signification of the sacrifices, and especially this rite, 
some think the apostle means by the doctrine of ' laying on of hands/ 
Heb. vi. 2, which typified evangelical faith." Henry on Lev. i. 4. It 
is evident that the ofiferer, by laying his hand on the head of the sacrifice, 
did legally unite with it ; laid his sin, or transferred his guilt upon it, in 



70 THE MARROW OF 

that, as Beza on Job i. says, "The sacrifices were to them 
holy mysteries, in which, as in certain glasses, they did both 
see themselves to their own condemnation before God,"^ aod 
also beheld the mercy of God in the promised Messiah, in time 
to be exhibited:" "And therefore," says Calvin, Instit. p. 
239, "the sacrifices and satisfactory offerings were called 
Ashemoth, which word properly signifies sin itself, to show that 
Jesus Christ was to come and perform a perfect expiation, by 
giving his own soul to be an asham^ that is, a satisfactory 
oblation.''^ 

Wherefore, you may assure yourself, that as Christ was 
always set before the fathers in the Old Testament, to whom 
they might direct their faith, and as God never put them in 
hope of any grace or mercy, nor ever showed himself good 
unto them without Christ ;t even so the godly in the Old Tes- 
tament knew Christ by whom they did enjoy these promises of 
God, and were joined to him.if And, indeed, the promise of 
salvation never stood firm till it came to Christ.§ And there 
was their comfort in all their troubles and distresses, according 
as it is said of Moses, Heb. xi. 26, 27, " He endured as seeing 
him who is invisible,! esteeming the reproach of Christ greater 
riches than the treasures of Egypt, for he had respect to the 
recompense of reward." 

And so, as Ignatius says, the prophets were Christ's ser- 
vants, who, foreseeing him in spirit, both waited for him as 
their master, and looked for him as their Lord and Saviour, 
saying, " He shall come and save us." 

And so says Calvin, Institut. p. 207, "So oft as the pro- 
phets speak of the blessedness of the faithful, the perfect image 

a typical or ceremonial way, Lev. xvi. 21 ; the substance and truth of 
which ceremonial action plainly appears to be faith, or believing on Jesus 
Christ, which is the soul's assenting, for its own part, to, and acquiescing 
in the glorious device of, " the Lord's laying on him the iniquities of us 
all," Isa. liii. 6. 

* That is, they saw themselves, as in themselves condemned by the 
holy law. 

fThat is, as an absolute God out of Christ, but always as a God in 
Christ. 

J To Christ, by faith. 

^ It stood, at first, on man's own obedience : which ground quickly 
failed : then, it came to Christ, where it stood firm, Gen. iii. 15. It 
(namely, '' the seed of the woman ") " shall bruise thy head," viz : the ser- 
pent's head. 

II " Faith presenting to his view at all times the great angel of the cove- 
nant, God the Son, the Kedeemer of him and Israel." Suppl. Poole's 
Annot. on the Text. 



MODEKN DIVINITY. 71 

that they have painted thereof was such as might ravish men^s 
minds out of the earth, and of necessity raise them up to the 
consideration of the felicity of the life to come ;" so that we 
may assuredly conclude, with Luther, that all the fathers, pro- 
phets, and holy kings, were righteous, and saved by faith in 
Christ to come ; and so, indeed, as Calvin says, Institut. p. 
198, " were partakers of all one salvation with us." 

Ant. But, sir, the Scriptures seem to hold forth as though 
they were saved one way, and we another way ; for you know 
the prophet Jeremiah makes mention of a twofold covenant ; 
therefore it is somewhat strange to me, that they should be 
partakers of one way of salvation with us. 

Evan. Indeed, it is true, the Lord did bequeath unto the 
fathers, righteousness, life, and eternal salvation, in and through 
Christ the Mediator, being not yet come in the flesh, but pro- 
mised : and unto us in the New Testament he gives and be- 
queaths them to us in and through Christ, being already come, 
and having actually purchased them for us ; and the covenant 
of grace was, before the coming of Christ, sealed by his blood 
in types and figures ; and at his death in his flesh,"^ it was 
sealed and ratified by his very blood, actually, and in very deed 
shed for our sins. And the old covenant, in respect of the 
outward form and manner of sealing, was temporary and 
changeable ; and therefore the types ceased, and only the sub- 
stance remains firm ; but the seals of the new are unchange- 
able, being commemorative, and shall show the Lord's death 
until his coming again. And their covenant did first and 
chiefly promise earthly blessings,f and in and under these it did 
signify and promise all spiritual blessings and salvation ; but 
our covenant promises, Christ and his blessings in the first 
place, and after them earthly blessings. 

These, and some other circumstantial differences in regard 
to administration, there were betwixt their way of salvation, or 
covenant of grace, and ours ; which moved the author to the 
Hebrews, Heb. viii. 8, to call theirs old, and ours new ; but, 
in regard to substance, they were all one and the very same \X 

* " Christ — being put to death in the flesh," 1 Pet. iii. 18. 

t Chiefly ; in so far as, in that dispensation of the covenant of grace, the 
promises of earthly blessings were chiefly insisted on ; and the promises of 
spiritual blessings and salvation more sparingly. 

X " There are not, therefore, two covenants of grace, differing in sub- 
stance ; but one and the same under various dispensations." Westm. 
Confess, chap. 7, art. 6. And their covenant of grace, confirmed by the 
sprinkling of blood, Exod. xxiv ; Heb. ix. 19, 20, (the which covenant 



72 THE MAKROW OF 

for in all covenants this is a certain rule, "If the subject 
matter, the fruit and the conditions, be the same, then is the 
covenant the same :" but in these covenants Jesus Christ is the 
subject matter of both, salvation the fruit of both, and faith 
the condition of both :^ therefore, I say, though they be called 
two, yet they are but one; the which is confirmed by two 
faithful witnesses : the one is the apostle Peter, who says, 
Acts XV. 11, " We believe, that through the grace of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, we shall be saved even as they ;" meaning 
the fathers in the Old Testament, as is evident in the verse 
next before. The other is the apostle Paul, who says. Gal. 
iii. 6, 7, -'Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to 
him for righteousness, know ye, therefore, that they which are 
of faith, the same are the children of Abraham :" by which 
testimony, says Luther, on the Galatians, p. 116, " we may 
see that the faith of our fathers in the Old Testament, and 
ours in the New, is all one in substance. 

Ant. But could they that lived so long before Christ, ap- 
prehend his righteousness by faith for their justification and 
salvation ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed; for as Mr. Forbes, on Justification, 
p. 90, truly says, it is as easy for faith to apprehend righteous- 
ness to come, as it is to apprehend righteousness that is past : 
wherefore, as Christ's birth, obedience, and death, were in the 
Old Testament as effectual to save sinners, as they are now ; 
so all the faithful forefathers, from the beginning, did partake 
of the same grace with us, by believing in the same Jesus 
Christ, and so were justified by his righteousness, and saved 
eternally by faith in him. It was by virtue of the death of 

they brake, by their unbelief frustrating the manner in which it was ad- 
ministered to them,) was given to them when the Lord had led them out 
of Egypt, and at Sinai too, as well as the ten commandments delivered to 
them as the covenant of works. This is evident from Exod. xx. 1 — 17, 
compared with Deut. v. 2 — 22, and Exod. xx. 20, 21, compared with chap, 
xxiv. 3 — 8. See page 68, note * 

* Not in a strict and proper sense, as that, upon the performance of 
which the right and title to the benefits of the covenant are founded and 
pleaded ; as perfect obedience was the condition of the covenant of w^orks. 
Christ's fulfilling of the law, by his obedience and death, is the only con- 
dition of the covenant of grace, in that sense. But in a large and improper 
sense, as that whereby one accepts and embraces the covenant and the 
proper condition thereof, and is savingly interested in Jesus Christ, the 
head of the covenant. •' The grace of God is manifested in the second cove- 
nant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a Mediator, and 
life and salvation by him ; and requiring faith as the condition to interest them 
in him," &c. Lar. Cat. quest. 32. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 73 

Christ, that Enocli was translated that he should not see death ; 
and Elias was taken up into heaven by virtue of Christ's re- 
surrection and ascension. So that from the world's beginning 
to the end thereof, 'the salvation of sinners is only by Jesus 
Christ ; as it is written, " Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and 
to-day, and for ever," Heb. xiii. 8. 

A7it. Why, then, sir, it seems that those who were saved 
amongst the Jews, were not saved by the works of the law ? 

Evan. No, indeed ; they were neither justified nor saved, 
either by the works of the moral law, or the ceremonial law. 
For, as you heard before, the moral law being delivered unto 
them with great terror, and under most dreadful penalties, 
they did find in themselves an impossibility of keeping it ; and 
so were driven to seek help of a Mediator, even Jesus Christ, 
of whom Moses was to them a typical mediator ;^ so that the 
moral law did drive them to the ceremonial law, which was 
their gospel, and their Christ in a figure ; for that the cere- 
monies did prefigure Christ, direct unto him, and require faith 
in him, is a thing acknowledged and confessed by all men. 

Nom. But, sir, I suppose, though believers among the Jews 
were not justified and saved by the works of the law, yet was 
it a rule of their obedience ? 

Evan. It is very true, indeed ; the law of the ten command- 
ments was a rule for their obedience ;t yet not as it came from 
Mount Sinai ;:|: but rather as it came from Mount Zion ; not 
as it was the law or covenant of works, but as it was the law 
of Christ. The which will appear, if you consider, that after 
the Lord had renewed with them the covenant of grace, as 
you heard before, (Exod. xxiv. at the beginning) the Lord 
said unto Moses, verse 12, " Come up to me into the mount, 
and be there, and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law 
that thou mayest teach them ;" and after the Lord had thus 
written them the second time with his own finger, he delivered 
them to Moses, commanding him to provide an ark to put 
them into ; which was not only for the safe keeping of them, 
Deut. ix. 10, X. 5 ; but also to cover the form of the covenant 
of works that was formerly upon them, that believers might 
not perceive it ; for the ark was a notable type of Christ ; and 



* That is a type, he being to them a typical Mediator. 

f The obedience of the believing Jews. 

X That is, in the sense of our author, not as the covenant of works, but of 
the twofold notion or consideration under which the ten comuiandments were 
delivered from Mount Sinai. See page 55, note.f 



74 THE MARROW OF 

therefore the putting of them therein did show that they were 
perfectly fulfilled in him, Christ being " the end of the law for 
righteousness to every one that believeth," Eom. x. 4. The 
which was yet more clearly manifest, in that the book of the 
law was placed between the cherubim, and upon the mercy- 
seat, to assure believers that the law now came to them from 
the mercy -seat ;* for there the Lord promised to meet Moses, 
and to commune with him of all things which he would give 
him in commandment to them, Exod. xxv. 22. 

Ant. But, sir, was the form quite taken away, so as the ten 
commandments were no more the covenant of works ? 

Evan. Oh no ! you are not so to understand it. For the 
form of the covenant of works,t as well as the matter, (on 
God's part,):}: came immediately from God himself, and so con- 
sequently it is eternal, like hiniself ; whence it is that our Sa- 
viour says, Matt. v. 18, " Till heaven and earth pass, one jot 
or one tittle shall in no ways pass from the law, till all be ful- 
filled." So that either man himself, or some other for him, 
must perform or fulfil the condition of the law, as it is the 
covenant of works, or else he remains still under it in a damn- 
able condition : but now Christ hath fulfilled it for all be- 
lievers ; and therefore, I said, the form of the covenant of 
works was covered or taken away, as touching the believing 
Jews ; but yet it was neither taken away in itself, nor yet as 
touching the unbelieving Jews. 

Nom. Was the law then still of use to them, as it was the 
covenant of works ? 



* From an atoned God in Christ, bindino^ them to obedience with the 
strongest ties, arising from their creation and redemption jointly ; but not 
with the bond of the curse, binding them over to eternal death in case of 
transgression, as the law or covenant of works does with them who are 
under it, Gal. iii. 10. The mercy-seat was the cover of the ark, and both 
the one and the other types of Christ. Within the ark, under the cover 
of it, were the tables of the law laid up. Thus was the throne of 
grace, which could not have stood on mere mercy, firmly established in 
Jesus Christ ; according to Psalm Ixxxix. 14, " Justice and judgment are 
the habitation \;inarg. " establishment"] of thy throne." The word pro- 
perly signifies a base, supporter, stay, or foundation, on which a thing 
stands firm, Ezra ii. 68, and iii. 3 ; Psalm civ. 5. T'he sense is, God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Psalm Ixxxix. 19, justice satisfied, 
and judgment fully executed in the person of the Mediator, are the found- 
dation and base which thy throne of grace stands upon. 

t Namely, the promissory and penal sanction of eternal life and death, in 
■which God's truth was engaged. 

. X Man's part was his consenting to the terms set before him by his 
Creator, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 75 

Evan, Yea, indeed. 

Ant, I pray you, sir, show of what use it was to them. 

Evan. I remember Luther (on the Galatians, p. 171) says, 
*' There be two sorts of unrighteous persons or unbelievers : 
the one to be justified, and the other not to be justified : even 
so was there among the Jews." Now, to them that were to be 
justified, as youhaveheard, the law was still of use to bring them 
to Christ : as the apostle says, Gal. iii. 24, " The law was our 
schoolmaster until Christ,* that we might be made righteous 
by faith ;" that is to say, the moral law f did teach and show 
them what they should do, and so what they did not; and this 
made them go to the ceremonial law ;J and by that they were 
taught that Christ had done it for them ;§ the which they be- 
lieving,! were made righteous by faith in him. And to the 
second sort it was of use, to show them what was good, and 
what was evil ; and to be as a bridle to them, to restrain them 
from evil, and as a motive to move them to good, for fear of 
punishment,!" or hope of reward in this life; which, though it 
was but a forced and constrained obedience, yet was it neces- 
sary for the public commonwealth, the quiet thereof being 
thereby the better maintained. And though thereby they 
could neither escape death, nor yet obtain eternal life, for want 
of perfect obedience, yet the more obedience they yielded 
thereunto, the more they were freed from temporal calamities, 
and possessed with temporal blessings, according as the Lord 
promised and threatened, Deut. xxviii. 

Ant. But, sir, in that place the Lord seemeth to speak to his 
own people, and yet to speak according to the tenor of the 
covenant of works, which has made me think that believers in 
the Old Testament were partly under the covenant of works. 

Evan. Do you not remember how I told you before, that 
the Lord did manifest so much love to the body of that nation, 
that the whole posterity of Abraham "^^ were brought under a 

* That Is, to bring us unto Christ, as we read it with the supplement. 

t As the covenant of works ; so the author uses that term here, as it is used, 
Larg. Cat. quest. 93, above cited. 

X Broken under the sense of guilt, the curse of the law, and their utter inabil- 
ity to help themselves by doing or suffering. 

^ Christ's satisfying the law for sinners by his obedience and death, being the 
great lesson taught by the ceremonial law, which was the gospel written in 
plain characters, to those whose eyes were opened. 

II Appropriating and applying to themselves by faith Christ's satisfaction 
held forth and exhibited to them in these divine ordinances. 
- ^ Both in time and eternity. 

■^* Which were of that nation, according to Gen. xxi. 12, " In Isaac shall thy 



76 THE MARROW OF 

state-covenant or national churcli ; so that for the believers' 
sakes he enfolded unbelievers in the compact ; whereupon the 
Lord was pleased to call them all by the name of his people, as 
well unbelievers as believers, and to be called their God? 
And though the Lord did there speak according to the tenor 
of the covenant of works, yet I see no reason why he might 
not direct and intend his speech to believers also, and yet they 
remain only under the covenant of grace. 

Ant. Why, sir, you said that the Lord did speak to them out 
of the tabernacle, and from the mercy-seat ; and that, doubt- 
less, was according to the tenor of the covenant of grace, and 
not according to the tenor of the covenant of works. 

Evan. I pray you take notice, that after the Lord had pro- 
nounced all those blessings and curses, Deut. xxviii. in the be- 
ginning of the 29th chapter, it is said, " These are the words 
of the covenant, which the Lord commanded Moses to make 
with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the 
covenant which he made with them in Horeb." Whereby it 
doth appear to me, that this was not the covenant of works 
which was delivered to them on Mount Sinai ;^ for the form 
of that covenant was eternal blessings and curses,t but the 
form of this covenant was temporal blessings and curses.:!: So 
that this rather seems to be the pedagogy of the law, than the 
covenant of works ; for at that time these people seemed to be 
carried by temporal promises into the way of obedience, and 

seed be called." And chap, xxviii. 13, " I am the Lord God of Abraham thy 
father, and the God of Isaac ; the laud whereon thou liest, to thee will I give 
it, and to thy seed." 

* The author does not make the covenant at Horeb distinct from that at Si- 
nai ; for he takes Horeb and Sinai for one and the same mountain, according 
to the holy Scriptures, Exod. xix. 20, compared with Deut. v. 2, and there- 
fore, because the text speaks of this covenant in the land of Moab as another 
covenant beside that in Horeb, he infers that it was not the same ; not 
the covenant of works delivered on Mount Sinai, otherwise called Horeb. And 
howbeit there are but two covenants containing the only two ways to happi- 
ness, the author cannot, on that account, be justly blamed for distin- 
guishing this covenant from them both, unless temporal blessings do make men 
happy ; the which blessings, with curses of the same kind, he takes to be the 
form of this covenant. 

f Deut. xxvii. 26, " Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of 
this law to do them." Compare Gal. iii. 10, " For as many as are of the 
works of the law are under the curse ;" for it is wTitten, " Cursed is every 
one that continueth not in all things written in the book of the law to do 
them." 

X See Deut. xxviii. throughout. Chap. xxix. 9, " Keep, therefore, the 
words of this covenant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all that ye do." 
And here ends a great section of the law. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 77 

deterred by temporal tbreatenings from the ways of disobe- 
dience, God dealing with them as in their infancy and under 
age, and so leads them on, and allures them, and fears them, 
by such respects as these, because they had but a small mea- 
sure of the Spirit. 

Nom. But, sir, was not the matter of that covenant and this 
all one ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed ; the ten commandments were the mat- 
ter of both covenants, only they differed in the forms. 

Ant. Then, sir, it seems that the promises and tbreatenings 
contained in the Old Testament were but temporary and ter- 
restrial, only concerning the good and evil things of this life. 

Evan. This we are to know, that like as the Lord, by his 
prophets, gave the people in the Old Testament many exhor- 
tations to be obedient to his commandments, and many dehor- 
tations from disobedience thereunto ; even so did he back them 
with many promises and tbreatenings, concerning things tem- 
poral, as these and the like Scriptures do witness : Isa. i. 10, 
" Hear the word of the Lord, ye rulers of Sodom ; give ear 
unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah :" ver. 19, 20, 
''If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good things of 
the land ; but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with 
the sword, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it." And 
Jer. vii. 3, 9, 20, "Amend your ways and your doings, and I 
will cause you to dwell in this place. Will ye steal, murder, 
and commit adultery, and swear falsely by my name? There- 
fore, thus saith the Lord God, behold mine anger and my fury 
shall be poured out upon this place." And surely there be two 
reasons why the Lord did so: first^ because, as all men are 
born under the covenant of works, they are naturally prone to 
conceive that the favour of God, and all good things, do depend 
and follow upon their obedience to the law,^ and that the 
wrath of God, and all evil things, do depend upon and follow 
their disobedience to it,t and that man's chief happiness is to 
be had and found in terrestrial paradise, even in the good 
things of this life. So the people of the Old Testament being 
nearest to Adam's covenant and paradise, were most prone to 
such conceits. And secondly^ because the covenant of grace 
and celestial paradise were but little mentioned in the Old Tes- 

; * Not a saving interest in the Lord Jesus Christ by faith. 

f Not considering the great sin of unbelief; and that the wrath of God, 
due to them for disobedience, may be averted by their fleeing to Christ for 
refuge. 



Y8 THE MARROW OF 

lament, they, for the most part,* had but a glimmering know- 
ledge of them, and so could not yield obedience freely as 
sons.f Therefore the Lord saw it meet to move them to yield 
obedience to his laws by their own motives,J and as servants 
or children under age.§ 

Ant. And were both believers and unbelievers, that is, such 
as were under the covenant of grace, and such as were under 
the covenant of works, equally and alike subject, as well to 
have the calamities of this life inflicted upon them for their 
disobedience, as the blessings of this life conferred upon them 
for their obedience ? 

Evan. Surely the words of the preacher do take place here, 
when he says, Eccl. ix. 2, "All things come alike to all ; there 
is one event to the righteous and to the wicked." Were not 
Moses and Aaron, for their disobedience, hindered from enter- 
ing into the land of Canaan, as well as others ? Numb. xx. 12. 
And was not Josiah, for his disobedience to God's command, 
slain in the valley of Megiddo ? 2 Chron. xxxv. 21, 22. There- 
fore assure yourself, that when believers in the Old Testa- 
ment did transgress God's commandments, God's temporal 
wrath II went out against them, and was manifest in temporal 
calamities that befel them as well as others, Numb. xvi. 46. 
Only here was the difference, the believers' temporal calami- 
ties had no eternal calamities included in them, nor following 
of them ;T and the unbelievers' temporal blessings had no eter- 
nal blessings included in them, and their temporal calamities 
had eternal calamities included in them, and following of them.** 

* For the more eminent saints in the Old Testament times are to be ex- 
cepted, such as David and others. 

f Having but a small measure of knowledge of the celestial paradise, 
the eternal inheritance, and of the covenant of grace, (the divine disposi- 
tion containing their right to it,) they could not yield obedience freely, 
in the measure that sons do, who are come of age, and know well their 
own privileges ; but only as little children, who, in some measure, yield 
, obedience freely, namely, in proportion to the knowledge of these things, but 
i (that measure being very small) must be drawn also to obedience by motives 
of a lower kind. And this the apostle plainly teaches, Gal. iv. 1 — 5. Com- 
pare Westm. Confess, chap. 20, art 1, " The liberty of Christians is further en- 
larged, in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God, than believers under 
the law did ordinarily partake of." 

X Promises and threatenings concerning things temporal. 

I By fear of punishment and hope of reward. 

II That is, God's fatherly anger, whereby temporal judgments fall on his owd 
people. 

^ By virtue of the covenant of grace which they were under. 
** By virtue of the covenant of works which they were under. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 79 

Ant. Then, sir, it seems that all obedience that any of the 
Jews did yield to God's commandments, was for fear of tem- 
poral punishment, and in hope of temporal reward? 

Evan. Surely the Scriptures seem to hold forth, that there 
were three several sorts of people amongst the Jews, who en- 
deavoured to keep the law of God, and they did all of them 
differ in their ends. 

The first of them were true believers, who, according to the 
measure of their faith, did believe the resurrection of their 
bodies after death, and eternal life in glory, and that it was to 
be obtained, not by the works of the law, but by faith in the 
Messiah or promised seed ; and answerably as they believed 
this, answerably they yielded obedience to the law freely, with- 
out fear of punishment or hope of reward : but, alas ! the spirit 
of faith was very weak in most of them, and the spirit of bond- 
age very strong, and, therefore, they stood in need to be in- 
duced and constrained to obedience, by fear of punishment 
and hope of reward."^ 

The second sort of them were the Sadducees and their sect, 
and these did not believe that there was any resurrection, 

* The author does not say, of believers under the Old Testament, sim- 
ply, and without any qualification, that they "■ yield obedience to the law, 
without fear of punishment or hope of reward," as if he minded to assert, 
that they were not at all moved to their obedience by these ; the scope 
of these words is to teach just the contrary. Compare page 78. But on 
good grounds he affirms that " answei-ahle to their faith, their obedience 
was yielded freely, without fear of punishment or hope of reward." And 
thus, the freeness of their obedience always bearing proportion to the 
measure of their faith, the greater measure of faith any Old Testament 
saint had attained unto, his obedience was the less influenced by fear of 
punishment or hope of reward, and the smaller his measure of faith was, 
his obedience was the more influenced by these ; accordingly, such as 
had no saving faith at all, were moved to obedience only by fear of pu- 
nishment or hope of reward ; and the meanest saint's faith, being once 
perfected by the beatific vision in heaven, these ceased altogether to be 
motives of obedience to him, though he ceases not to obey from the 
strongest and most powerful motives. And thus the apostle John teaches 
concerning love which flows from faith, 1 John iv. 18, " Perfect love 
casteth out fear, because fear hath torment ; be that feareth, is not made 
perfect in love." The more there is of the one, there is still less of the 
other. In the meantime, according to our author, the measure of faith 
in the most part of believers under the Old Testament was very small, 
(and the strongest faith was imperfect,) and the servile and childish dis- 
position, which moves to obedience from fear of punishment and hope of 
reward, was very strong in them. Gal. iv. 1 — 5 ; and, therefore, as they 
stood in need of such inducement and constraint, there could not fail to 
be a great mixture of the influence of fear of punishment and hope of reward in 
their obedience. 



80 THE MARROW OF 

Matt. xxii. 23, nor any life but the life of this world ; and 
yet they endeavoured to keep the law, that God might bless 
them here, and that it might go well with them in this present 
life. 

The third sort, and indeed the greatest number of them in 
the future ages after Moses, were the Scribes and Pharisees, 
and their sects ; and they held and maintained, that there was 
a resurrection to be looked for, and an eternal life after death, 
and, therefore, they endeavoured to keep the law, not only to 
obtain temporal happiness, but eternal also. For though it 
had pleased the Lord to make known unto his people, by the 
ministry of Moses, that the law was given, not to retain men 
in the confidence of their own works, but to drive them out of 
themselves, and to lead them to Christ the promised seed ; yet 
after that time, the priests and the Levites, who were the ex- 
pounders of the law, and to whom the Scribes and Pharisees 
succeeded, did so conceive and teach of God's intention in 
giving the law, as though it had been, that they, by their obe- 
dience to it, should obtain righteousness and eternal life ; and 
this opinion was so confidently maintained, and so generally 
embraced amongst them, that in their book Mechilta^ they say 
and affirm, that there is no other covenant than the lavr ; and 
so, in very deed, they conceived that there was no other way 
to eternal life than the covenant of works. 

Ant. Surely, then, it seems they did not understand and 
consider that the law, as it is the covenant of works, does not 
only bind the outward man, but also the inward man, even the 
soul and spirit; and requires all holy thoughts, motions, and 
dispositions of the heart and soul? 

Evan. 0, no ; they neither taught it nor understood it so 
spiritually ; neither could they be persuaded that the law re- 
quires so much at man's hands. For they first laid this down 
for a certain truth, that God gave the law for man to be justi- 
fied and saved by his obedience to it ; and that, therefore, there 
must needs be a power in man to do all that it requires, or else 
God would never have required it ; and, therefore, whereas 
they should have first considered what a straight rule the law 
of God is, and then have brought man's heart, and have laid 
it to it, they, contrariwise, first considered what a crooked 
rule man's heart is, and then sought to make the law like it : 
and so indeed they expounded the law literally, teaching and 
holding, that the righteousness which the law required was 
but an external righteousness, consisting in the outward obser- 
vation of the law, as you may see by the testimony of our Sa- 



MODEKN DIVINITY. SI 

viour, Matt, v ; so that, according to their exposition, it was 
possible for a man to fulfil the law perfectly, and so to be jus- 
tified and saved by his obedience to it. 

A7it. But, sir, do you think the Scribes and Pharisees, and 
their sect, did yield perfect obedience to the law, according to 
their own exposition ? 

Evan> No, indeed ; I think very few of them, if any at all. 

Ant. Why, what hopes could they then have to be justified 
and saved, when they transgressed any of the commandments? 

Evan. Peter Martyr tells us, that when they chanced to 
transgress any of the ten commandments,^ they had their sa- 
crifices to make satisfaction (as they conceived); for they 
looked upon their sacrifices without their significations, and so 
had a false faith in them, thinking that the bare work was a 
sacrifice acceptable unto God ; in a word, they conceived that 
the blood of bulls and goats would take away sin, and so 
what they wanted of fulfilling the moral law, they thought to 
make up in the ceremonial law. And thus they separated 
Christ from their sacrifices, thinking they had discharged their 
duty very well, when they had sacrificed and offered their of- 
ferings ; not considering that the imperfection of the typical 
law, which, as the apostle says, made nothing perfect, should 
have led them to find perfection in Christ, Heb. vii. 19 ; but 
they generally rested in the work done in the ceremonial law, 
even as they had done in the moral law, though they them- 
selves were unable to do the one,t and the other was as insuf- 
ficient to help them. And thus " Israel, which followed the 
law of righteousness, did not attain to the law of righteous- 
ness, because they sought it not by faith," but, as it were, by 
the works of the law. For they being ignorant of the righteous- 
ness of God, and going about to establish their own righteous- 
ness, did not submit themselves to the righteousness of God, 
Eom. ix.'Sl, and x. 3. 

Ant. Then, sir, it seems there were but very few of them % 
that had a clear sight and knowledge of Christ ? 

Evan. It is very true indeed ; for generally there was such 
a veil of ignorance over their hearts, or such a veil of blind- 
ness over their minds, that it made their spiritual eye-sight so 
weak and dim, that they were no more able to see Christ, the 



* That is, according to their own exposition, 
f To do any work of the moral law aright, 
j Namely, of the Jews in general. 



82 THE MARROW OF 

Sun of righteousness, to the end of the law,"^ Mai. iv. 2, than 
the weak eye of man is able to behold the bright sun when it 
shineth in its full strength. And therefore we read, Exod. 
XXX iv. 30, that when Moses' face did shine, by reason of the 
Lord's talking with him, and telling him of the glorious riches 
of his free grace in Jesus Christ, and giving unto him the ten 
commandments, written in tables of stone, as the covenant of 
works ;t to drive the people out of confidence in themselves, 
and their own legal righteousness, unto Jesus Christ and his 
righteousness, the people were not able to behold his face ; that 
is to say,:}: by reason of the weakness and dimness of their 
spiritual eye-sight, they were not able to see and understand 
the spiritual sense of the law : namely, that the Lord's end or 
intent in giving them the law as a covenant of works, and as 
the apostle calls it, " the ministration of condemnation and 
death," 2 Cor. iii. 7, 9, was to drive them out of themselves 
to Christ, and that then § it was to be abolished to them, as 
it was the covenant of works, verse 13, and therefore Moses 
put the cloudy veil of shadowing ceremonies over his face. 
Exodus xxxiv. 35, that they might be the better able to be- 
hold it : that is to say, that they might be the better able to 
see through them, and understand, that "Christ is the end 
of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth," 
Eomans ix. 4. For Moses' face, says godly Tindal, is the 
law rightly understood. And yet, alas ! by reason that the 
priests and Levites in former times, and the Scribes and 
Pharisees in after times, " were the blind leaders of the blind," 
Matt. XV. 14, the generality of them were so addicted to the 
letter of the law, (and that both moral|| and ceremonial,) 
that they used it not as a pedagogy to Christ, but terminated 
their eye in the letter and shadow, and did not see through 
them to the spiritual substance, which is Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. 
iii. 13, especially in the future ages after Moses : for at the 

* That is, having in himself a fulness of righteousness, answering the law to 
the utmost extent of its demands ; as the sun has a fulness of light. 

f Therefore, they are called by the apostle, the " ministration of death, writ- 
ten and engraven on stones," 2 Cor. iii. 7. Now, it is evident, the ten com- 
mandments are not the ministration of death, but as they are the covenant of 
works. And, as such, they were given to Moses to be laid up in the ark, 
to signify the fulfilling of them by Jesus Christ alone, and the removing of that 
covenant-form from them, as to believers ; and so they served to drive sinners 
out of themselves to Christ. 

X That is, this is the mystery of that typical event. 

§ When they should be driven out of themselves to Jesus Christ by it. 

II As the coveuaut of works. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 83 

time of Christ's coming in the flesh, I remember but two, 
namely, Simeon and Anna, that desired him, or looked for 
him as a spiritual Saviour to save them from sin and wrath. 
For though all of them had in their mouths the Messiah, says 
Calvin, and the blessed state of the kingdom of David ; yet 
they dreamed that this Messiah should be some great monarch 
that should come in outward pomp and power, and save and 
deliver them from that bondage which they were in under the 
Romans, of which bondage they were seusible and weary ; but 
as for their spiritual bondage under the law, sin, and wrath, 
they were not at all sensible ; and all because their blind guides 
had turned the whole law into a covenant of works, to be done 
for justification and salvation ;'^ yea, and such a covenant as 
they were able to keep and fulfil, if not by the doing of the 
moral law, yet by their offering sacrifices in the ceremonial 
law. And for this cause, our Saviour, in his sermon upon the 
mount, took occasion to expound the moral law truly and 
spiritually, removing that false literal gloss which the Scribes 
and Pharisees had put upon it, that men might see how im- 
possible it is for any mere man to fulfil it, and so consequently 
to have justification and salvation by it. And at the death of 
Christ, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to 
the bottom, to show, says Tindal, "that the shadows of Moses' 
law should now vanish away at the flourishing light of the 
gospel," Matt, xxvii. 51. And after the death of Christ, his 
apostles did, both by their preaching and writing, labour to 
make men understand, that all the sacrifices and ceremonies 
were but types of Christ ; and therefore he being now come, 
they were of no further use : witness that divine and spiritual 
epistle written to the Hebrews. Yet, notwithstanding, we may 
say of the Jews at this day, as the apostle did iu his time, 
" even until this day remaineth the same veil untaken away in 
the reading of Moses." The Lord in mercy remove it in his 
due time.f 

■* And so they quite perverted the great end of the giving of the law to 
them. 

t The history of the veil on Moses' face, is famous in the Old Testa- 
ment, and the mystery of it in the New. The former, as I gather it from 
the words of the inspired penman, Exod. xxxiv. stands thus briefly. 
There was a shining glory on the face of Moses in the Mount ; but he 
himself knew it not while God spake with him there, ver. 29, and that by 
reason of the excelling divine glory, 2 Cor. iii. 10 ; Gr. even as the light 
of a candle is darkened before the shining sun : but when " Moses, being 
come forth from the excelling glory, was coming down from the Mount, 
with the tables in his hand, his face shone so as to send forth rays like 



S4 THE MARROW OF 

Sect. 6 — A7it. Well, sir, I had thouglit that God's cove- 
nant with the Jews had been a mixed covenant, and that they 
had been partly under the covenant of works ; but now I per- 
ceive there was little difference betwixt their covenant of grace 
and ours. 

Evan. Truly the opposition between the Jews' covenant of 
grace and ours was chiefly of their own making. They should 
have been driven to Christ by the law : but they expected life 
in obedience to it, and this was their great error and mistake. 

Ant. And surely, sir, it is no great marvel, though they in 
this point did so much err and mistake, who had the covenant 
of grace made known to them so darkly ; when many amongst 
us, who have it more clearly manifested, do the like. 

Evan. And, truly, it is no marvel, though all men naturally 
do so : for man naturally doth apprehend God to be the great 
Master of heaven, and himself to be his servant ; and that 
therefore he must do his work before he can have his wages ; 
and the more work he doth, the better wages he shall have. 
And hence it was, that when Aristotle came to speak of bless- 

horns," Exod. xxxiv. 29, 30, so that he could not but be conscious of it. 
" Aaron and all the people perceiving Moses returning to them, went to 
meet him ; but seeing an astonishing glory in his countenance, which 
they were not able to look at, they were afraid, and retired," ver. 30, 31. 
But Moses called to them to return, and goes into the tabernacle ; where- 
upon the multitude not daring to return for all this, Aaron and the princes 
alone return to him, being now in the tabernacle, ver. 31, the middle 
part of which, I think, is to be read thus, " And Aaron and all the princes 
returned unto him in the testimony," i. e., in the tabernacle of the testimony, 
as it is called, chap, xxxviii. 21 ; Rev. xv. 5. From out of the tabernacle 
Moses speaks to them, ordering (it would seem) the people to be gathered 
together unto tliat place, ver. 31, 32. The people being convened at the 
tabernacle, he preached to them all that he had received of the Lord on 
the Mount, ver. 32. But in the meantime, none of them saw his face, 
forasmuch as the tabernacle, within which he was, served instead of a 
veil to it. Having done speaking, he puts a veil over his face, and comes 
out to them, ver. 33. Marg. Heb. "And Moses ceased from speaking 
with them, and put a veil on his face." Compare ver. 34, " But when Moses 
went in before the Lord to speak with them, he took the veil off until he 
came out." 

The mystery of this typical event the apostle treats of, 2 Cor. iii. The 
shining glory of Moses' face did not prefigure nor signify the glory of 
Christ ; for " the glory of the Lord Christ," ver. 18, is evidently opposed 
to the glory of Moses' countenance, ver. 7, and the open (or uncovered) 
face of the former, ver. 18, (as Vetablus seems to me rightly to under- 
stand it,) to the veiled face of the latter, ver. 13. The glory of the one is 
beheld as in a glass, ver. 18, the sight of the face itself being reserved for 
heaven ; but the glory of the face of the other was not to be beheld at 
all, being veiled. But that glory signified the glory of the law given to 



MODERN DIVINITY. 85 

edness, and to pitch upon the next means to that end, he said, 
" It was operation and working ;" with whom also agrees Py- 
thagoras, when he says, "It is man's felicity to be like unto 
God, (as how ?) by becoming righteous and holy." And let us 
not marvel that these men did so err, who never heard of 
Christ, nor of the covenant of grace, when those to whom it 
was made known by the apostles of Christ did the like ; wit- 
ness those to whom the apostle Paul wrote his epistles, and 
especially the Galatians : for although he had by his preach- 
ing, when he was present with them, made known unto them 
the covenant of grace ; yet after his departure, through the 
seducement of false teachers, they were soon turned to the 
covenant of works, and sought to be justified, either in whole 
or in part by it ; as you may see if you seriously consider that 
epistle. Nay, what says Luther ? It is, says he, the general 
opinion of men's reason throughout the whole world, that 
righteousness is gotten by the works of the law ; and the reason 
is, because the covenant was engendered in the minds of men 
in the very creation,^ so that man naturally can judge no other- 
wise of the law than as of a covenant of works, which was 
given to make righteous, and to give life and salvation. This 

the Israelites, as the covenant of works, the glory of the ministration of 
death, ver. 7, agreeable to what the author tells us from Tindal, namely, 
that Moses' face is the law rightly understood. This Mosaic glory, while 
it was most fresh, was darkened by the excelling glory of the Son of God, 
the Lord Jesus Christ, ver. 18, compared with Exod. xxxiv. 29, howbeit, 
the discovery of it to sinners makes their hearts to tremble, they are not 
able to bear it. That glorious form of the law must be hid in Christ the 
true tabernacle, and from thence only must the law come to them, or 
else they are not able to receive it ; though before that discovery is made 
to them, they are ready to embrace the law under that form, as the peo- 
ple were to receive Moses with the tables in his hands, till they found 
themselves unable to bear the shining glory of his face. The veil which 
Moses put on his face, keeping the Israelites from beholding the glory of 
it, signifies that their minds were blinded, ver. 14, not perceiving the glory 
of the law given them as a covenant of works. And hence it was " that the 
children of Israel fastened not their eyes, Luke iv. 20 ; Acts iii. 4, on [Christ] 
the end of that which is abolished," 2 Cor. iii. 13, Gr. for had they seen that 
glory to purpose, they would have fastened their eyes on him, as a malefactor 
at the stake would fix his eyes on the face of one bringing a remission. And 
that is the veil that is upon Moses' face, and their hearts, unto this day, ver. 
14, 15, which nevertheless, in the Lord's appointed time, shall be taken away, 
ver. 16. 

* This is not to be understood strictly of the very moment of man's 
creation, in which the natural law was impressed on his heart, but with 
some latitude, the covenant of works being made with man newly created ; 
and so divines call it the covenant of nature. See Dickson's Therap. Sacr., book 
1, chap. 5, p. 116. 
8 



8§ THE MAEROW OF 

pernicious opinion of the law, that it justifieth and maketh 
righteous before God, says Luther again, "is so deeply 
rooted in man's reason, and all mankind so wrapped in it, that 
they can hardly get out ; yea, I myself, says he, have now 
preached the gospel nearly twenty years, and have been exer- 
cised in the same daily, by reading and writing, so that I may 
well seem to be rid of this wicked opinion ; yet, notwith- 
standing, I now and then feel this old filth cleave to my heart, 
whereby it cometh to pass that I would willingly have so to 
do with God, that I would bring something with myself, be- 
cause of which he should give me his grace." Nay it is to 
be feared, that, as you said, many amongst us (who have more 
means of light ordinarily, than ever Luther, or any before hira 
had,* yet notwithstanding) do either wholly, or in part, expect 
justification and acceptation by the works of the law. 

Ant. Sir, I am verily persuaded, that there be very many 
in the city of London that are carried with a blind prepos- 
terous zeal after their own good works and well-doings, secretly 
seeking to become holy, just, and righteous, before God, by 
their diligent keeping, and careful walking in all God's com- 
mandments ;f and yet no man can persuade them that they do 
so : and truly, sir, I am verily persuaded that this our neigh- 
bour and friend, Nomista, is one of them. 

Evan. Alas ! there are thousands in the world that make 
a Christ of their works ; and here is their undoing, &;c. They 
look for righteousness and acceptation more in the precept than 
in the promise, in the law than in the gospel, in working than 
in believing ; and so miscarry. Many poor ignorant souls 
amongst us, when we bid them obey and do duties, they can 
think of nothing but working themselves to life ; when they 



* This is not to insinuate, that Luther had arrived but to a small mea- 
sure of the knowledge of the doctrine of justification and acceptation of 
a sinner before God, in comparison with those of later times ; I make no 
question but he understood that doctrine as well as any man has done 
since ; and doubt not but our author was of the same mind anent hira : 
but it is to show, that that great man of God, and others who went before 
him, found their way out of the midnight darkness of Popery in that point, 
with less means of light by far than men now have, who notwithstanding can- 
not hold off from it. 

f By which means they put their own works in the room of Christ, 
" who of God is made unto us — righteousness and sanctification," 1 Cor. 
i. 30. According to the Scripture plan of justification and sanctification, 
a sinner is justified by his blood, Rom. v. 9, sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1 Cor. 
,i. 2, through sanctification of the Spirit, 2 Thess. ii. 13, sanctified by faith, 
Acts xxvi. 18, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 87 

are troubled, they must lick themselves whole, when wounded, 
they must run to the salve of duties, and stream of perform- 
ances, and neglect Christ. Nay, it is to be feared that there 
be divers who in words are able to distinguish between the law 
and gospel, and in their judgments hold and maintain, that 
man is justified by faith without the works of the law ; and 
yet in effect and practice, that is to say, in heart and conscience, 
do otherwise.'^ And there is some touch of this in us all ; 
otherwise we should not be so up and down in our comforts 
and believing as we are still, and cast down with every weak- 
ness as we are.f But what say you, neighbour Nomista, are 
you guilty of these things, think you ? 

Nom. Truly, sir, I must needs confess, I begin to be some- 
what jealous of myself that I am so ; and because I desire your 
judgment touching my condition, I would entreat you to give 
me leave to relate it unto you. 

Evan. With great good will. 

Nom. Sir, I having been born and brought up in a country 
where there was very little preaching, the Lord knoweth I 
lived a great while in ignorance and blindness ; and yet, be- 
cause I did often repeat the Lord's prayer, the apostles' creed, 
and the ten commandments, and in that I came sometimes 
to divine service, as they call it, and at Easter received the 
communion, I thought my condition to be good. But at last, 
by means of hearing a zealous and godly minister in this city, 
not long after my coming hither, I was convinced that my 
present condition was not good, and therefore I went to the 
same minister, and told him what I thought of myself; so he 
told me that I must frequent the hearing of sermons, and keep 
the Sabbath very strictly, and leave off swearing by my faith 
and troth, and such like oaths, and beware of lying, and all 
idle words and communication ; yea, and said he, you must 
get good books to read on, as Mr. Dodd on the Command- 
ments, Mr. Bolton's Directions for Comfortable Walking with 
Grod, Mr. Brinsley's True Watch, and such like ; and many 
similar exhortations and directions he gave me, the which I 



■*^ It is indeed the practice of every unregenerate man, whatever be his know- 
ledge or professed principles ; for the contrary practice is the practice of the 
saints, and of them only, Matt. v. 3, " Blessed are the poor in spirit." — Phil, 
iii. 3, " We are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice 
in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh." 

f For these flow from our building so much on something in ourselves, which 
is always very variable ; and so little, on the " grace that is io Christ Jesus," 2. 
Tim. ii. 1, which is an immovable foundation. 



88 THE MARROW OF 

liked very well, and therefore endeavoured myself to follow 
them. So I fell to the hearing of the most godly, zealous, and 
powerful preachers that were in the city, and wrote their ser- 
mons after them ; and when God gave me a family, I prayed 
with them, and instructed them, and repeated sermons to them, 
and spent the Lord's day in public and private exercises, and 
left off my swearing, and lying, and idle talking ; and, accord- 
ing to exhortation, in few words, I did so reform myself and 
my life, that whereas before I had been only careful to per- 
form the duties of the second table of the law, and that to the 
end I might gain favour and respect from civil, honest men, 
and to avoid the penalties of man's law, or temporal punish- 
ment, now I was also careful to perform the duties required 
in the first table of the law, and that to gain favour and respect 
from religious, honest men, and to avoid the penalty of God's 
law, even eternal torments in hell. Now, when professors of 
religion observed this change in me, they came to my house, 
and gave unto me the right hand of fellowship, and counted 
me one of that number : and then I invited godly ministers to 
my table, and made much of them ; and then, with that same 
Micah mentioned in the book of Judges, I was persuaded the 
Lord would be merciful unto me, because I had gotten a 
Levite to be my priest, Judges xvii. 13. In a word, I did 
now yield such an outward obedience and conformity to both 
tables of the law, that all godly ministers and religious, honest 
men who knew me, did think very well of me, counting me to 
be a very honest man, and a good christian ; and indeed I 
thought so of myself, especially because I had their approba- 
tion. And thus I went on bravely a great while, even until I 
read in Mr. Bolton's works, that the outward righteousness of 
the Scribes and Pharisees was famous in those times ; for, be- 
sides their forbearing and protesting against gross sins, as 
murder, theft, adultery, idolatry, and the like, thej^ were fre- 
quent and constant in pra3^er, fasting, and alms-deeds, so that, 
without question, many of them were persuaded that their do- 
ing would purchase heaven and happiness. Whereupon I con- 
cluded, that I had as yet done no more than they ; and withal 
I considered, that our Saviour says, " Except your righteous- 
ness exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, 
ye cannot enter into the kingdom of God," Matt. v. 20; yea, 
and I also considered that the apostle says, "He is not a Jew 
that is one outwardly ; but he that is one inwardly, whose 
praise is not of men, but of God," Eom. ii. 28 29. Then did 



M01>EEK DIVINITY. ' S^ 

I conclude that I was not yet a true Christian ; for, Said I in 
my heart, I have contented myself with the praise of men, 
and so have lost all my labour and pains in performing duties ; 
for they have been no better than outside performances, and, 
therefore, they must all fall down in a moment. I have not 
served God with all my heart ; and, therefore, I see I must 
either go further, or else I shall never be happy. Whereupon 
I set about the keeping of the law in good earnest, and la- 
boured to perform duties, not only outwardly, but also in- 
wardly from my heart ; I heard, and read, and prayed, and 
laboured, to bring my heart, and forced my soul to every 
duty ; I called upon the Lord in good earnest, and told him, 
that whatsoever he would have me to do, I would do it with 
all my heart, if he would but save my soul. And then I also 
took notice of the inward corruptions of my heart, the which 
I had not formerly done, and was careful to govern my 
thoughts, to moderate my passions, and to suppress the mo- 
tions and risings of lust, to banish pride and speculative wan- 
tonness, and all vain and sinful desires of my heart ; and then 
I thought myself not only an outside Christian, but also an 
inside Christian, and therefore a true Christian indeed. And 
so I went on comfortably a good while, till I considered that 
the law of God requires passive obedience as well as active : 
and therefore I must be a sufferer as well as a doer, or else I 
could not be a Christian indeed ; whereupon I began to be 
troubled at my impatience under God's correcting hand, and 
at those inward murmurings and discontents which I found in 
my spirit in time of any outward calamity that befel me ; and 
then I laboured to bridle my passions, and to submit myself 
quietly to the will of God in every condition ; and then did I 
also, as it were, begin to take penance upon myself, by absti- 
nence, fasting, and afflicting my soul ; and made pitiful lamen- 
tations in my prayers, which were sometimes also accompanied 
with tears, the which I was persuaded the Lord did take notice 
of, and would reward me for it ; and then [ was persuaded 
that I did keep the law, in yielding obedience both actively 
and passively. And then was I confident I was a true Chris- 
tian, until I considered, that those Jews, of whom the Lord 
complains, Isa. Iviii. did as much as I ; and that caused me 
to fear that all was not right with me as yet. Whereupon I 
went to another minister, and told him that though I had done 
thus and thus, and suffered thus and thus; yet was I persuaded, 
that I. was in no better condition than Ihose Jews, O-yes! 



90 THE MARROW OF 

said he ; you are in a better condition than they : for thej 
were hypocrites, and served not God with all their hearts as 
you do. Then I went home contentedly, and so went on in 
my wonted course of doing and suffering, and thought all was 
well with me, until I bethought myself, that before the time 
of my conversion, I had been a transgressor from the womb ; 
yea, in the womb, in that I was guilty of Adam's trangres- 
sion : so that I considered that although I kept even with God 
for the time present and to come, yet that would not free me 
from the guiltiness of that which was done before ; whereupon 
I was much troubled and disquieted in my mind. Then I went 
to a third minister of God's holy word, and told how the case 
stood with me, and what I thought of my state and condition. 
He cheered me up, bidding me be of good comfort: for how- 
ever my obedience since my conversion would not satisfy for 
my former sins ; yet, inasmuch as, at my conversion, I had 
confessed, lamented, deplored, bewailed, and forsaken them, 
God, according to his rich mercy and gracious promise, had 
mercifully pardoned and forgiven them. Then I returned 
home to my house again, and went to God by earnest prayer 
and supplication, and besought him to give me assurance of the 
pardon and forgiveness of my guiltiness of Adam's sin, and 
all my actual transgressions before my conversion ; and as I 
had endeavoured myself to be a good servant before, so I would 
still continue in doing my duty most exactly ; and so, being 
assured that the Lord had granted this my request, I fell to 
my business according to my promise ; I heard, I read, I 
prayed, I fasted, I mourned, I sighed, and groaned ; and 
watched over my heart, my tongue, and ways, in all my doings, 
actions, and dealings, both with God and man. But after a 
while, I growing better acquainted with the spiritualness of 
the law, and the inward corruptions of my own heart, I per- 
ceived that I had deceived myself, in thinking that I had kept 
the law perfectly ; for, do what I could, I found many imper- 
fections in my obedience ; for I had been, and was still sub- 
ject to sleepiness, drowsiness, and heaviness, in prayers and 
hearing, and so in other duties; I failed in the manner of per- 
formance of them, and in the end why I performed them, 
seeking myself in everything I did: and my conscience told 
me I failed in my duty to God in this, in my duty to my 
neighbour in that. And then I was much troubled again : for 
I considered that the law of God requires, and is not satisfied 
without, an exact and perfect obedience. And then I Went to 



MODEEN DIVINITY. 91 

the same minister again, and told him how I had purposed, 
promised, striven, and endeavoured, as much as possibly I 
could, to keep the law of God perfectly ; and yet by woful 
experience I had found, that I had, and did still transgress in 
many ways ; and therefore I feared hell and damnation. " Oh ! 
but," said he, " do not fear ; for the best of Christians have 
their failings, and no man keepeth the law of God perfectly ; 
and therefore go on, and do as you have done, in striving to 
keep the law perfectly ; and in what you cannot do, God will 
accept the will for the deed; and wherein you come short, 
Christ will help you out." And this satisfied and contented 
me very much. So I returned home again, and fell to prayer, 
and told the Lord that now I saw I could not yield perfect 
obedience to his law, and yet I would not despair, because I 
did believe that what I could not do Christ had done for me : 
and then I did certainly conclude, that I was now a Christian 
indeed, though I was not so before : and so have I been per- 
suaded ever since. And thus, sir, you see I have declared 
unto you, both how it hath been with me formerly, and how 
it is with me for the present ; wherefore I would entreat you 
to tell me plainly and truly what you think of my condition.* 

* It is not necessary, for saving this account of Nomista's case from 
the odious charge of forgery, that the particulars therein mentioned should 
have been real facts ; more than (not to speak of scripture parables) it is 
necessary to save the whole book from the same imputation, that the 
speeches therein contained should have passed, at a certain time, in a real 
conference of four men, called Evangelista, Nomista, Antinomista, and 
Neophytus ; yet I make no question but it is grounded on matters of fact, 
falling out by some casuist's inadvertency, excess of charity to, or shifting 
converse with, the afflicted, as to their soul exercise, or by means of cor- 
rupt principles. And as the former are incident to good men of sound 
principles at any time, which calls ministers on such occasions to take 
heed to the frame of their own spirits, and to be much in the exercise of 
dependence on the Lord, lest they do hurt to souls instead of doing them 
good ; so the latter is at no time to be thought strange, since there were 
found, even in the primitive apostolical churches, some who were reputed 
godly, zealous gospel ministers, especially by such as had little savour of 
Christ on their own souls, who nevertheless, in their zeal for the law, per- 
verted the gospel of Christ, Gal. i. 6, 7, and iv. 17. Whether Nomista was 
of opinion that the covenant of works was still in force or not, our Lord 
Jesus Christ taught that it was, Luke x. 25 — 28 ; and so does the apostle, 
Gal. iii. 10 ; and unbelievers will find it so to their everlasting ruin. For, 
" our Lord Jesus, who now offers to be Mediator for them who believe 
on him, shall, at the last day, come armed with flaming fire, to judge, 
condemn, and destroy all them who have not believed God, have not re- 
ceived the offer of grace made in the gospel, nor obeyed the doctrine 
thereof, but remain in their natural state, under the law or covenant of 
works." — Practical Use of Saving Knowledge, tit. For convincing a man of 
Judgment by the Law, part. 2. 



92 THfi MARROW OF 

Evan. Why, truly I must tell you, it appears to me by tlils 
relation, that you have gone as far in the way of the cove- 
nant of works as the apostle Paul did before his conversion ; 
but yet, for aught I see, you have not gone the right way to 
the truth of the gospel ; and therefore I question whether you 
be as yet truly come to Christ. 

Neoph. Good sir, give me leave to speak a few words. 
By the hearing of your discourse concerning the covenant 
of works, and the covenant of grace, I was moved to fear 
that I was out of the right way ; but now having heard my 
neighbour Nomista make such an excellent relation, and yet 
you to question whether he truly be come to Christ or no, 
makes me conclude absolutely, that I am far from Christ. 
Surely, if he, upon whom the Lord hath bestowed such ex- 
cellent gifts and graces, and who hath lived such a godly life 
as I am sure he hath done, be not right, then woe be unto 
me! 

Uva7i. Truly, for aught I know, you may be in Christ be- 
fore him. 

Norn. But, I pray you, sir, consider, that though I am now 
thoroughly convinced, that till of late I went on in the way of 
the covenant of works ; yet seeing that I at last came to see 
my need of Christ, and have verily believed that in what I 
come short of fulfilling the law he will help me out, methinks 
I should be truly come to Christ. 

Evan. Yerily, I do conceive that this gives you no surer 
evidence of your being truly come to Christ, than some of 
your strict Papists have. For it is the doctrine of the Church 
of Rome, that if a man exercise all his power, and do his best 
to fulfil the law, then God, for Christ's sake, will pardon all 
his infirmities, and save his soul. And therefore you shall 
see many of your Papists very strict and zealous in the per- 
formance of duties, morning and evening, so many Ave 
Marias and so many Pater Kosters ; yea, and many of them 
do great deeds of charity, and great works of hospitality ; and 
all upon such grounds, and to such ends as these. The 
Papists, says Calvin, cannot abide this saying, "By faith 
alone ;" for they think that their own works are in part a 
cause of their salvation ; and so they make a hotch-potch and 
mingle-mangle, that is neither fish nor flesh, as men say. 

Nom. But stay, sir, I pray ; you are mistaken in me; for 
though I hold that God doth accept of my doing my best to 
fulfil the law, yet I do not hold with the Papists, that my 
doings are meritorious; for I believe that God accepts not 



MODEKN DIVINITT. 93 

what I do, either for the work or worker's sake, but only for 
Christ's sake. 

Evan. Yet do you but still go hand in hand with the Pa- 
pists ; for though they do hold that their works are meri- 
torious, yet they say it is by the merit of Christ that they 
become meritorious; or, as some of the moderate sort of 
them say, " Our works, sprinkled with the blood of Christ, 
become meritorious." But this you are to know, that as the 
justice of God requires a perfect obedience, so does it re- 
quire that this perfect obedience be a personal one, viz : it 
must be the obedience of one person only ; the obedience of 
two must not be put together, to make up a perfect obe- 
dience;^ so that, if you desire to be justified before God, 
you must either bring to him a perfect righteousness of your 
own, aad wholly renounce Christ; or else you must bring 
the perfect righteousness of Christ, and wholly renounce your 
own. 

Ant. But believe me, sir, I would advise him to bring 
Christ's and wholly renounce his own, as, I thank the Lord, 
I have done. 

Evaii. You say very well ; for, indeed, the covenant of 
grace terminates itself only on Christ and his righteousness ; 
God will have none to have a hand in the justification and 
salvation of a sinner, but Christ only. And to say as the 
thing is, neighbour Nomista, Christ Jesus will either be a 
whole Saviour, or no Saviour; he will either save you alone, 
or not save you at all. Acts iv. 12, " For among men there 
is given no other name under heaven, whereby we must be 
saved," says the apostle Peter; and Jesus Christ himself 
says, John xiv. 6, " I am the way, the truth, and the life ; and 
no man cometh to the Father but by me." So that, as Lu- 
ther truly says, " besides this way Christ, there is no way but 
wandering, no verity but hypocrisy, no life but eternal death.'* 
And verily, says another godly writer, " we can neither come 
to God the Father, be reconciled unto him, nor have any- 
thing to do with him, by any other way or means, but only 
by Jesus Christ ; for we shall not anywhere find the favour 
of God, true innocency, righteousness, satisfaction for sin, 
help, comfort, life, or salvation, anywhere but only in Jesus 

* For in that case the obedience both of the one and of the other is im- 
perfect, and so is not conform to the law ; therefore it can in no wise be 
accepted for righteousness ; but according to justice proceeding upon it, 
the soul that hath it must die, because a sinful soul, Ezek. xviii. 4. 



94' THE MARROW OF : 

Christ ; he is the sum and centre of all divine and evangelical 
truths : and therefore as there is no knowledge or wisdom so 
excellent, necessary, or heavenly, as the knowledge of Christ, 
as the apostle plainly gives us to understand, 1 Cor. ii. 2, that 
he ' determined to know nothing amongst them, but only 
Jesus Christ and him crucified ;' so there is nothing to be 
preached unto men, as an object of their faith, or necessary 
element of their salvation, which doth not in some way or 
other, either meet in Christ, or refer unto him.""^ 

Sect. 7. — Ant. 0, sir, you please me wondrous well in 
thus attributing all to Christ : and surely, though of late you 
have not been so evangelical in your teaching as some others 
in this city, which has caused me to leave off hearing you to 
hear them, yet 1 have formerly perceived, and now also per- 
ceive, that you have more knowledge of the doctrine of free 
grace than many other ministers in this city have ; and to tell 
you the truth, sir, it was by your means that I was first brought 
to renounce mine own righteousness, and cleave only to the 
righteousness of Jesus Christ.f And thus it was: after that 
I had been a good while a legal professor, just like my friend 
Nomista, and heard none but your legal preachers, who built 
me up in works and doings, as they did him, and as their 
manner is ; at last, a familiar acquaintance of mine, who had 
some knowledge of the doctrine of free grace, did commend 
you for an excellent preacher ; and at last prevailed with me 
to go with him and hear you ; and your text that day, I well 
remember, was Titus iii. 5, " Not by works of righteousness 
which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us;" 
whence you observed, and plainly proved, that man's own 

* Eph. iv. 20, 21, " But ye have not so learned Christ ; if so be that ye have 
heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus.'' 

f What this is, in the sense of the speaker, he himself immediately 
explains at large. In a word, in his sense, it is to be an Antinomian indeed. 
The sum of his compliment made to I]vangelista, or the author, which 
you please, lies here ; namely, that he had left off hearing him, because 
he did not preach the gospel, so purely as some others in the place ; yet 
in his opinion, he understood it better than many others ; and (to carry the 
compliment to the highest pitch) it was by his means he turned downright 
Antinomian. One would think, that whatever was the measure of the au- 
thor's pride or humility, self-denial or self-seeking, he had as much 
common sense as would render this address not very taking with him, or 
at least would teach him, that the publishing of it was none of the most 
proper means for commending of himself. So that the publishing of it 
may rather be imputed to the author's self-denial than to the want thereof j 
though I presume the considering reader will neither impute it to the one nor 
to the other. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 95 

righteousness had no hand in his justification and salvation ; 
whereupon you dehorted us from putting any confidence in 
our own works and doings, and exhorted us by faith to lay 
hold upon the righteousness of Jesus Christ only ; at the hear- 
ing whereof it pleased the Lord so to work upon me, that I 
plainly perceived that there was no need at all of my works 
and doings, nor anything else, but only to believe in Jesus 
Christ."^ And indeed my heart assented to it immediately, so 
that I went home with abundance of peace and joy in believing, 
and gave thanks to the Lord for that he had set my soul at lib- 
erty from such a sore bondage as I had been under. And I 
told all my acquaintance what a slavish life I had lived in, be- 
ing under the law; for if I did commit any sin, I was presently 
troubled and disquieted in my conscience, and could have no 
peace till I had made humble confession thereof unto God, 
craved pardon and forgiveness, and promised amendment. 
But now I told them, that whatsoever sins I committed, I was 
no whit troubled at them, nor indeed am I at this day ; for I 
do verily believe that God, for Christ's sake, has freely and 
fully pardoned all my sins, both past, present, and to come ; 
so that I am confident, that whatsoever sin or sins I commit, 
they shall never be laid to my charge, being very well assured, 
that I am so perfectly clothed with the robe of Christ's 
righteousness, that God can see no sin in me at all. And 

* The preacher taught, according to his text, That man's own righteousness 
had no hand in his justification and salvation ; he dehorted, from putting 
confidence in good works ; and exhorted, by faith to lay hold on Christ's 
righteousness only. And this hearer tlience inferred, that there was no 
need at all of good works ; as if one should conclude, that because it is 
the eye only that seeth, therefore there is no need at all of hand or foot. 
So the apostle Paul's doctrine was misconstrued ; Rom. iii. 8, " Some aflSrm 
that we say, Let us do evil that good may come." Yea, in the apos- 
tles' days, the doctrine of free grace was actually thus abused to Antino- 
mianism, by some " turning the grace of God into lasciviousness," Jude 
4. The apostle was aware of the danger on that side, through the corruption 
of the hearts of men ; Gal. v. 13, " Brethren, ye have been called unto 
liberty ; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh." And ministers of 
Christ, (who himself was accounted *' a friend to publicans and sinners," &c., 
Matthew xi. 19,) followers of Paul's doctrine, which, in the eyes of 
carnal men, had a show and semblance of favouring sinful liberty, ought 
to set the apostles' example in this matter before them in a special manner ; 
■with fear and trembling, keeping a jealous eye on the danger from that 
part ; especially in this day, wherein the Lord's indignation is visibly going 
out in spiritual strokes, for a despised gospel ; knowing that the gos- 
pel of Christ is to some " the savour of death unto death," 2 Cor. ii. 16, and 
that " there are who wrest the Scriptures (themselves) unto their own destruc- 
tion " 2 Pet. ii. 17. 



96 THE MARROW OF 

therefore now I can rejoice evermore in Christ, as the apostle 
exhorts me, and live merrily, though I be never so vile or sin- 
ful a creature ; and indeed I pity them that are in the same 
slavish condition I was in ; and would have them to believe 
as I have done, that so they may rejoice with me in Christ * 
And thus, sir, you see I have declared unto you my condition; 
and therefore I entreat you to tell me what you think of me. 

Evan. There is in this city, at this day, much talk about 
Antinomians ; and though I hope there be but few that do 
justly deserve that title, yet, I pray, give me leave to tell you, 
that I fear I may say unto you in this case, as it was once said 
unto Peter in another case, " Surely thou art one of them, for 
thy speech bewrayeth thee," Matt. xxvi. 73. And therefore, to 
tell you truly, I make some question whether you have truly 
believed in Christ, for all your confidence ; and indeed, I am 
the rather moved to question it, by calling to mind, that, as I 
have heard, " your conversation is not such as becometh the 
gospel of Christ," Phil. i. 27. 

Ant. Why, sir, do you think it is possible for a man to have 
such peace and joy in Christ as I have had, and I thank the 
Lord have still, and not to have truly believed in Christ ? 

Evan. Yes, indeed, I think, it is possible ; for does not our 
Saviour tell us, that those hearers, to whom he resembles the 
" stony ground, — immediately received the word with joy, and 
yet had no root in themselves," Mark iv. 16, 17, and so indeed 
were not true believers? and does not the apostle give us to 
understand, that as there is a form of godliness without 
the power of godliness, 2 Tim. iii. 5, so there is a form of 
faith, without the power of faith ? and therefore he prays that 
God would grant unto the Thessalonians " the work of faith 
with power," 2 Thess. i. 11. And as the same apostle gives 
us to understand, "there is a faith that is not feigned," 1 Tim. 
i. 5, so, doubtless, there is a faith that is feigned. And surely 
when our Saviour says, Mark iv. 26-28, " the kingdom of 
God is as if a man should cast seed into the ground, and 
should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should 

* How easy is the passage from legalisrii to Antinornianism ! Had this poor 
man, under his trouble and disquiet of conscience, fled to Jesus Christ 
for the purging of his conscience from guilt by his blood, and the sanctifying 
of his nature by his Spirit ; and not put his own confessions of sins, prayers 
for pardon, and promises of amendment, in the room of Christ's atoning blood ; 
and his blind and faithless resolutions to amend, in the room of the sanctifying 
spirit of Christ ; he had escaped this snare of the devil, Heb. ix. 14 ; Rom. 
vii. 4 — 6. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 97 

spring up and grow, he knoweth not how, first the blade, 
then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear ;" he giveth 
us to understand, that true faith is produced by the secret 
power of God, by little and little ; so that sometimes a 
true believer himself neither knows the time when, nor the 
manner how, it was wrought. So that we may perceive, that 
true faith is not ordinarily begun, increased, and finished, all 
in a moment, as it seems yours was, but grows by degrees, 
according to that of the apostle, Eom. i. 17, " The righteous- 
ness of God is revealed from faith to faith," that is, from one 
degree of faith to another ;"^ from a weak faith to a strong 
faith, and from faith beginning to faith increasing towards 
perfection ; or from faith of adherence to faith of evidence ; 
but so was not yours. And again, true faith, according to 
the measure of it, produces holiness of life ; but it seems 
yours does not so ; and therefore, though you have had, and 
have still much peace and joy, yet that is no infallible sign 
that your faith is true ; for a man may have great raptures, 
yea, he may have great joy, as if he were lifted up into the 
third heaven, and have a great and strong persuasion that his 
state is good, and yet be but a hypocrite for all that. And 
therefore, I beseech you, in the words of the apostle, " examine 
yourself, whether you be in the faith, prove your own self: 
know you not your own self, how that Jesus Christ is in you, 
except you be a reprobate ?" 2 Cor. xiii. 5. — " And if Christ 
is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life 
because of righteousness,"f Rom. viii. 10. 

Arit. But, sir, if my friend Nomista went wrong in seeking 
to be justified by the works of the law, then, methinks I 
should have gone right in seeking to be justified by faith ; and 
yet you speak as if we had both gone wrong. 

Evan. I remember Luther says, that in his time, if they 
taught in a sermon, that salvation consisted not in our works 
or life, but in the gift of God, some men took occasion thence 
to be slow to good works, and to live a dishonest life. And 
if they preached of a godly and honest life, others did by and 
by attempt to build ladders to heaven. :j: And moreover, he 
says, that in the year 1525, there were some fantastical spirits 
that stirred up the rustical people to sedition, saying. That the 

* See note %, page 40. 

t This doctrine of our author is far from cherishing of presumption, or 
opening of a gap to licentiousness. 

X That is, to scale and get into it by their own good works. 
9 



98 THE MARROW OF 

freedom of the gospel giveth liberty to all men from all man- 
ner of laws ; and there were others that did attribute the force 
of justification to the law. Now, says he, both these sorts 
offend against the law ; the one on the right hand, who would 
be justified by the law, and the other on the left hand, who 
would be clean delivered from the law. Now, I suppose, this 
saying of Luther's may be fitly applied to you two ; for it ap- 
pears to me, friend Antinomista, that you have offended on the 
left hand, in not walking according to the matter of the law ; 
and it is evident to me, neighbour Nomista, that you have 
offended on the right hand, in seeking to be justified by your 
obedience to it.- 

Sect. 8. — Nom. But, sir, if seeking justification by the 
works of the law be an error, yet it seems, that, by Luther's 
own confession, it is but an error on the right hand. 

Evan. But yet I tell you, it is such an error, that, by the 
apostle Paul's own confession, so far forth as any man is 
guilty of it, he makes his services his saviours, and rejects 
the grace of God, and makes the death of Christ of none 
efiect, and perverts the Lord's intention, both in giving the 
law and in giving the gospel ; and keeps himself under the 
curse of the law, and makes himself the son of a bond- 
woman, a servant, yea, and a slave, and hinders himself in the 
course of well-doing, Gal. v. 4 ; iii. 19 ; i. T ; iii. 10 ; iv. 25 ; v. 
7, and ii. 11 ; and in short, he goes about an impossible thing, 
and so loses all his labour. 

Nom. Why then, sir, it would seem that all my seeking to 
please God by my good works, all my strict walking accord- 
ing to the law, and all my honest course of life, has rather done 
me hurt than good ? 



* The offences of these men here taxed, were both against the law (or 
covenant) of works ; for they must needs have been against that law 
which they were under, and not another ; and both of them were as yet 
under the law, or covenant of works, as being both unbelievers, the 
which was told to Antinomista, page 97, as it was to Xomista, page 92 ; 
wherefore it is manifest, that by the matter of the law here, is not meant 
the law of Christ, but the matter of the law of works, that is, the tea 
commandments, as they stand in the covenant of works, which Antinomista 
had no regard to in his conversation, though they had all the authority 
and^ binding force upon him found in that covenant. And as he offended 
against the matter of it, so did Nomista against the form, in seeking to 
be justified by his obedience ; for the covenant of works never bound a 
sinner to seek to be justified by his obedience to it ; but, on the contrary, 
always condemned that as presumption, staking down the guilty under the 
curse, without remedy, till satisfaction be made by another hand. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 99 

Evan. The apostle says, that " without faith it is impossible 
to please God," Heb. xi. 6 ; that is, says Calvin, (Instit. 
p. 370,) "Whatsoever a man thinketh, purposeth, or doeth, 
before he be reconciled to God by faith in Christ, it is ac- 
cursed, and not only of no value to righteousness, but of certain 
deserving to damnation." So that, says Luther, on Galatians, 
p. 63, " Whosoever goeth about to please God with works 
going before faith, goeth about to please God with sin ; which 
is nothing else but to heap sin upon sin, to mock God, and to 
provoke him to wrath. Nay, (says the same Luther, on the 
Galatians, p. 23,) if thou be without Christ, thy wisdom is 
double foolishness, thy righteousness is double sin and ini- 
quity." And, therefore, though you have walked very strictly 
according to the law, and led an honest life, yet if you have 
rested and put confidence therein, and so come short of Christ, 
then hath it indeed rather done you hurt than good. For, says 
a godly writer, a virtuous life, according to the light of nature, 
turneth a man further off* from God, if he add not thereto the 
effectual working of his Spirit. And, says Luther, " they 
which have respect only to an honest life, it were better for 
them to be adulterers and adulteresses, and to wallow in the 
mire."'^ And surely for this cause it is that our Saviour tells 
the strict Scribes and Pharisees, who sought justification by 
works, and rejected Christ, that " publicans and harlots should 
enter into the kingdom of God before them," Matt. xxi. 31. 
And for this cause it was that I said, For aught I know, my 
neighbour Neophytus might be in Christ before you. 

Nom. But how can that be, when, as you know, he hath 
confessed that he is ignorant and fall of corruption, and comes 
far short of me in gifts and graces ? 

Evan. Because, as the Pharisee had more to do before he 
could come at Christ than the publican had, so I conceive you 
have more to do than he hath. 

Nom. Why, sir, I pray you, what have I to do, or what 
would you advise me to do ? for truly I would be contented to 
be ruled by you. 

Evan. Why, that which you have to do, before you can 
come to Christ, is to undo all that ever you have done already ; 

* This comparison is not stated betwixt these two, considered, simply, 
as to their different manner of life ; but in point of pliableness to receive 
conviction, wherein the latter hath the advantage of the former ; which 
the Scripture oftener than once takes notice of, Matt. xxi. 31, quoted in 
the following sentence, " I would thou wert cold or hot," Rev. iii. 15. The 
passage is to be found in his Sermon upon the Hymn of Zacharias, page 50. 



100 THE MAEEOW OF 

that is to say, whereas you have endeavoured to travel to- 
ward heaven by the way of the covenant of works, and so 
have gone a wrong way ; you must go quite back again all the 
way you have gone, before you can tread one step in the right 
way. And whereas you have attempted to build up the ruins 
of old Adam, and that upon yourself, and so, like a foolish 
builder, to build a tottering house upon the sands, — you must 
throw down and utterly demolish all that building, and not 
leave a stone upon a stone, before you can begin to build anew. 
And whereas you have conceived that there is some sufficiency 
in yourself, to help to justify and save yourself, you must con- 
clude, that in that case there is not only in you an insufficiency, 
but also a non-sufficiency :^ yea and that sufficiency that 
seemed to be in you, to be your loss. In plain terms, you 
must deny yourself, as our Saviour says. Matt. xvi. 24, that is, 
" you must utterly renounce all that ever you are, and all that 
ever you have done ;" all your knowledge and gifts ; all your 
hearing, reading, praying, fasting, weeping, and mourning ; all 
your wandering in the way of works, and strict walking, must 
fall to the ground in a moment : briefly, whatsoever you have 
counted gain to you in the case of justification, you must now, 
with the apostle Paul, Philip, iii. 7 — 9, " count loss for Christ," 
and judge it to be " dung, that you may win Christ, and be 
found in him, not having your own righteousness, which is of 
the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the 
righteousness which is of God by faith." 



SECT. III. — Of the Performance of the Promise. 

Sect. 1. — Christ's fulfilling of the Law in the room of the Elect. — 2. Be- 
lievers dead to the Law as the Covenant of Works. — 3. The warrant to 
believe in Christ. — 4. Evangelical Eepentance a consequent of Faith. — 
.5. The spiritual Marriage with Jesus Christ. — 6. Justification before Faith 
refuted. — 7. Believers freed from the commanding and condemning Power 
of the Covenant of Works. 

N'eo. But, sir, what would you advise me to do ? 

Evan. Why, man, what aileth you ? 

Neo. Why, sir, as you have been pleased to hear those two 
declare their condition unto you, so I beseech you to give me 
leave to do the same ; and then you will perceive how it is with 

* That is, you are not only unable to do enough, but also, that you are not 
able to do anything. "■ Not that we are sufiicieut of ourselves to think any- 
thing as of ourselves," 2 Cor. iii. 5. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 101 

me. Sir, not long since, it pleased the Lord to visit me with 
a great fit of sickness; so, that, indeed, both in mine own 
judgment, and in the judgment of all that came to visit me, I 
was sick unto death. Whereupon I began to consider whither 
my soul was to go after its departure out of my body ; and I 
thought with myself, that there were but two places, heaven 
and hell ; and therefore it must needs go to one of them. 
Then my wicked and sinful life, which, indeed, I had lived, 
came into my mind, which caused me to conclude, that hell 
was the place provided for it ; the which caused me to be very 
fearful, and to be very sorry that I had so lived ; and I desired 
of the Lord to let me live a little longer, and I would not fail 
to reform my life, and amend my ways ; and the Lord was 
pleased to grant me my desire. Since which time, though, 
indeed, it is true T have not lived so wickedly as formerly I 
had done, yet, alas ! I have come far short of that godly and 
religious life which I see other men live, and especially my 
neighbour Nomista ; and yet you seem to conceive that he is 
not in a good condition, and therefore surely I must needs be 
in a miserable condition. Alas ! sir, what do you think will 
become of me ? 

Sect. 1. — Evan. I do now perceive that it is time for me 
to show how God, in the fulness of time, performed that which 
he purposed before all time, and promised in time, concerning 
the help and delivering of fallen mankind. And touching 
this point, the Scripture testifies, that God " did, in the fulness 
of time, send forth his Son, made of a woman, made under 
the law, to redeem them that were under the law," &c., Gal. 
iv. 4. That is to say, look how mankind by nature are under 
the law, as it is the covenant of works ; so was Christ, as 
man's surety, contented to be ; so that now, according to that 
eternal and mutual agreement that was betwixt God the Father 
and him, he put himself in the room and place of all the faith- 
ful,"^ Isa. liii. 6, "And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity 
of us all." 

Then came the law as it is the covenant of works, and 
said; "I find him a sinner,f yea, such an one as hath taken 

* That is, all those who have, or shall believe, or all the elect, which is 
one and the same in reality, and in the judgment of our author, expressly 
declared in the first sentence of his preface. 

f By imputation and law-reckoning ; no otherwise, as a sinner believ- 
ing in him is righteous before God. (Thus Isaac Ambrose, speaking of 
justification, says, " This righteousness makes a sinner sinless ;" ?. e., as 
to guilt.) This must be owned to be the meamng of this expression, 
9* 



102 THE MARROW OF 

•upon him tlie sins of all men,* therefore let him die upon the 
cross." Then said Christ, "Sacrifice and offering thou 
wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me ; in burnt- 

iinless one will shut one's eyes to the immediately foregoing and following 
■words, — I find him a sinner, said the law ; such an one as hath taken sin 
upon him. They are the words of Luther, and he was not the first who 
spoke so. " He made him who was righteous to be made a sinner, that 
he might make sinners righteous," says Chrysostom, on 2 Cor. v. Horn. 
11. cit. Owen on Justification, p. 39. Famous Protestant divines have 
also used the expression after him. " When our divines," says Euther- 
ford, " say, Christ took our place, and we have his condition, — Christ was 
made us, and made the sinner ; it is true, only in a legal sense. He 
[Christ] was debitor fachis, — a sinner ; a debtor by imputation, a debtor 
by law, by place, by office." Trial and Triumph of Faith, p. 245, 257. 
Charnock argues the point thus : " How could he die, if he were not a 
reputed sinner ? Had he not first had a relation to our sin, he could not 
in justice have undergone our punislmnent. He must, in the order of 
justice, be supposed a sinner really, or by imputation. Eeally, he was 
not ; by imputation then he was," vol. ii. p. 547. Serm. on 1 Cor. v. 7. 
" Though personally he was no sinner, yet by imputation he was," says 
the Contin. of Poole's Annot. on 2 Cor. v. 21. " What Illyricus wrote," 
says Rivet, " that Christ might most truly be called a sinner, Bellarmine 
calls blasphemy and cursed impudence. Now Bellarmine himself con- 
tends, that Christ might attribute our sins to himself, therefore he might 
also truly call himself a sinner, while in himself innocent, he did repre- 
sent our person. What blasphemy, what impiety is here ?" Comment, on 
Psalm xxii. 1. The Scripture phrase to this purpose is more forcible ; 2 
Cor. V. 21, " For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that 
we might be made the righteousness of God in him." For as it is more 
to say we are made righteousness, than to say we are made righteous, 
since the former plainly imports a perfection of righteousness, if I may be 
allowed the phrase, righteousness not being properly capable of degrees ; 
so it is more to say. Christ was made sin for the elect world, than to say he 
was made a sinner, since the first of these doth accordingly point at the 
universality and complete tale of the elect's sins, from the first to the 
last of them laid on our spotless Redeemer. Compare Lev. xvi. 21, 22, 
" And Aaron shall confess over him (viz : the scape-goat, which the apostle 
hath an eye to here) all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all 
their transgressions, and all their sins, putting them upon the head of the 
goat. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities," Isa. liii. 6. 
** And the Lord (marg.) hath made the iniquity of us all to meet on [Heb. 
in) him." These two texts give the just notion of the true unport of that 
phrase, " He was made sin for us." 

* Our Lord Jesus Christ died not for, nor took upon him the sins of, 
all and every individual man, but he died for, and took upon him the 
sins of, all the elect, John x. 15, and xv. 13 ; Acts xx. 28 ; Eph. v. 25 ; Tit. 
ii. 14, and no other doctrine is here taught by our author touching the 
extent of the death of Christ. In the preceding paragraph, where was 
the proper place for giving his judgment on that head, he purposely de- 
clares it. He had before taught, that Jesus Christ did from eternity be- 
come man's surety in the covenant that passed betwixt him and the 
Father, p. 22—24. A surety puts himself in the place of those for whom 
he becomes surety, to pay their d<ibt, Gen. xliv. 32, 33 ; Prov. xxii. 26, 27. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 103 

ofiferings and sacrifices for sin thou hast no pleasure. Then 
said I, Lo, I come to do thy will, Lord I" Heb. x. 5 — 7. 
And so the law proceeding in full scope against him, set upon 

And our author tells us, that now, when the prefixed time of Christ's ful- 
filling the eternal covenant, paying the debt he had taken on him, and 
purchasing man's redemption by his sufferings, was come, he did, accord- 
ing to the tenor of that covenant, which stated the extent of his surety- 
ship, put himself in the room and place — he says not, of all men, but — 
of all the faithful, or elect of God ; (see n.* p. 101 ;) Jesus Christ thus stand- 
ing in their room and place, actually to take on the burden. " The Lord 
laid on him the iniquities of us all ;" the which Scripture text can bear no 
other sense in the connection of it here, than what is the genuine sense 
of it, as it stands in the holy Scripture, namely, that the Father laid on 
Christ the hiiquities of all the spiritual Israel of God, of all nations, ranks, 
and conditions ; for no iniquities could be laid on him but theirs in whose 
room and place he put himself to receive the burden, according to the 
eternal and mutual agreement. These iniquities being thus laid on the 
Mediator, the law came and said, I find him such an one as hath taken 
on him the sins of all men. This is but an incident expression on the 
head of the extent of Christ's, death, and it is a scriptural one too. 1 Tim. 
ii. 6, " Who gave himself a ransom for all," i. e., for all sorts of men, not 
for all of every sort. Heb. ii. 9, " That he, by the grace of God, should 
taste death for every man," i. e., for every man of those whom the apostle 
is there treating of, namely, sons brought or to be brought unto glory, 
verse 10 ; those who are sanctified, Christ's brethren, verse 11 ; given to 
him, verse 13 ; and the sense of the phrase, as used here by the author, can 
be no other ; for the sins, which the law found that he had taken on him, 
could be no other but the sins that the Lord had laid on him ; and the 
sins the Lord had laid on him were the sins of all the faithful or elect, 
according to the author ; wherefore, in the author's sense, the sins of all 
men which the law found in Christ were the sins of all the elect, accord- 
ing to the genuine sense of the Scripture phraseology on tliat head. And 
an incident expression, in words which the Holy Ghost teacheth, and 
determined in its connection to the orthodox scriptural meaning, can 
never import any prejudice to his sentiment upon that point purposely 
declared before in its proper place. It is true, the author, when speaking 
of those in whose room Christ put himself, useth not the word alone; 
and in the holy Scripture it is not used neither on that subject. And it 
may be observed, that the Spirit of God in the word, doth not open the 
doctrine of election and reprobation, but upon man's rejecting or em- 
bracing the gospel offer ; the which different events are then seasonably 
accounted for, from the depths of the eternal counsel of God. See Luke 
x. 17 — 22 ; Matt. xxii. 1 — 14 ; Kom. ix. throughout ; Eph. i. 3 — 5. 'J'o 
every thing there is a season. The author hitherto hath been dealing 
with the parties, to bring them to Christ ; and particularly here, he ia 
speaking for the instruction and direction of a convinced trembling sin- 
ner, namely, Neophytus ; and, therefore, like a wise and tender man in 
such a case, he useth a manner of speaking, which being warranted by 
the word, was fitted to excite the awakening of the ordinary scruples in 
that case, namely, "It may be I am not elected, — it may be Christ died 
not for me ;" and which pointed at the duty of all, and the encourage- 
ment that all have to come to Christ. And all this, after he had in his 
very first words to the reader, sufficiently provided for his using such a 



104 THE MARROW OP 

him, and killed him ; and, by this means, was the justice of 
God fally satisfied, his wrath' appeased, and all true believers 
acquitted from all their sins, both past, present, and to come * 

manner of expression, without prejudice to the truth. Further, the law 
adds, " Therefore let him die upon the cross." Wherefore ? For their 
sins, of the laying of which upon him there is no mention made? or for 
the sins of those in whose room he is expressly said to have put himself, 
according to the eternal agreement betwixt the Father and him? Then 
said Christ, " Lo ! I come ;" viz : actually to pay the debt for which I 
have become surety in the eternal compact ; the which, whose it was, 
according to our author, is already sufficiently declared. The law then 
set upon him, and killed him ; for whom, according to our author ? For 
these, surely, in whose room and place he put himself, and so stood. If 
one considers his account of the effect of all this, one does not find it to 
be, as Arminians say, " that Christ, by the merit of his death, hath so 
far forth reconciled God the Father to all mankind, that the Father, by 
reason of the Son's merit, both could and would, and did enter and esta- 
blish a new and gracious covenant with sinful man, liable to condemna- 
tion." (Examination of Tilenus, p. 164, art. 2, sect. 2.) "And obtained 
for all and every man a restoration into a state of grace and salvation ; 
so that none will be condemned, nor are liable to condemnation for ori- 
ginal sin, but all are free from the guilt of that sin." (Teste Turret, loc. 
14. ques. 14. th, 5.) Neither does he tell us, that Christ died to " render 
sin remissible to all persons, and them savable," as the Continuator of 
Poole's Annotations on Hebrews, chapter ii. 9, says, with other Univer- 
salists. By this means, says our author, " was the justice of God fully 
satisfied, his wrath appeased, and all true believers acquitted." Compare 
Westm. Confess, chap. 8. art. 4, 5. " This office (viz : of a surety) the 
Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake, which that he might discharge, 
he was made under the law, and did perfectly fulfil it, endured most 
grievous torments, &c. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience, and 
sacrifice of himself — hath fully satisfied the justice of his Father; and 
purchased, not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the 
kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father hath given unto him. 
Christ, by his obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of all 
those that are thus justified," Chap. xi. art. 3. Wherefore the author does 
not here teach an universal redemption or atonement. Of this more 
afterward. 

* Pardon is the removing of the guilt of sin. Guilt is two fold : 1. The 
guilt of eternal wrath, by which the sinner is bound over to the eternal 
revenging wrath of God ; and this, by orthodox divines, is called the guilt 
of sin by way of eminency. 2. The guilt of fatherly anger, whereby the 
sinner is bound over to God's fatherly anger and chastisements for sin. 
Accordingly, there is a two-fold pardon : the one is the removal of the 
guilt of eternal wrath, and is called legal pardon ; the other the removal 
of the guilt of fatherly anger, and is called gospel pardon. As to the 
latter, the believer is daily to sue out his pardon, since he is daily con- 
tracting new guilt of that kind ; and this the author plainly teaches after- 
wards in its proper place. As to the former, of which only he speaks 
here, all the sins of a believer, past, present, and to come, are pardoned 
together, and at once, in the first instance of his believing ; that is to say, 
the guilt of eternal wrath for sin then past and present is actually and 
formally done away ; the obligation to that wrath which he was lying 



MODERN DIVINITY. 105 

So that the law, as it is the covenant of works, hath not 
anything to say to any true believer,* for indeed they are 
dead to it, and it is dead to them. 



under for these sins is dissolved, and the guilt of eternal wrath for sins 
then to come is efifectually prevented from that moment for ever, so 
that he can never come under that kind of guilt any more ; and this pardon, 
as it relates to these sins, is but a pardon improperly so called, being ra- 
ther a not imputing of them, than a formal remission, forasmuch as a 
formal remission being a dissolution of guilt actually contracted, agrees 
only to sins already committed. Therefore our author here uses the 
word acquitted, which is of a more extensive signification. All pardon 
of sin is an acquittance, but all acquittance of sin is not a formal pardon 
of it : '• For at the resurrection, believers being raised up in glory, shall 
be openly acknowledged and acquitted in the day of judgment." Short. 
Cat. But they will not then be formally pardoned. Now, this is the 
doctrine of the holy Scriptures, Rom. iv. 48, "Even as David also de- 
scribeth the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputeth righteous- 
ness without works, saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are for- 
given, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the 
Lord WILL NOT IMPUTE siu." — Chap. viii. 1, " There is therefore now 
no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus." That is, not only 
they shall never be actually damned, i. e., sent to hell, as that phrase is 
ordinarily taken, for that is the privilege of all the elect, even before 
they believe, while yet they are under condemnation according to the 
Scripture ; but there is no binding over of them that are in Christ to 
eternal wrath, no guilt of that kind to them. Compare John iii, 18, ** He 
that believeth on him is not condemned ; but he that believeth not is 
condemned already." — " The one [viz : justification] doth equally free all 
believers from the revenging wrath of Cod, and that perfectly in this 
life, that they never fall into condemnation." Larg. Cat. quest. 77. " Al- 
beit sin remain, and continually abide in these our mortal bodies, yet it 
is not imputed unto us, but is remitted and covered with Christ's justice," 
\i. e., righteousness.] Old Confess, art. 25. Q. " What then is our only 
joy in life and death ? A. That all our sins, bypast, present, and to 
come, are buried ; and Christ only is made our wisdom, justification, sancti- 
fication, and redemption." 1 Cor. i. 30. Craig's Cat. quest. 43. " The lib- 
erty which Christ hath purchased for believers, under the gospel consists in 
their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of God, the 
curse of the moral law." Westm. Confess, chap. xx. art. 1. See xi. art. 5 ; chap, 
xvii. art. 3. " They [the Arminians] do utterly deny, that no sins of the faith- 
ful, how great and grievous soever they be, are imputed unto them, or that all 
their sins present and future are forgiven them." Exam, of Tilen. p. 226, art. 
5. sect. 5. 

* " What things soever it saith, it saith to them who are under it," 
Rom. iii. 19. But believers are not under it, nor under the law of the 
covenant of works, chap. vi. 14, therefore it saith nothing to them. As 
such, it said all to Christ in their room and place ; and, without the Me- 
diator's dishonour, it cannot repeat its demands on them which it made 
upon him as their surety. Meanwhile the law, as a rule of life to be- 
lievers, saith to them all, in the name and authority of God, the Creator 
and Redeemer, Matt. v. 48, " Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father 
which is in heaven is perfect." Howbeit, they are under a covenant, under 



106 THE MARROW OF 

Nom. But, sir, how could the sufferings of Christ, which in 
respect of time were but finite, make full satisfaction to the 
justice of God, which is infinite ? 

Evan. Though the sufferings of Christ, in respect of time, 
were but finite, yet in respect of the person that suffered, his 
sufferings came to be of infinite value ; for Christ was God 
and man in one person, and therefore his sufferings were a 
sufficient and full ransom for man's soul, being of more value 
than the death and destruction of all creatures. 

Nom. But, sir, you know that the covenant of works re- 
quires man's own obedience or punishment, when it says, " He 
that doeth these things shall live in them ;" and " Cursed is 
every one that continueth not in all things which are written 
in the book of the law to do them :" how then, could believers 
be acquitted from their sins by the death of Christ ? 

Evan. For answer, I pray you consider, that though the 
covenant of works requires man's own obedience or punish- 
ment, yet it nowhere disallows or excludes that which is done 
or suffered by another in his behalf; neither is it repugnant to 
the justice of God : for so there be a satisfaction performed by 
man, through a sufficient punishment for the disobedience of 
man, the law is satisfied, and the justice of God permitteth 
that the offending party be received into favour ; and God 
acknowledges him, after such satisfaction made, as a just man, 
and no transgressor of the law ; and though the satisfaction be 
made by a surety, yet when it is done, the principal is, by the 
law, acquitted. But yet, for the further proof and confirma- 
tion of this point, we are to consider, that as Jesus Christ, 
the second Adam, entered into the same covenant that the 
first Adam did,"^ so by him was done whatsoever the first 
Adam had undone. So the case stands thus, — that as what- 
soever the first Adam did, or befel him, was reckoned as done 
by all mankind, and to have befallen them, even so, whatso- 
ever Christ did, or befel him, is to be reckoned as to have been 
done by all believers, and to have befallen them. So that as 
sin Cometh from Adam alone to all mankind, as he in whom 
all have sinned ; so from Jesus Christ alone cometh righteous- 
ness unto all that are in him, as he in whom they all have 
satisfied the justice of God ; for as being in Adam, and one 
with him, all did, in him and with him, transgress the com- 

which, though no less is required, yet less is accepted, for the sake of Christ 
their covenant head. 
* See note, f page 55. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 107 

mandment of God ; even so, in respect of faith, whereby be- 
lievers are ingrafted into Christ, and spiritually made one with 
him, they did all, in him and with him, satisfy the justice of 
God in his death and sufferings* And whosoever reckons 

* Namely, in the sense of the law ; for in the law-reckoning, as to the 
payment of a debt, and fulfilling of a covenant, or any the like purposes, 
the surety and the original debtor, the federal head or the representative, 
and the represented, are but one person. And thus the Scripture deter- 
mining Adam to be the figure (or type) of Christ, Rom. v. 14, teaches 
upon the one hand, that all mankind sinned in Adam, verse 12, and died 
in him, 1 Cor. xv. 22 ; and on the other hand, that believers were cruci- 
fied with Christ, Gal. ii. 20, and raised up in him. Eph. ii. 6, " The co- 
venant (of works) being made with Adam as a public person — all man- 
kind—sinned in him." Lar. Cat. Quest. 22. "The covenant of grace 
was made with Christ as the second Adam," Quest. 31. " He satisfied 
divine justice, the which he did as a public person, the head of his 
Church," Quest. 52. " that the righteousness of the law," says the apostle, 
"might be fulfilled in us," Rom. viii. 4; so believers satisfied in him, as 
they sinned in Adam. "The threatening of death. Gen. ii. 17, is fulfilled 
in the elect so that they die, and yet their lives are spared: they die, 
and yet they live, for they are reckoned in law to have died when Christ 
their surety died for them." Ferguson on Gal. ii. 20. " Although thou," 
says Beza, " hast satisfied for the pain of thy sins in the person of Jesus 
Christ," Beza's Confess, point 4, art. 12. " What challenges Satan or con- 
science can make against the believer — hear an answer ; I was condemned, 
I was judged, I was crucified for sin, when my surety Christ was con- 
demned, judged, and crucified for my sins. — I have paid all, because my 
surety has paid all," Rutherford's Trial and Triumph of Faith, serm. xix. 
p. 258. "As in Christ we satisfied, so likewise in Adam we sinned," 
Flint. Exam. p. 144. This doctrine, and the doctrine of the formal im- 
putation of Christ's righteousness to believers stand and fall together. 
For if believers be reckoned in law to have satisfied in Christ, then his 
righteousness, which is the result of his satisfaction, must needs be ac- 
counted theirs, but if there be no such law-reckoning, Christ's righteous- 
ness cannot be imputed to them otherwise than as to the eSects of it, for 
the judgment of God is always according to truth, Rom. ii. 2. This the 
Neonomians are aware of, and deny both, reckoning them Antinomian 
principles as they do many other Protestant doctrines. Hear Mr. Gib- 
bons : " They (viz : the Antinomians) are dangerously mistaken in think- 
ing that a believer is righteous in the sight of God, with the self-same 
active and passive righteousness wherewith Christ was righteous, as though 
believers suffered in Christ, and obeyed in Christ." Morn. Exer. Method, 
sec. 19, p. 423. On the other hand, the Westminster divines teach both 
as sound and orthodox principles, affirming Christ's righteousness, obe- 
dience, and satisfaction, themselves to be imputed to believers, or rec- 
koned their righteousness, obedience, and satisfaction. " Justification is 
an act of God's free grace, wherein he pardoneth all our sins, and accept- 
eth us as righteous in his sight, only for the righteousness of Christ im- 
puted to us." Short. Cat. — " Only for the perfect obedience and full 
satisfaction of Christ by God imputed to them," Large. Cat. quest. 70. — " By 
imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them," Wcstm. Confess. 
chap. xi. art. 1. 



108 THE MAKROW OF 

thus reckons according to Scripture; for in Rom. v. 12, all 
are said to have sinned in Adam's sin ; in whom all have sin- 
ned, says the text, namely, in Adam, as in a public person : all 
men's acts were included in his, because their persons were 
included in his. So likewise in the same chapter it is said, 
" that death passed upon all men ;" namely for this, that 
Adam's sin was reckoned for theirs. Even so, Rom. vi. 10, 
the apostle, speaking of Christ, says, "In that he died, he died 
unto sin ; but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God :" so like- 
wise, says he in the next verse, "Reckon ye yourselves to be 
dead unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our 
Lord." And so, as touching the resurrection of Christ, the 
apostle argues, 1 Cor. xv. 20, that all believers must and shall 
arise, because " Christ is risen, and is become the first fruits 
of them that sleep." Christ, as the first fruits, arises, and that 
in the name and stead of all believers ; and so they rise in him 
and with him ; for Christ did not rise as a private person, but 
he arose as a public head of the church; so that in his 
arising all believers did virtually arise. And as Christ at his 
resurrection was justified, and acquitted from all the sins of all 
believers, by God his Father, as having now fully satisfied for 
them, even so were they."^ And thus you see the obedience 
of Christ being imputed unto believers by God for their right- 
eousness, it puts them into the same estate and case, touching 
righteousness unto life before God,t wherein they should 
have been, if they had perfectly performed the perfect obe- 
dience of the covenant of works, "Do this and thou shalt 
live."t 

* Yirtually justified, not actually, in his justification, even as in his 
resurrection they did virtually arise. That this is the author's meaning 
is evident from his own words, when speaking of Neophytus, he says ex- 
pressly, " He was justified meritoriously in the death and resurrection of 
Christ, but yet he was not justified actually, till he did actually believe in 
Christ." 

f So called to distinguish it from inherent righteousness, which is righteous- 
ness from life. 

I This is a weighty point, the plain and native result of what is said, 
namely, that since Jesus Christ hath fully accomplished what was to have 
been done by man himself for life accordmg to the covenant of works, 
and that the same is imputed to believers ; therefore, believers are in the 
same state, as to righteousness unto life, that they w^ould have been 
in if man himself had stood the whole time appointed for his trial. And 
here is the true ground in law of the infallible perseverance of the saints ; 
their time of trial for life is over in their Head the second Adam — the 
prize is won ! Hence the just by faith are entitled to the same benefit 
which Adam by his perfect obedience would have been entitled to. Com- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 109 

Sect. 2. — Nom. But, sir, are all believers dead to the law, 
and the law dead to them, say you ? 

Evan. Believe it, as the law is the covenant of works, all 
true believers are dead unto it, and it is dead unto them ;* for, 
they being incorporated into Christ, what the law or covenant 
of works did to him, it did the same to them ; so that when 
Christ hanged on the cross, all believers, after a sort, hanged 
there with him. And therefore the apostle Paul having said, 
Gal. ii. 19, "I through the law am dead to the law," adds 
in the next verse, *' I am crucified with Christ ;" which words 
the apostle brings as an argument to prove that he was dead 
to the law, for the law had crucified him with Christ. Upon 
which text, Luther on the Galatians, (p. 81,) says, " I like- 
wise am crucified and dead to the law, forasmuch as I am 
crucified and dead with Christ." And again, " I believing in 
Christ, am also crucified with Christ." In like manner, the 

pare Rom. x. 5, " The man which doeth these things shall live," with Hab. 
ii. 4, "The just by his faith shall live;" the which is the true reading 
according to the original. And here, for clearing of the following pur- 
pose of the believer's freedom from tlie law, as it is the covenant of 
works, let it be considered, that if Adam had stood till the time of his 
trial had been expired, the covenant of works would indeed from that 
time have remained his everlastmg security for eternal life, like a contract 
held fulfilled by the one party ; but, as in the same case, it could have no 
longer remained to be the rule of his obedience, namely, in the state of 
confirmation. ITie reason is obvious, viz : that the subjecting of him still 
to the covenant of works, as the rule of his obedience, would have been a 
reducing him to the state of trial he was in before, and the setting him 
anew to work for what was already his own, in vii'tue of his (supposed) 
fulfilling of that covenant. Nevertheless it is absolutely impossible but 
the creature, in any state whatsoever, must be bound to and owe obe- 
dience unto the Creator ; and being still bound to obedience, of necessity 
he behoved to have had a rule of that obedience ; as to which rule, since 
the covenant of works could not be it, what remains but that the rule of 
obedience in the state of confirmation, would have been the law of nature, 
suited to man's state of immutability, improperly so called, and so di- 
vested of the form of the covenant of works, namely, its promise of eter- 
nal life, and threatening of eternal death, as it is, and will be in heaven, 
for ever ? The application is easy, making always, as to the rule of believers' 
obedience, suitable reserves for the imperfection of their state, in respect 
of inherent righteousness ; the which imperfection, as it leaves room for 
promises of fatherly smiles, and thi'eatenings of fatherly chastisements, 
so it makes them necessary ; but these also shall be' done away in heaven 
when their real estate shall be perfect, as their relative state is now. 

* Rom. vii. 4, '• Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to 
the law." — Gal. ii. 19, "I thi-ough the law am dead to the law." And 
this, according to the nature of correlates, concludes the law, as it is the 
covenant of works, to be dead also to believere. Ool. ii. 14, " Nailing 
it to his cross." 
10 



110 THE MAEROW OF 

apostle says to the believing Romans, " So ye, my brethren, 
are dead also to the law by the body of Christ," Rom. vii. 4. 
Now, by the body of Christ, is meant the passion of Christ 
upon the cross, or, which is all one, the sufferings of Christ in 
his human nature. And, therefore, certainly we may conclude 
with godly Tindal on the text, that all such are dead concerning 
the law, as are by faith crucified with Christ. 

Nom. But, I pray you, sir, how do you prove that the law 
is dead to a believer ? 

Evan. Why, as I conceive, the apostle affirms it, Rom. 
vii. 1—6. 

Nom. Surely sir, you do mistake; for I remember the 
words of the first verse are, " how that the law hath dominion 
over a man as long as he liveth ; " and the words of the sixth 
verse are, "but now we are delivered from the law, that being 
dead wherein we were held," &c. 

Evan. I know right well, that in our last translation the 
words are so rendered ; but the learned Tindal renders it 
thus: "Remember ye not, brethren, that the law hath do- 
minion over a man as long as it endureth?" And Bishop 
Hall paraphrases upon it thus, " Know ye not, brethren, that 
the Mosaical law hath dominion over a man that is subject 
unto it, so long as the said law is in force?" So likewise 
Origen, Ambrose, and Erasmus, do all agree, that, by these 
words, while " he" or " it" liveth, we are to understand, as 
long as the law remaineth. And Peter Martyr is of opinion, 
that these words, while " he" or " it" liveth, are difierently 
referred, either to the law, or to the man ; for, says he, " the 
man is said to be dead," verse 4, "and the law is said to be 
dead," verse 6. Even so because the word " he" or " it" 
mentioned verse 1, signifies both sexes in the Greek, Chrysos- 
tom thinks, that the death both of the law and the man is in- 
sinuated. And Theophylact, Erasmus, Bucer, and Calvin, do 
all understand the sixth verse, of the law being dead. And as 
the death of a believer to the law was accomplished by the 
death of Christ, even so also was the law's death to him ; as 
Mr. Fox, in his sermon of Christ crucified, testifies, saying, 
"Here have we upon one cross two crucifixes, two of the 
most excellent potentates that ever were, the Son of God and 
the law of God, wrestling together about man's salvation — 
both cast down and both slain upon one cross ; howbeit, not 
after a like sort. First^ the Son of God was cast down, and 
took the fall, not for any weakness in himself, but was content 



MODERN DIVINITY. - 111 

to take it for our victory. By this fall, the law of God, in 
casting him down was caught in his own trap, and so was fast 
nailed hand and foot to the cross, according as we read in 
Paul's words," Col. ii. 14. And so Luther on the Galatians, 
(p. 184,) speaking to the same point, says, " This was a won- 
derful combat, where the law, being a creature, giveth such an 
assault to his Creator, in practising his whole tyranny upon the 
Son of God. Now, therefore, because the law did so horribly 
and cursedly sin against his God, it is accused and arraigned, 
and, as a thief and cursed murderer of the Son of God, loses 
all its right, and deserves to be condemned. The law, there- 
fore, is bound, dead, and crucified to me. It is not only over- 
come, condemned, and slain unto Christ, but also to me, be- 
lieving in him unto whom he hath freely given this victory."* 

*This is cited from Luther on the Epistle to the Galatians, according 
to the English translation, and is to be found there, fol. 184, p. 1, 2, fol. 
185. p. 1, fol. 82, p. 1. His own words from the Latin original, after he 
had lectured that epistle a second time, as I find them in my copy, printed 
at Frankfort, 1563, are here subjoined. " Hoc profecto mirabile duellum 
est, ubi lex creatura cum Creatore sic congreditur, et praeter omne jus, 
omnem tyranuidem suara in Filio Dei exercet. quam in nobis filiis irae 
exercuit," Luth. Comment, in Gal. iv. 5, p. 598. '' Ideo lex, tanquam 
latro et sacrilegus homicida Filii Dei, amittit jus, et meretur damnari," 
Ibid. p. 600. " Ergo lex est mihi surda, ligata, mortua et crucifixa," Ibid, 
cap. ii. 20, p. 280. " Conscientia apprehendens hoc apostoli verbum, 
Christus a lege nos redemit — sancta quadam superbia insultat legi, dicens 
— nunc in posterum non solum Christo victa et strangulata es, sed etiam 
mihi credenti in eum, cui donavit hanc victoriam," Page 600. That great 
man of God, a third Elias, and a second Paul, (if I may venture the ex- 
pression,) though he was no inspired teacher, was endued with a great 
measure of the spirit of them both, being raised up of God for the extra- 
ordinary work of the Reformation of religion from Popery, while all the 
world wondered after the Beast. The lively savour he had of the truths 
of the gospel in his own soul, and the fervour of his spirit in delivering 
them, did indeed carry him as far from the modern politeness of expres- 
sion, as the admiration and affectation of this last are likely to carry us off 
from the former. What he designed by all this triumph of faith is sum- 
med up in a few words, immediately following these last cited : " This, 
the law, (viz : as it is the covenant of works,) is gone for ever as to us, 
providing we abide in Christ." This he chose to express in such figura- 
tive terms, that that great gospel truth might be the more impressed on 
his own heart, and the hearts of his scholars, being prompted thereto by 
his experience of the necessity, and withal of the difficulty of applying it 
by faith to his own case, in his frequent deep soul exercises and conflicts 
of conscience. " Therefore," says he, " feeling thy terrors and threatenings, 
law ! I dip my conscience over head and ears, into the wounds, blood, 
death, resurrection, and victory of Christ ; besides him I will see and 
hear nothing at all. This faith is our victory, whereby we overcome the 
terrors of the law, sin, death, and all evils, but not without a great con- 
flict," Ibid. p. 597. And speaking on the same subject elsewhere, he 



112 * THE MARKOW OF 

Kow, then, although according to the apostle's intimation, 
(Rom. vii. at the beginning,) the covenant of works, and man 
by nature, be mutually engaged to each other, so long as they 
both live ; yet if, when the wife be dead the husband be free, 
then much more when he is dead also. 

has these remarkable words, " It is easy to speak these things, but happy 
he that could know them aright in the conflict of conscience." Com- 
ment, on Gal. ii. 19, p. 259. Now, to turn outward the wrong side 
of the picture of his discourse, to make it false, horrid, profane, and 
blasphemous, is hard. At this rate, many Scripture texts must suffer, 
not to speak of approved human writers. I instance only that of EHas, 
1 Kings xviii. 27, " He [Baal] is a god ; either he is talking, or he is 
pursuing, or he is on a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must 
be awaked." Yet I compare not Luther's commentary to the inspired 
writing ; only where the holy Scripture goes before, one would think 
he might be allowed to follow. Here is ao irony, a rhetorical figure, 
and there is a prusopopceia, or feigning of a person, another rhetorical 
figure ; and the learned and holy man tells us withal, that Paul used it 
before him on the same subject, representing the law " as a most potent 
personage, Avho condemned and killed Christ, whom he (having overcome 
death) did in the like manner conquer, condemn, and kill ;" for which he 
cites Bph. ii and iv., epistles to the Kom. Cor. Col. p. .^99. Now, albeit 
the law, as it is the covenant of works, not being a person indeed, but a 
most holy law of God, was incapable of real arraignment, sin, theft, or 
murder : yet one being allowed to speak figuratively of it, as such a per- 
son before mentioned ; and finding the Spirit of God to teach that it was 
crucified, Jesus Christ '' nailing it to his cross," Col. ii. 14 ; what im- 
piety — what blasphemy is there in assigning crimes to it for which it was 
crucified — crimes of the same nature with its crucifixion, that is, not really 
and literally so, but figuratively only ? And the crucifying of a person, as 
it presupposeth his arraignment, accusation, and condemnation, so it 
implies his binding and death ; all which the decency of the parable re- 
quires. And the same decency requiring the rhetorical feigning of crimes 
as the causes of that crucifixion, they could be no other but these that are 
assigned ; forasmuch as Jesus Christ is here considered, not as a sinner 
by imputation, but as absolutely without guilt, though in the meantime 
the sins of all the elect were really imputed to him, the which in reality 
justified the holy law's procedure against him. Moreover, upon the cru- 
cifixion, it may be remembered how the apostle proves Christ to have been 
" made a curse for us ;" for, says he, it is written, " Cursed is every one that 
hangeth on a tree," Gal. iii. 13 ; the which if any should apply to the law, 
as the covenant of works, in a figurative manner, as its crucifixion must 
be understood, it could import no more by reason of the nature of the 
thing, than an utter abolition of it with respect to believers, which is a 
great gospel truth. And here one may call to mind the Scripture phrases, 
Rom. vii. 5, "The motions of sins which were by the law ;" — chap. viii. 2, 
" The law of sin and death :" — " The covenant of works, called the law of sin 
and death," Confess, p. 382, fig. 3 ; " The strength of sin is the law," 1 Cor. 
XV. 56. 

After all, for my part, I would neither use some of these expressions of 
Luther's, nor dare I so much as in my heart condemn them in him : the 



MODERN DIVINITY. 113 

Kom. But, sir, what are we to understand by this double 
death, or wherein does this freedom from the law consist ? 

Evan. Death is nothing else but a dissolution, or untying 
of a compound, or a separation between matter and form ; and, 
therefore, when the soul and body of man are separated, we 
say he is dead ; so that by this double death, we are to under- 
stand nothing else, but that the bargain or covenant, which 
was made between God and man at first, is dissolved or un- 
tied ; or that the matter and form of the covenant of works is 
separated to a believer. So that the law of the ten command- 
ments neither promises eternal life nor threatens eternal death 
to a believer, upon condition of his obedience or disobedience 
to it :* neither does a believer, as he is a believer, either hope 

grace which I conceive he had when he uttered these words. And the 
same I would say of the several expressions of the great Rutherford, and 
of many eminent ministers, in their day signally countenanced of God in 
their administrations, Hear Luther himself, in his preface to that book, 
page {mihi) 10, " These our thoughts," says he, " on this epistle do come 
forth, not so much against those, (viz : the church's enemies,) as for the 
sake of our own, (viz : her friends,) who will either thank me for my dili- 
gence, or will pardon my wealoiess and rashness." It is a pity the just 
expectation of one, whose name will be in honour in the church of Christ, 
while the memory of the Reformation from Popery is kept up, should 
be frustrated. 

* The law of the ten commandments given to Adam, as the covenant 
of works, promised eternal life, upon condition of obedience, and threatened 
eternal death in case of disobedience ; and this was it that made it the 
covenant of works. Now, this covenant frame of the law of the ten com- 
mandments being dissolved as to believers, it can no more promise nor 
threaten them at any rate. The Scripture indeed testifies, that '' godli- 
ness hath the promise, not only of the life that now is, but also of that 
which is to come," 1 Tim. iv. 8, there being an infallible connection be- 
tween godliness and the glorious life in heaven established by promise in 
the covenant of grace ; but in the meantime, it is the obedience and satis- 
faction of Christ apprehended by faith, and not our godliness, that is the 
condition upon which that life is promised, and upon which a real 
Christian in a dying hour will venture to plead for a share in that life. 
It is likewise certain that not only are unbelievers, in virtue of the covenant 
of works which they remain under, liable to eternal death as the just re- 
ward of sin, but there is by that covenant a twofold connection established, 
the one betwixt a state of unbelief, unregeneracy, impenitency, and un- 
holiness, and eternal death ; the other, betwixt acts of disobedience and 
eternal death. The former is absolutely indissoluble, and cannot but 
eternally remain ; so that whosoever are in that state of sin, while they 
are in it they must needs be in a state of death, bound over to the wrath 
of God by virtue of the threatening of the law ; but then it is impossible 
that believers in Christ can be in that state of sin. So these and the like 
sentences, "He that believetb not shall be damned," Mark xvi. 16. — "Ex- 
cept ye repent ye shall all likewise perish," Luke xiii. 3. — " If ye live af- 
ter the flesh ye shall die," Rom. viii, 13; do indeed bind over unbelievers 
10* 



114 THE MARROW OF 

for eternal life, or fear eternal death upon any sucli terms.^ 
No ; we may assure ourselves, that " whatsoever the law saith," 
on any such terms, it " saith to them who are under the law," 
Eom. iii. 19 ; but believers " are not under the law, but under 
grace," Eom. vi. 14, and so have escaped eternal death, and 
obtained eternal life, only by faith in Jesus Christ ;f " for 
by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which 

to eternal death ; but they do no otherwise concern believers than as 
they set before them a certain connection of two events, neither of which 
can ever be found in their case ; and yet the serious consideration of 
them is of great and manifold use to believers, as a serious view of every 
part of the covenant of works is, particularly to move them to grow up 
more and more into Christ, and to make their calling and election sure. 
As to the latter connection, viz : betwixt acts of disobedience and eternal 
death, it is dissoluble, and in the case of the believer, actually dissolved ; 
so that none have warrant to say to a believer, If thou sin, thou shalt die 
eternally ; forasmuch as the threatening of eternal death, as to the be- 
liever, being already satisfied in the satisfaction of Christ, by faith appre- 
hended and imputed of God to him, it cannot be renewed on him, more 
than one debt can be twice charged, namely, for double payment. 

* But on the having, or wanting of a saving interest in Christ. 

f This is a full proof of the whole matter. For how can the law of 
the ten commandments promise eternal life, or threaten eternal death, 
upon condition of obedience or disobedience, to those who have already 
escaped eternal death, and obtained eternal life by faith in Christ ? 'J'he 
words which the Holy Ghost teaches, are so far from restraining the 
notion of eternal life to glorification, and of eternal death to the misery 
of the danmed in hell, that they declare the soul upon its union with 
Christ to be as really possessed of eternal life as the saints in heaven are ; 
and without that state of union, to be as really under death, and the 
wrath of God, as the damned in hell are, though not in that measure. 
(The term " eternal death" is not, as far as I remember, used in Scrip- 
ture.) And this agreeable to the nature of things ; for as there is no 
medium betwixt life and death in a subject capable of either, so it is evident, 
the life communicated to the soul, in its union with Christ, the quickening 
Head, can never be extinguished for the ages of eternity, John xiv. 19 ; 
and the sinner "s death under the guilt and power of sin, is in its own na- 
ture eternal and can never end but by a work of Almighty power, which 
raiseth the dead, and calleth things that are not, to be as if they were. 
1 Thess. i. 10, "Jesus which delivered us from the wrath to come." — 
1 John iii. 14, " We know that we have passed from death unto life." — 
John iii. 36, " He that believe th on the Son hath everlasting life ; and he 
that believeth not on the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God 
abideth on him."— Chap. v. 24, " He that believeth, hath everlasting life, 
and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death unto 
life."— Chap. vi. 47, "He that believeth on me hath everlasting life." — 
Verse .^4, "Whoso eatetli my flesh, and drinkcth my blood, hath eternal 
life."— 1 John v. 12, 13, " He that hath the Son hath life ; and he that 
hath not the Son of God hath not life. These things have I written unto you 
that believe on the name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have 
eternal life."— See Kom. viii. 1 ; John iii. 1 6—18, and xvii. 3. 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 115 

they could not be justified by the law of Moses," Acts xiii. 39. 
— " For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten 
Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but 
have everlasting life," John iii. 16. 

And this is that covenant of grace, which, as I told you, 
was made with the fathers by way of promise, and so but 
darkly ; but now the fulness of time being come, it was more 
fully opened and promulgated. 

Ant. Well, sir, you have made it evident and plain, that 
Christ hath delivered all believers from the law, as it is the 
covenant of works ; and that therefore they have nothing at all 
to do with it. 

Evan. No, indeed; none of Christ's are to have anything 
to do with the covenant of works, but Christ only. For al- 
though in the making of the covenant of works at first, God 
was one party, and man another, yet, in making it the second 
time, God was on both sides: — God, simply considered in his 
essence, was the party opposed to man ; and God, the second 
person, having taken upon him to be incarnate, and to work 
man's redemption, was on man's side, and takes part with 
man, that he may reconcile him to God, by bearing man's 
sins, and satisfying God's justice for them. And Christ paid 
God"^ till he said he had enough ; he was fully satisfied, fully 
contented. Matt. iii. 17, " This is my beloved Son, in whom I 
am well pleased." Yea, God the Father was well pleased, and 
fully satisfied from all eternity, by virtue of that covenant that 
was made betwixt them. And thereupon all Christ's people 
were given to him in their election. Eph. i. 4. " Thine they 
were,"f says Christ, " and thou gavest them me," John xvii. 6. 

* All the demands of the covenant of works on the elect world. 

f That he, taking on their nature, might answer the demands of the 
covenant of works for them, Eph. i. 4, " According as he has chosen us 
in him." We are said to be chosen in Christ, not that Christ is the cause 
of election, but that electing love, flowing immediately from God to all 
the objects of it, the Father did, in one and the same decree of election, 
choose the head and the members of the happy body; yet Christ the 
head first, (in the order of nature,) then all those who make up his body, 
who were thereby given to him, to be redeemed and saved, by his obe- 
dience and death ; the which, being by him accepted, he, as Elect-Me- 
diator and Head of elect-men, had full power and furniture for the work 
made over to him. And thus may we conceive the second covenant to 
have been concluded, agreeably to the Scripture account of that mystery. 
This, Hie author says, was done thereupon, not upon the Father's being 
well pleased and fully satisfied, by virtue of the covenant made ; the 
which is the effect of the covenant, whereas this is one of the transac- 
tions or parts of the covenant, as all the following words brought to 



116 THE MAEROW OF 

And again, says he, " The Father loveth the Son, and hath 
given all things into his hands," John iii. 35 ; that is, he hath 
intrusted him with the economic and actual administration of 
that power in the Church, which originally belonged unto him- 
self. And hence it is that Christ also says, " The Father 
judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the 
Son," John v. 22. So that all the covenant that believers are to 
have regard to, for life and salvation, is the free and gracious 
covenant that is betwixt Christ (or God in Christ) and them * 
And in this covenant there is not any condition or law to be 
performed on man's part, by himself ;t no, there is no more 
for him to do, but only to know and believe that Christ hath 
done all for him.:j: 

illustrate it do plainly carry it ; but upon God the Son being on the 
other side in making of the second covenant, the which is the princi- 
pal purpose in this paragraph, the explication whereof was interrupted 
by the adding of a sentence concerning the execution and effect of the 
glorious contrivance. In making of the second covenant, the second 
person of the ever blessed Trinity, considered simply as such, is one of 
the parties. Thereupon, in the decree of election, designing, as is said, 
both head and members, he is chosen Mediator and Head of the election, . 
to be their incarnate Redeemer ; the which headship accepted, he, as 
Mediator and Head of the election, took upon him to be mcarnate, and 
in their nature to satisfy the demands of the covenant of works for them, 
Isa. xlii. 1 ; Eph. i. 4 ; Psalm xl. 6 ; Westm. Confess. Chap. viii. art. 1 ; "It 
pleased God in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, 
his only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man — the 
Head and Saviour of his church — unto whom he did, from all eternity, give 
a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time redeemed," &c. Chap. iii. art. 
5 ; " Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life — God hath chosen in 
Christ unto everlasting glory, out of his mere free grace and love." Compare 
what the author writes on this subject, pp. 41 — 45. 

* That is, the covenant of grace only, not the covenant of works. 

f Namely, for life and salvation ; the same being already perfonned 
by Jesus Christ ; he, having in the second covenant undertaken to satisfy 
all the demands of the covenant of works, did do all that was to be done 
or wrought for our life and salvation. And if it had not been so, life 
and salvation had remained eternally without our reach ; for how is it 
possible we should perform, do, or work, until we get life and salvation ? 
what condition or law are we fit for performing of, while we are dead, and 
not saved from, but lying under sin, the wrath and curse of God ? See the 
following note. 

J Namely, all that was to be done for life and salvation. And neither 
repentance, nor sincere (imperfect) obedience, nay, nor yet believing it- 
self, is of that sort : though all of these are indispensably necessary in 
subjects capable of them. This expression bears a kind of imitation, 
usual in conversation, and used by our blessed Saviour on this subject. 
John vi. 28, 29, " Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we 
might WORK the works of God ? Jesus answered and said unto them. 
This is THE WORK of God, that ye believe." The design of it plainly is, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 117 

Wherefore, my dear NeopTiytus, to turn my speech particu- 
larly to you, (because I see you are in heaviness,) I beseech 
you to be persuaded that here you are to work nothing, here 
you are to do nothing, here you are to render nothing unto 
God, but only to receive the treasure, which is Jesus Christ, 
and apprehend him in your heart by faith, although you be 
never so great a sinner ;* and so shall you obtain forgiveness 

to confront the humour that is naturally in all men, for doing and work- 
ing for life and salvation, when once they begin to lay these things to 
heart ; there is no more, says the author, for him to do, but only to know 
and believe that Christ hath done all for him ; and therefore the expres- 
sion is not to be strained besides its scope. However, this is true faith, 
according to the Scripture, whether all saving faith be such a knowledge 
and believing or not ; and that knowledge and believing are capable of 
degrees of certainty, and may be mixed with doubting, without over- 
turning the reality of them. Isaiah liii. 11, " By his knowledge shall my 
righteous Servant justify many." — John xvii. 3, " This is eternal life, that 
they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou 
hast sent." — Gal. ii. 20, " I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved 
me, and gave himself for me." — Rom. x. 9, " If thou shalt believe in thine 
heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved." To 
believe that God hath raised him from the dead is to believe that he has 
perfected the work, and done all that was to be done for life and salva- 
tion to sinners : but is this enough to constitute saving faith ? Surely it 
is not ; for devils may believe that : therefore, it must be believed with 
particular application to oneself, intimated in the phrase, " believing in 
thine heart ;" and this is what devils and reprobates never reach unto ; 
hovvbeit these last may pretend to know and believe, that Christ is raised 
from the dead for them, and so hath done all for them, even as they also 
may pretend to receive and rest on him alone for salvation. But in all this, 
one who truly believes may yet have ground to say with tears, *' Lord, I believe ! 
help thou mine unbelief," Mark ix. 24. 

Nevertheless, under this covenant there is much to do ; a law to be 
performed and obeyed, though not for life and salvation, but from life and 
salvation received ; even the law of the ten commandments in the full 
extent thereof, as the author doth at large expressly teach, in its proper place, 
in this and the second part. 

This is the good old way, (according to the Scriptures, Acts xvi. 30, 31 ; 
Matt. xi. 28, 29 ; Tit. ii. 11, 12,) if the famous Mr. John Davidson under- 
stood the Protestant doctrine, " Q. Then the salvation of man," says he, 
" is so fully wrought and perfectly accomplished by Christ in his own 
person, that nothing is left to be done or wrought by us in our per- 
sons, to be any cause of the least part thereof? A. That is most certain." 
Mr. John Davidson's Catechism, Edin. edit. 1708, p. 15. " So we are 
perfectly saved by the works which Christ did for us in his own person, 
and no ways by the good works which he works in us, with and after 
faith. [^Marg. Here is the main point and ground of our disagreement 
with the Papists.] Rests, then, anything for us to do after that we are 
perfectly justified in God's sight by faith in Christ? Disciple. Yes, very 
much ; albeit no ways to merit salvation ; but only to witness, by the 
effects of thankfulness, that we are truly saved." Ibid. p. 46, 48, 49. 

* See the two foregoing notes. And hear another passage from the 



118 THE MARROW OF 

of sins, righteousness, and eternal happiness ; not as an agent 
but as a patient, not by doing, but by receiving."^ Nothing 
here comes betwixt but faith only, apprehending Christ in the 
promise.f This, then, is perfect righteousness, to hear nothing, 
to know nothing, to do nothing of the law of works ; but only 
to know and believe that Jesus Christ is now gone to the Fa- 
ther, and sitteth at his right hand, not as a judge, but is made 
unto you of God, wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and 
redemption.:}: Wherefore, as Paul and Silas said to the jailor, 
so say I unto you, " Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and 
thou shalt be saved ;" that is, be verily persuaded in your heart 
that Jesus Christ is yours, and that you shall have life and 
salvation by him ; that whatsoever Christ did for the redemp- 
tion of mankind, he did it for you.§ 



same book whence this is taken, namely, the English translation of Lu- 
ther's Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, fol. 75 : " Good 
works ought to be done ; the example of Christ is to be followed — Well, 
all these things will I gladly do. What then foUoweth ? Thou shalt 
then be saved, and obtain everlasting life. Nay, not so. I grant, indeed, 
that I ought to do good works, patiently to suffer troubles and afflictions, 
and to shed my blood also, if need be, for Christ's cause ; but yet am I not 
justified, neither do I obtain salvation thereby." 

* This is the style of the same Luther, who useth to distinguish be- 
twixt active and passive righteousness, i. e., the righteousness of the law, 
and the righteousness of faith ; agreeably to Eom. iv. 5 : " But to him that 
worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is 
counted for righteousness." 

t The passage at more length is this : " The marriage is made up with- 
out all pomp and solemnity : that is to say, nothing at all comes between ; 
no law nor work is here required. Here is nothing else but the Father promis- 
ing, and I receiving ; but these things without experience and practice, cannot 
be understood." Luther, ubi sup., fol. 194. 

J These words also are Luther's, in his argument on the Epistle to the 
Galatians, p. 24 of the Latin copy, and fol. 7 of the translation ; but what 
our author reads, '' Nothing of the law of works," is, in Luther's own 
words, " Nothing of the law, or of works ;" the sense is the same. What con- 
cerns the assurance in the nature of faith, which these words seem to bear, we 
will meet with anon. 

§ In this definition of saving faith, there is the general nature or kind 
of it, viz : a real persuasion, agreeing to all sorts of faith, divine and hu- 
man, — " Be verily persuaded ;" the more special nature of it, an appro- 
priating persuasion, or special application to oneself, agreeing to a con- 
vinced sinner's faith or belief of the law's curse. Gal. iii. 10, as well as to 
it. — " Be verily persuaded in your hearts ;" thus, Rom. x. 9, '' If thou shalt 
believe in thine heart that God, &c. thou shalt be saved :" and, finally, 
the most special nature of it, whereby it is distinguished from all other, 
namely, an appropriating persuasion of Christ being yours, &c. And as 
one's believing in one's heart, or appropriating persuasion of the dreadful 
tidings of the law, imports not only au assent to them as true, but a 



MODERN DIVINITY. 119 

horror of them as evil ; so believing in the heart, or an appropriating persua- 
sion of the glad tidings of the gospel, bears not only an assent to them as true, 
but a relish of them as good. 

The parts of this appropriating persuasion, according to our author, 
are, 1. " That Jesus Christ is yours," viz : by the deed of gift and grant 
made to mankind lost, or (which is the same thing in other words) by the 
authentic gospel offer, in the Lord's own word ; the which offer is the 
foundation of faith, and the ground and warrant of the ministerial offer, 
without which it could avail nothing. That this is the meaning, appears 
from the answer to the question immediately following, touching the 
warrant to believe. By this offer or deed of gift and grant, Christ is ours 
before we believe ; not that we have a saving interest in him, or are in a 
state of grace, but that we have a common interest in him, and the com- 
mon salvation, which fallen angels have not, Jude 3 ; so that it is lawful 
and warrantable for us, not for them, to take possession of Christ and 
his salvation. Even as when one presents a piece of gold to a poor man 
saying, " Take it, it is yours ;" the offer makes the piece really his in the 
sense and to the effect before declared ; nevertheless, while the poor 
man does not accept or receive it ; whether apprehending the offer too 
great to be real, or that he has no liking of the necessary consequents of 
the accepting ; it is not his in possession, nor hath he the benefit of it ; 
but, on the contrary, must starve for it all, and that so much the more 
miserably, that he hath slighted the offer and refused the gift. So this 
act of faith is nothing else but to " believe God," 1 John v. 10 ; " to be- 
lieve the Son," John iii. 36 ; " to believe the report " concerning Christ, 
Isaiah liii. 1 ; or " to believe the gospel," Mark i. 15 ; not as devils be- 
lieve the same, knowing Christ to be Jesus, a Saviour, but not their Sa- 
viour, but with an appropriating persuasion, or special application believ- 
ing him to be our Saviour. Now what this gospel report, record, or 
testimony of God, to be believed by all, is, the inspired penman expressly 
declares, " This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life ; and 
this life is in his Son." 1 John v. 11. The giving here mentioned, is not 
giving in possession in greater or lesser measure, but giving by way of 
grant, whereupon one may take possession. And the party to whom, is 
not the election only, but mankind lost. For this record is the gospel, 
the foundation of faith, and warrant to all, to believe in the Son of God, 
and lay hold on eternal life in him ; but that God hath given eternal life 
to the elect, can be no such foundation nor warrant ; for that a gift is 
made to certain select men, can never be a foundation or warrant for all 
men to accept and take it. The great sin of unbelief lies in not believing 
this record or testimony, and so making God a liar : " He that believeth 
not God, hath made him a liar, because he believeth not the record that 
God gave of his Son. And this is the record," &c. 1 John v. 10, 11. On 
the other hand, " He that hath received his testimony, hath set to his 
seal that God is true," John iii. 33. But the great sin of unbelief lies, 
not in not believing that God hath given eternal life to the elect ; for the 
most desperate unbelievers, such as Judas and Spira, believe that, and 
the belief of it adds to their anguish and torment of spirit ; yet they do 
not set to their seal that God is true ; but, on the contrary, they make 
God a liar, in not believing that to lost mankind, and to themselves in 
particular, God hath given eternal life in the way of grant, so as they, as 
well as others, are warranted and welcome to take possession of it, so 
fleeing in the face of God's record and testimony in the gospel, Isaiah 
ix. 6 ; John iii. 16 ; Acts iv. 12 ; Pro v. viii. 4 ; Rev. xxii. 17. In believ- 



120 THE MARROW OF 

ing of this, not in believing of the former, lies the difficulty, in the agonies 
of conscience ; the which, nevertheless, till one do in greater or lesser 
measure surmount, one can never believe on Christ, receive and rest upon 
him for salvation. The truth is, the receiving of Christ doth necessarily 
presuppose this giving of him. There may, indeed, be a giving where 
there is no receiving, for a gift may be refused ; and there may be a taking 
where there is no giving, the which is a presumptuous action without 
warrant ; but there can be no place for receiving of Christ where there is 
not a giving, of him before. "In the matter of faith, (says Rollock, Lect. 
X. on 2 Thess. p. 126,) there are two things : first there is a giver, and 
next there is a receiver. God gives, and the soul receives." The Scripture is 
express to this purpose : " A man can receive nothing, except it be given him 
from heaven," John iii. 27. 

2. " And that you shall have life and salvation by him ;" namely, a life 
of holiness, as well as of happiness, — salvation from sin as well as from 
wrath, — not in heaven only, but begun here and completed hereafter. 
That this is the author's notion of life and salvation agreeably to the 
Scripture, we have had sufficient evidence already, and will find more in 
our progress. Wherefore this persuasion of faith is inconsistent with an 
unwillingness to part with sin, a bent or purpose of heart to continue in sin, 
even as receiving and resting on Christ for salvation is. One finds it 
expressed almost in so many words: Acts xv. 11, We believe that through 
the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved." It is fitly placed 
after the former, for it cannot go before it, but follows upon it. The 
former is a believing of God, or believing the Son : this is a believing 
on the Son, and so is the same with receiving of Christ, as that receiving is 
explained ; John i. 12, " But as many as received him, to them gave he 
power to Ijecome the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name." 
It doth also evidently bear the soul's resting on Christ for salvation ; for it is 
not possible to conceive a soul resting on Christ for salvation, without a 
persuasion that it shall have life and salvation by him ; namely, a persuasion 
which is of the same measure and degree as the resting is. And thus it appears, 
that there can be no saving faith without this persuasion in greater 
or lesser measure. But withal, it is to be remembered, as to what concerns 
the habit, actings, exercise, strength, weakness, and intermitting of 
the exercise of saving faith, the same is to be said of this persuasion in all 
points. 

3. " That whatsoever Christ did for the redemption of mankind, he did 
it for you." — " I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and 
gave himself for me," Gal. ii. 20. This comes in the last place; and I 
think none will question, but whosoever believes in the manner before 
explained, may and ought to believe this, in this order. And it is believed, 
if not explicitly, yet virtually, by all who receive and rest on Christ for sal- 
vation. 

From what is said, it appears that this definition of faith is the same, 
for substance and matter, though in difierent words, with that of the 
Shorter Catechism, which defines it, by " receiving and resting upon Christ 
alone for salvation, as he is ofieied to us in the gospel." In which, 
though the offer to us is mentioned last, yet it is evident it is to be believed 
first. 

Object. But the author's definition makes assurance to be of the essence of 
faith ? 

Answ. Be it so ; however, he uses not the word assurance or assured 
in his definition ; nor will anything contained in it amount to the idea 



MODERN DIVINITY. 121 

now commonly affixed to that word, or to what is now in our days com- 
monly understood by assurance. And, (1.) He doth not here teach that 
assurance of faith whereby believers are certainly assured that they are 
in the state of grace, the which is founded upon the evidence of grace, of 
which kind of assurance the Westminster Confession expressly treats, 
chap. 18, art. 1 — 3 ; but an assurance which is in faith, in the direct acts 
thereof, founded upon the word allenarly, Mark xvi. 15, 16 ; John iii. 16 ; 
and this is nothing else but a fiducial appropriating persuasion. (2.) He 
doth not determine this assurance or persuasion to be full, or to exclude 
doubting : he says not, be fully persuaded, but, be verily persuaded, which 
speaks only the reality of the persuasion, and doth not at all concern the 
degree of it. And it is manifest, from his distinguishing between faith of 
adherence, and faith of evidence, (p. 99,) that, according to him, saving faith 
may be without evidence. And so one may have this assurance or per- 
suasion, and yet not know assuredly that he hath it, but need marks to 
discover it by ; for though a man cannot but be conscious of an act of his 
own soul as to the substance of the act, yet he may be in the dark as to 
the specifical nature of it, than which nothing is more ordinary among 
serious Christians. And thus, as a real saint is conscious of his own 
heart's moving in afifection towards God, yet sometimes doth not as- 
suredly know it to be the true love of God in him, but fears it to be an 
hypocritical flash of affection ; so he may be conscious of his persuasion, and 
yet doubt if it is the true persuasion of faith, and not that of the 
hypocrite. 

This notion of assurance, or persuasion in faith, is so agreeable to the nature 
of the thing called believing, and to the style of the holy Scriptiire, that some- 
times where the original text reads faith or believing, we read, assurance, ac- 
cording to the genuine sense of the original phrase ; Acts xvii. 31, " Whereof 
he hath given assurance ;" orig. " faith," as is noted in the margin of our 
Bibles. Deut. xxviii. 66, *' Thou shalt have none assurance of thy life ;" orig. 
" Thou shalt not believe in thy life." This observation shows, that to believe, 
in the style of the holy Scripture, as well as in the common usage of mankind 
in all other matters, is to be assured or persuaded, namely, according to the 
measure of one's believing. 

And the doctrine of assurance, or an appropriating persuasion in saving 
faith, as it is the doctrine of the holy Scripture, Rom. x. 9 ; Acts xv. 11 ; 
Gal. ii. 20, so it is a Protestant doctrine, taught by Protestant divines against 
the Papists, and sealed with the blood of martyrs in Popish flames ; it is the 
doctrine of Reformed churches abroad, and the doctrine of the Church of 
Scotland. 

The nature of this work will not allow multiplying of testimonies on all 
these heads. Upon the first, it shall suffice to adduce the testimony of 
Essenius, in his Compendium Theologian, the system of divinity taught 
the students in the College of Edinburgh, by Professor Campbell. " There 
is, therefore," says he, " in saving faith, a special application of gospel 
benefits. This is proved against the Papists, (1.) From the profession of 
believers, Gal. ii. 20, * I live by that faith of the Son of God, who loved 
me, and gave himself for me.' — Psalm xxiii. l,<The Lord is my shepherd, 
I shall not want ; in cotes of budding grass he makes me to lie down, &c. 
Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will not fear 
evil ; for thou art with me,' &c. And Job xix. 25 ; Phil. i. 21—23 ; 
Rom. viii. 33—39, x. 9, 10 ; 2 Cor. v. 1—6, with 2 Cor. iv. 13, &c." 
Essen. Comp. Theol. chap. ii. sect. 12. And speaking of the method of 
faith, he says, it is " 4. That according to the promises of the gospel, out 

11 



122 THE MARKOW OF 

of that spiritual desire, the Holy Spirit also bearing witness in ns, we ac- 
knowledge Christ to be our Saviour, and so receive and apply him, every 
one to ourselves, apprehending him again, who first apprehended us, 
2 Cor. iv. 13; Kom. viii. 16 ; John i. 12 ; 2 Tim. i. 12 ; Gal. ii. 20 ; Phil, 
iii. 12. The which is the formal act of saving faith. 5. Furthermore, 
that we acknowledge ourselves to be in communion with Christ, par- 
takers of all and every one of his benefits. Tlie which is the latter act of 
saving faith, yet also a proper and elicit act of it. 7. That we observe all 
these acts above mentioned, and the sincerity of them in us ; and thence 
gather, that we are true believers, brought into the state of grace," 
&c. Ibid. sect. 21. Observe here the two kinds of assurance before distin- 
guished. 

Peter Brulie, burnt at Tournay, anno 1545, when he was sent for out of 
prison to be examined, the friai-s interrogating him before the magistrate, he 
answered, — "How it is faith that bringeth unto us salvation; that is, 
when we trust unto God's promises, and believe steadfastly, that for Christ his 
Son's sake our sins are forgiven us." Sleid. Comment, in English book 16, fol. 
217. 

Mr. Patrick Hamilton, burnt at St. Andrews about the year 1527. " Faith," 
says he, " is a sureness ; faith is a sure confidence of things which are hoped 
for, and a certainty of things which are not seen. The faith of Christ is to 
believe in him, that is, to believe in his word, and to believe that he will help 
thee in all thy need, and deliver thee from all evil." Mr. Patrick's Articles, 
Knox's History, 4to. p. 9. 

For the doctrine of foreign churches on this point, I shall instance only in 
that of the Church of Holland, and the Reformed Church of France ; " Q. 
What is a sincere faith ? A. It is a sure knowledge of God and his promises 
revealed to us in the gospel, and a hearty confidence that all my sins are for- 
given me for Christ's sake." Dutch Brief Compend. of Christian Religion, 
Vra. 19, bound up with the Dutch Bible. 

" Minister. Since we have the foundation upon which the faith is grounded, 
can we rightly from thence conclude what the true faith is ? Child. Yes ; 
namely, a certain and steady knowledge of the love of God towards us, 
according as, by his gospel, he declares himself to be our Father and Saviour, 
by the means of Jesus Christ." Catechism of the Reformed Church of 
France, bound up with the French Bible, Dimanche 18. To obviate 
a common prejudice, whereby this is taken for an easy effort of fancy and 
imagination, it will not be amiss to subjoin the question immediately following 
there. 

*' M. Can we have it of ourselves, or cometh it from God ? C. The Scrip- 
ture teacheth us that it is a singular gift of the Holy Spirit, and experience 
also showeth it." Ibid. 

Follows the doctrine of the Church of Scotland on this head. 

" Regeneration is wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost, working in the 
hearts of the elect of God an assured faith in the promise of God, revealed to 
us in his word ; by which faith we apprehend Christ Jesus, with the graces 
and benefits promised in him." Old Confess, art. 3. 

" This our faith, and the assurance of the same, proceeds not from flesh and 
blood, that is to say, from no natural powers within us, but is the inspira- 
tion of the Holy Ghost." Ibid. art. 12. 

For the better understanding of this, take the words of that eminent 
servant of Christ, Mr. John Davidson, minister of Salt-Preston, alias 
Preston-Pans (of whom see the fulfilling of the Scripture, p. 361,) in his 
Catechism, p. 20, as follows : " And certain it is, that both the enlight- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 123 

ening of the mind to acknowledge the truth of the promise of salvation 
to us in Christ, and the sealing up of the certainty thereof in our hearts 
and minds, (of the which two parts, as it were, faith consists,) are the 
works and effects of the Spirit of Godj and neither of nature nor art." 

The Old Confession above mentioned is, " The Confession of Faith, pro- 
fessed and believed by the Protestants within the realm of Scotland, pub- 
lished by them in Parliament, and by the estates thereof ratified and 
approved, as wholesome and sound doctrine, grounded upon the infallible 
truth of God," Knox's Hist. lib. 3. p. 263. It was ratified at Edinburgh, 
July 17, 1560, Ibid. p. 279. And this is the Confession of our Faith, 
mentioned and sworn to in the national covenant, framed about twenty 
years after it. 

In the same national covenant, with relation to this particular head of 
doctrine, we have these words following, viz : " We detest and refuse the 
usurped authority of that Roman antichrist — his general and doubtsome 
faith." However the general and doubtsome faith of the Papists may be 
clouded, one may, without much ado, draw these two plain conclusions 
from these words : 1. That since the Popish faith abjured is a doubtsome 
faith, the Protestant faith, sworn to be maintained, is an assured faith, 
as we heard before from the Old Confession, to which the covenant refers. 
2. That since the Popish faith is a general one, the Protestant faith must 
needs be an appropriating persuasion, or a faith of special application, 
which, we heard already from Essenius, the Papists do deny. As for a 
belief and persuasion of the mercy of God in Christ, and of Christ's 
ability and willingness to save all that come unto him, as it is altogether 
general, and hath nothing of appropriation or special application in it, 
so I doubt if the Papists will refuse it. Sure, the Council of Trent, 
which fixed and established the abominations of Popery, affirms that no 
pious man ought to doubt of the mercy of God, of the merit of Christ, nor 
of the virtue and efficacy of the sacraments." Concil. Trid. cap. 9. I 
hope none will think the council allows impious men to doubt of these ; 
but withal they tell us, " It is not to be affirmed, that no man is ab- 
solved from sin and justified, but he who assuredly believes, that he him- 
self is absolved and justified." Here they overturn the assurance and 
appropriation, or special application of saving faith maintained by the 
Protestants ; and they thunder their anathemas against those who hold 
these in opposition to their general and doubtsome faith. " If any shall 
say, that justifying faith is nothing else but a confidence of the mercy of 
God pardoning sins for Christ's sake, or that confidence is it alone by 
which they are justified, let him be accursed." Ibid. cap. 13, can. 12. "If 
any shall say, that a man is absolved from sin, and justified by that, that 
he assuredly believes himself to be absolved and justified, let him be 
accursed." Ibid. can. 14. 

Moreover, in the national covenant, as it was renewed in the years 
1638 and 1639, mention is made of public catechisms, in which the true 
religion is expressed in the Confession of Faith (there) above written, 
{i. e.. the national covenant, otherwise called the Confession of Faith,) 
and former Large Confession, (viz : the Old Confession,) is said to be set 
down. The doctrine on this head, contained in these catechisms, is here 
subjoined. 

" M. Which is the first point ? C. To put our whole confidence in 
God. M. How may that be? C. When we have assured knowledge 
that he is almighty, and perfectly good. M. And is that sufficient? C. 
No. M. What is then further required ? C. That every one of us be 



124 THE MAKROW OF 

fully assured in his conscience, that he is beloved of God, and that he 
will be both his Father and Saviour." Calvin's Cat. used by the Kirk of 
Scotland, and approved by the First Book of Discipline, quest. 8 — 12. 
This is the catechism of the Eeformed Church of France, mentioned 
before. " 31. Since we have the foundation whereupon our faith is 
builded, we may well gather hereof what is the right faith? C. Yea, 
verily ; that is to say, it is a sure persuasion and steadfast knowledge of 
God's tender love towards us, according as he hath plainly uttered in his gospel, 
that he will be both a Father and a Saviour unto us, through the means of 
Jesus Christ." Ibid, quest. 111. 

"31. By what means may we attain unto him there? C. By faith, 
which God's Spirit worketh in our hearts, assuring us of God's promises 
made to us in his holy gospel." The manner to examine children before 
they be admitted to the supper of the Lord, quest. 16. This is called 
the Little Catechism, Assembly 1592, sess. 10. " Q. What is true faith ? 
A. It is not only a knowledge, by which I do steadfastly assent to all 
things which God hath revealed unto us in his word ; but also an 
assured affiance, kindled in my heart by the Holy Ghost, by which I rest 
upon God, making sure account, that forgiveness of sins, everlasting 
righteousness, and life, are bestowed, not only upon others, but also upon 
me, and that freely Ijy the mercy of God, for the merit and desert of 
Christ alone." The Palatine Catechism, printed by public authority, for 
the use of Scotland. This famous Catechism is used in most of the 
Eeformed Churches and schools ; particularly in the Eeformed Churches 
of the Netherlands, and is bound up with the Dutch Bible. "As for 
the Church of Scotland, the Palatine Catechism," says Mr. Wodrow, in the 
dedication to his History, " was adopted by us, till we had the happiness 
to join with the venerable Assembly at Westminster. Then indeed it gave 
place to the Larger and Shorter Catechisms in the C&urch : nevertheless it 
continued to be taught in grammar schools." 

" Q. What thing is faith in Christ ? J. A sure persuasion that he is the 
only Saviour of the world, but ours in special, who believe in him." Craig's 
Catechism, approved by the General Assembly, 1592. 

To these may be added the three following testimonies. " Q. What is 
faith ? A. When I am persuaded that God loves me and all his saints, and 
freely giveth us Christ, with all his benefits." Summula Catechismi, still 
annexed to the Eudiments of the Latin tongue, and taught in grammar schools 
to this day, [1726,] since the Eeformation. 

" What is thy faith ? My sure belief that God both may and will save me 
in the blood of Jesus Christ, because he is almighty, and has promised so to 
do," Mr. James Melvil's Catechism, in his Propine of a Pastor to his People, 
p. 44, published in the year 1598. 

" Q. What is this faith, that is the only instrument of this strait con- 
junction between Christ crucified and us? A. It is the sure persuasion 
of the heart, that Christ by his death and resurrection hath taken away 
our sins, and, clothing us with his own righteousness, has thoroughly re- 
stored us to the favour of God." Mr. John Davidson's Catechism, 
p. 46. 

In the same national covenant, as it was renewed, 1638 and 1639, is 
expressed an agreement and resolution to labour to recover the purity of 
the gospel as it was established and professed before the (there) fore- 
said novations ; the which, in the time of Prelacy, then cast out, had 
been corrupted by a set of men in Scotland addicted to the faction of 
Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. In the year 1640, Mr. Eobert Baily, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 125 

then minister of Kilwinning, afterwards one of the Commissioners from 
Scotland to the Westminster Assembly, wrote against that faction, 
proving them guilty of Popery, Armiuianism, <fec. ; and on the head of 
Popery, thus represents their doctrine concerning the nature of faith, 
viz : " That faith is only a bare assent, and requires no application, no 
personal confidence ; and that that personal application is mere pre- 
sumption, and the fiction of a crazy brain." Hist, Motuum in Regno 
Scotiae, p. 517. 

Thus, as above declared, stood the doctrine of the Church of Scotland, 
in this point, in her confessions, and in public catechisms, confirmed by 
the renewing of the national covenant, when, in the year 1643, it was 
anew confirmed by the fii-st article of the Solemn League and Covenant, 
binding to (not the Reformation, but) the preservation of the Reformed 
Religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, &c., and that before the 
Westminster Confession, Larger and Shorter Catechisms, were in being. 

When the Westminster Confession was received, anno 1647, and the 
Larger and Shorter Catechisms, anno 1648, the General Assembly did, 
in their three acts, respectively approving them, expressly declare them to be 
in nothing contrary to the received doctrine of this Kirk. And put the case 
they were contrary thereto in any point, they could not in that point be 
reckoned the judgment of the Church of Scotland, since they were received by 
her, as in nothing contrary to previous standards of doctrine, to which she 
stands bound by the covenants aforesaid. But the truth is, the doctrine is the 
same in them all. 

. " This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong ; growing in many to the 
attainment of a full assurance." AVestm. Confess, chap. 14, art. 3. Now, how 
faith can grow in any to a full assurance, if there be no assurance in the nature 
of it, I cannot comprehend. 

" Faith justifies a sinner — only as it is an instrument, by which he receiveth 
and applieth Christ and his righteousness." Larg. Cat. Q. 73. — " By faith 
they receive and applv unto themselves Christ crucified, and all the benefits of 
his death." Ihid. Q.''l70. 

"Q. When do we by faith receive and apply to ourselves the body of 
Christ crucified ? A. While we are persuaded, that the death and cruci- 
fixion of Christ do no less belong to us, than if we ourselves had been 
crucified for our own sins ; now this persuasion is that of true faith." Sum. 
Catech. 

" Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest 
upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel." Short. 
Cat. 

Now, to perceive the entire harmony betwixt this and the old defini- 
tions of faith, compare with it, as to the receiving therein mentioned, 
the definition above cited from the Old Confession, art. 3. viz : " An as- 
sured faith in the promise by which they apprehend Christ," &c. Mr. 
John Davidson joins them thus : " Q. What is faith ? A. It is an hearty 
assurance, that our sins are freely forgiven us in Christ. Or after this 
manner : It is the hearty receiving of Christ offered in the preaching of 
the word and sacraments, by the working of the Holy Spirit, for the re- 
mission of sins, whereby he becomes one with us, and we one with him, 
he our head, and we his members." Mr. John Davidson's Catechism, 
p. 24. As to the resting mentioned in the Westminster definition, com- 
pare the definition above cited from the Palatine Catechism, viz : " A 
sure confidence whereby I rest in God, assuredly concluding, that to 
me is given forgiveness," &c., quest. 21. See also Larger Catechism, 
11* 



126 THE MAEROW OF 

Sect. 3. — Keo. But, sir, hath such a one as I any warrant 
to believe in Christ ? 

Evan. I beseech you consider, that God the Father, as he 
is in his Son Jesus Christ, moved with nothing but with 
his free love to mankind lost, hath made a deed of gift and 
grant unto them all, that whosoever of them all shall believe 
in this his Son, shall not perish, but have eternal life * And 

quest. last. " We by faith are emboldened to plead with him that he 
would, and quietly to rely upon him that he will, fulfil our request ; and 
to testify this our desire and assurance, we say. Amen.'' In which words, 
it is manifest, that quietly to rely upon him that he will, &c. (the same 
with resting on him for, &c.) is assurance in the sense of the Westminster 
divines. 

* Mr. Cuherwell's words, here cited, stand thus at lar<re : " The mat- 
ter to be believed unto salvation is this, that God the Father, moved by 
nothing but his free love to mankind lost, hath made a deed of gift and 
grant of his son Christ Jesus unto mankind, that Avhosoever of all man- 
kind shall receive this gift by a true and lively faith, he shall not perish, 
but have everlasting life." Dr. Gouge, in his preface to this treatise of that 
author, has these remarkable words concerning him, " Never any took such 
pains to so good purpose, in and about the foundation of faith, as he hath 
done." 

This deed of gift and grant, or authentic gospel-offer (of which see the 
preceding note) is expressed in so many words, John iii. 16, " For God 
so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." Where 
the gospel comes, this grant is published, and the ministerial offer made 
and there is no exception of any of all mankind in the grant. If there 
was, no ministerial offer of Christ could be warrantably made to the party 
excepted, more than to the fallen angels; and without question, the 
publishing and proclaiming of heaven's grant unto any, by way of minis- 
terial offer, pre supposeth the grant, in the first place, to be made to 
them : otherwise, it would be of no more value than a crier's offering of 
the king's pardon to one who is not comprehended in it. This is the good 
old way of discovering to sinners their warrant to believe in Christ ; and 
it doth indeed bear the sufficiency of the sacrifice of Christ for all, and 
that Christ crucified is the ordinance of God for salvation unto all man- 
kind, in the use-making of which only they can be saved ; but not an 
universal atonement or redemption. "What is thy faith? My sure 
belief that God both may and will save me, &c. Tell me the promise 
whereon thou leanest assuredly? 'Whosoever (says God) will believe in 
the death of my Son Jesus, shall not perish, but get eternal life.' " Mr. 
James Melvil's Cat. iihi sup. " He freely offereth unto sinneps life 
and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they 
may be saved." Mark xvi. 15, 16; John iii. 16; Westm. Confess, chap. 7. 
art. 3. "The visible Church hath the privilege of enjoying offers of 
grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, 
testifying that whosoever believes in him shall be saved." Larger Ca- 
techism, quest. 63. " This general offer, in substance, is equivalent to a 
special otier made to every one in particular, as appears by the apostle 
making use of it, Acts xvi. 31. The reason of which offer is given, John 



MODERN DIVINITY. 127 

hence it was, that Jesus Christ himself said unto his dis- 
ciples, Mark xvi. 15, " Go and preach the gospel to every 
creature under heaven :"* that is, Go and tell every man 
without exception, that here is good news for him ; Christ 
is dead for him ; and if he will take him, and accept of his 
righteousness, he shall have him.f Therefore, says a godly 

iii. 16." Pract. Use of Sav. Knowledge ; Conf. p. 380. The Synod of 
Dort may be heard without prejudice on this head. " It is the promise 
of the gospel [say they,] that whosoever believeth in Christ crucified 
should not perish, but have life everlasting ; which promise, together with the 
injunction of repentance and faith, ought promiscuously, and without dis- 
tinction, to be declared, and published to all men and people, to whom God in 
his good pleasure sends the gospel," chap. 2, art. 5. But forasmuch as 
many, being called by the gospel, do not repent nor believe in Christ, but 
perish in their infidelity, this comes not to pass for want of, or by any insuffi- 
ciency of, the sacrifice of Christ offered upon the cross, but by their own d^ 
fault," art. 6. 

* That is, from this deed of gift and grant it was that the ministerial oflfer 
was appointed to be made in the most extensive terms. 

fThat the reader may have a more clear view of this passage, which 
is taken from Dr. Preston's Treatise of Faith, I shall transcribe the whole 
paragraph in which it is found. That eminent divine, speaking of that 
righteousness by which alone we can J3e saved, and having shown that it 
is communicated by gift, says, " But when you hear this righteousness is 
given, the next question will be, to whom is it given ? If it be only given 
to some, what comfort is this to me? But [which is the ground of all 
comfort,] it is given to every man, — there is not a man excepted ; for 
Avhich we have the sure word of God, which will not fail. AVhen you 
have the charter of a king well confirmed, you reckon it a matter of great 
moment : what is it then when you have the charter of God himself? 
which you shall evidently see in those two places, Mark xvi. 15, * Go and 
preach the gospel to every creature under heaven ;' What is that ? Go 
and tell every man, without exception, that here is good news for him ; 
Christ is dead for him ; and if he will take him, and accept of his right- 
teousness, he shall have it ; restraint is not ; but go tell every man under 
heaven. The other text is, Rev. xxii. 17, * Whosoever will, let him 
come, and take of the water of life freely.' There is a quicunqiie vult, 
whosoever will come (none excepted) may have life, and it shall cost 
him nothing. Many other places of Scripture there be to prove the 
generality of the offer ; and having a sure word for it, consider it," p. 7, 8. 
The words ' under heaven' are taken from Col. i. 23. The scope here 
is the same ^vith that of our author, not to determine concerning the ex- 
tent of Christ 's death, but to discover the warrant sinners have to believe 
in Christ, namely, that the offer of Christ is general, the deed of gift or 
grant is to every man. This necessarily supposeth Christ crucified to be 
the ordinance of God for salvation, to which lost mankind is allowed 
access, and not fallen angels, for whom there is none provided : even as 
the city of refuge was the ordinance of God for the safety of the man- 
slayer, who had killed any person unawares. Numb. xxxv. 16 ; and the 
brazen serpent for the cure of those bitten by a serpent, chap. xxi. 8. 
Therefore he says not, ' Tell every man Christ died for him ;' but, Tell 
every man * Christ is dead for him ;' that is, for him to come to, and 



128 THE MARROW OF 

writer, "Forasmucli as tbe holy Scripture speaketh to all 
iu general, none of us ought to distrust himself, but believe 

believe on ; a Saviour is provided for him ; there is a crucified Christ for 
him, the ordinance of heaven for salvation for lost man, in the use-making 
of which he may be saved ; even as one had said of old, Tell every man 
that hath slain any person unawares, that the city of refuge is prepared 
for him, namely, to flee to, that he may be safe ; and every one bitten 
by a serpent, that the brazen serpent is set up on a pole for him, 
namely, to look unto, that he may be healed. Both these were eminent 
types of Christ ; and upon the latter, the Scripture is full and clear in this 
very point. Numb. xxi. 8, ' And the Lord said unto Moses, make thee a 
fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole ; and it shall come to pass, that 
EVERY ONE that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live.' — John iii. 14 — 
16, ' And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the son 
of man be lifted up ; that whosoever believeth on him should not perish but 
have eternal life.' * For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begot- 
ten Son, that whosoever,' " &c. 

Thus, what (according to Dr. Preston and our author) is to be told 
every man, is no more than what ministers of the gospel have in commission 
from their great Master, Matt. xxii. 4, " Tell them which are bidden. Behold, 
I have prepared my dinner : my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things 
are ready, come unto the marriage." There is a crucified Saviour, with all 
saving benefits, for them to come to, feed upon, and partake of freely. See also 
Luke ii. 30, 31 ; Prov. ix. 2—4 ; Isa. xxv. 6. 

To confirm this to be the true and designed sense of the phrase in 
question, compare the following three passages, of the same treatise, 
giving the import of the same text, Mark xvi, " Christ hath provided a 
righteousness and salvation, that is, his work that he hath done already. 
Now, if ye will believe, and take him upon these terms that he is offered, 
you shall be saved. This, I say, belongs to all men. This you have ex- 
pressed in the gospel in many places : * If you believe you shall be saved :' 
as it is, Mark xvi, ' Go and preach the gospel to every creature under 
heaven ; he that will believe shall be saved.' " Preston on Faith, p. 32. 
"You must first have Christ himself, before you can partake of those 
benefits by him : and that I take to be the meaning of that in Mark xvi, 
* Go preach the gospel to every creature under heaven ; he that believeth 
and is baptized, shall be saved ;' that is, he that will believe, that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh, and that he is ofi*ered to mankind for a Saviour, 
and will be baptized ; that will give up himself to him, that will take his mark 
upon him, shall be saved." Ibid. p. 46. " Go and preach the gospel 
to every creature ; go and tell every man under heaven, that Christ is ofl'ered 
to him, he is freely given to him by God the Father ; and there is nothing re- 
quired of you but that you marry him, nothing but to accept of him." Ibid, 
p. 75. 

Thus, it appears, that universal atonement, or redemption, is not taught here, 
neither by our author. But that the candid reader may be satisfied as to his 
sentiments touching the question, — " for whom Christ died ?" let him weigh 
these two things : 

1. Our author puts a man's being persuaded that Christ died for him 
in particular, in the definition of saving faith, and that as the last and 
highest step of it. But Arminians, and other Universalists, might as well 
put there a man's being persuaded that he was created, or is preserved by 
Jesus Christ ; since in being persuaded that Christ died for him, he applies 



MODERN DIVINITY. 129 

no more to himself than what, according to their principles, is common to 
all mankind, as in the case of creation and preservation. Hear Grotins 
upon this head : " Some," says he, " have here interpreted faith to be 
persuasion, whereby a man believes that Jesus died for him in particular, 
and to purchase salvation all manner of ways for him, or (what with 
them is the same thing) that he is elected ; when, on the contrary, Paul 
in many places teacheth, ' that Christ died for all men ;' and such a faith 
as they talk of, has not in it anything true or profitable." Grotins apud 
Pol. Synop. Those whom this learned adversary here taxes, are Protes- 
tant anti-Arminian divines. Those were they who defined faith by such 
a persuasion, and not the Universalists. On the contrary, he argues 
against that definition of faith from the doctrine of universal atonement 
or redemption. He rejects that definition of it, as in his opinion having 
nothing in it true, namely, according to the principles of those who gave 
it, viz : that Christ died, not for all and every man in particular, but for 
the elect only, and as having nothing in it profitable ; that being, according to 
his principles, the common privilege of all mankind. 

2. He teaches plainly throughout the book, that they were the elect, 
the chosen, or believers, whom Christ represented, and obeyed, and suf- 
fered for. See among others, pages 22, 23, 54, 86. I shall repeat only 
two passages ; the one, page 81 : " According to that eternal and mutual 
agreement "that was betwixt God the Father and him, he put himself in 
the room and place of all the faithful." The other in the first sentence 
of his own preface, viz : " Jesus Christ, the second Adam, did, as a com- 
mon person, enter into covenant with God his Father for all the elect, 
(that is to say, all those that have or shall believe on his name,) and for 
them kept it." What can be more plain than that, in the judgment of 
our author, they were the elect whom Jesus Christ, the second Adam, 
entered into covenant with God for ; that it was in the elect's room he 
put himself when he came actually to obey and suffer, and that it was 
for the elect he kept that covenant, by doing and suffering what was re- 
quired of hun as our Kedeemer ? As for the description, or character he 
gives of the elect, viz : that by the elect he understands all that have or 
shall believe in it, he follows our Lord himself, John xvii. 20, " Neither 
pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me ;" and 
so doing, he is accompanied with orthodox divines. " Thus did the sins 
of all God's elect, or all true believers," (for of such, and only such, he 
there, viz : Isa. liii. 6, speaks,) meet together upon the head of their com- 
mon surety, the Lord Christ," Brinsley's Mesites, p. 64. " The Father 
is well satisfied with the undertakings of the Son, who entered Redeemer 
and Surety to pay the ransom of believers," Pract. Use of Saving Knowl. 
tit. 4. " The invisible church is the whole number of the elect that have 
been, are, or shall be gathered into one, under Christ the head," Larg. 
Cat. quest. 64. " Christ's church, wherein standeth only remission of 
sins, purchased by Christ's blood to all them that believe," The Confess. 
of Faith used in Geneva, approved by the Church of Scotland, sect. 4. 
sect. ult. But Arminians neither will nor can, in consistency with their 
principles touching election and the falling away of believers, admit that 
description or character of the elect, else they are widely mistaken by 
one of their own, who tells us that, " Upon the consideration of his [viz : 
Christ's] blood, as shed, he [viz : God] decreed, that all those who should 
believe in that Redeemer, and persevere in that faith, should, through 
mercy and grace, by him be made partakers of salvation," Exam, of Tilen. 
p. 131. '* Brought unto faith, and persevere therein ; this being the 



130 THE MAEROW OF 

that it doth belong particularly to himself.* And to the end, 
that this point, wherein lies and consists the whole mystery of 
our holy faith, may be understood the better, let us put the 
case, that some good and holy king should cause a proclama- 
tion to be made through his whole kingdom, by the sound of 
a trumpet, that all rebels and banished men shall safely return 
home to their houses : because that, at the suit and desert of 
some dear friend of theirs, it has pleased the king to pardon 
them ; certainly, none of these rebels ought to doubt, but that 
he shall obtain true pardon for his rebellion ; and so return 
home, and live under the shadow of that gracious king. Even 
so, our good King, the Lord of heaven and earth, has, for the 
obedience and desert of our good brother Jesus Christ, par- 
doned all our sins,t and made a proclamation throughout the 

condition required in every one that is to be elected unto eternal life," 
Ibid. p. 139. Behold the Arminian election : *' They do utterly deny 
that God did destine, by an absolute decree, to give Christ a Mediator 
only to the elect, and to give faith to them alone," Ibid. p. 149. As for 
Universalists, not Arminians, " They contend, that the decree of the 
death of Christ did go before the decree of election, and that God, in 
sending of Christ, had no respect unto some, more than others, but de- 
stined Christ for a Saviour to all men alike." This account of their prin- 
ciples is given us by Turretine, loc. 14, q. 14, th. 6. I leave it to the impartial 
reader to judge of the evident contrariety betwixt this and our author's words 
above repeated. 

* Namely, the deed of gift and grant, or the offer of Christ in the 
word, of which our author is all along speaking. And if there be any 
man to whom it doth not belong particularly, that man hath no warrant 
to believe on Jesus Christ : and whosoever pretends to believe on him, without 
believing that the grant or offer belongs to himself particularly, does but 
act presumptuously, as seeing no warrant he has to believe on Christ, whatever 
others may have. 

t So far as he hath made the deed of gift and grant, or authentic 
gospel-offer of the pardon of all our sins, as of all other saving benefits in 
Christ. Such a thing, among men, is called the king's pardon, though, 
in the mean time, none have the benefit of it but such as come in upon 
its being proclaimed, and accept of it ; and why may not it be called the 
King of heaven's pardon ? The holy Scripture warrants this manner of 
expression. " And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal 
life," 1 John v. 11; in which life, without question, the pardon of all our 
sins is included : " Through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness 
of sins," Acts xiii. 38. The preaching of the gospel is* the proclaiming of 
pardon to condemned sinners. But pardon of sin cannot be preached or 
proclaimed, unless, in the first place, it be granted, even as the king's pardon 
must be, before one can proclaim it to the rebels. 

That this is all that is meant by pardon here, and not a formal per- 
sonal pardon, is evident from the whole strain of the author's discourse 
upon it. In the proposal of the simile, whereof this passage is the appli- 
cation, he tells us, that after it hath pleased the king (thus) to pardon the 
rebels, they ought not to doubt but they shall obtain pardon ; and in the 



MODERN DIVINITY. 131 

whole world,^ that every one of us may safely return to God in 
Jesus Christ : wherefore I beseech you make no doubt of it, 
but " draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith," 
Heb. X. 22.t 

Neo. Oh, but, sir, in this similitude the case is not alike. 
For when the earthly king sends forth such a proclamation, it may 
be thought that he indeed intends to pardon all ; but it can- 
not be thought that the King of heaven does so : for do not the 
Scriptures say, that " some men are ordained before to condem- 
nation?" Jude 4. And does not Christ himself say, that 
" many are called, but few are chosen ?" Matt. xxii. 14. And, 
therefore, it may be, I am one of them that are ordained to 
condemnation ; and, therefore, though I be called, I shall 
never be chosen, and so shall not be saved. 

Evan. I beseech you to consider, that although some men 
be ordained to condemnation, yet so long as the Lord has con 
cealed their names, and not set a mark of reprobation upon any 
man in particular, but offers the pardon generally to all, without 

following paragraph he brings in Neophytus objecting, that in such a case 
an earthly king doth indeed intend to pardon all, but the King of hea- 
ven doth not so ; the which Evangelista in his answer grants. So that, 
for all this general pardon, the formal personal pardon remains to be ob- 
tained by the sinner, namely, by his accepting of the pardon offered. And 
in the foresaid answer, he expounds the pardon in question, of the Lord's 
offering pardon generally to all. This, one would think, may well be 
admitted as the fruit of Christ's obedience and desert, without supposing 
an universal atonement or redemption. And to restrain it to any set of 
men whatsoever under heaven, is to restrain the authentic gospel-offer : of 
which before. 

* Col. i. 2 3 : " The gospel which ye have heard, and which was preached to 
every creature which is under heaven." 

f Make no doubt of the pardon offered, or of the proclamation, bear- 
ing, that every one of us may safely return to God in Christ ; but there- 
upon draw near to him in full assurance of faith. That there can be no 
saving faith, no acceptance with God, where there is any doubting, is 
what can hardly enter into the head of any sober Christian, if he is not 
under a grieyous temptation, in his own soul's case, nor is it in the least 
insinuated here. Nevertheless, the doubting mixed with faith is sin, and 
dishonoureth God, and believers have ground to be humbled for it, and 
ashamed of it, before the Lord ; and therefore the full assurance of faith 
is duty. The Papists indeed contend earnestly for doubting, and they know 
very very well, wherefore they so do ; for doubting being removed, and the 
assurance of faith in the promise of the gospel brought into its room, their 
market is marred, their gain by indulgences, masses, pilgrimages, &c., is gone, 
and the fire of purgatory extinguished. But, as Protestant divines prove 
against them, the holy Scripture condemns it. Matt. xiv. 31, " thou of little 
faith ! wherefore didst thou doubt ?" Luke xii. 29, " Neither be ye of doubt- 
ful mind." 1 Tim. ii. 8, " Lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubt- 
ing." 



132 THE MARROW OF 

having any respect either to election or reprobation, surely it is 
great folly in any man to say, It may be I am not elected, and 
therefore shall not have benefit by it ; and therefore I will not 
accept of it, nor come in :^ for it should rather move every 
man to give diligence " to make his calling and election sure," 
2 Pet. i. 10, by believing it, for fear we come short of it,f 
according to that of the apostle, " let us, therefore, fear, lest a 
promise being left us of entering into his rest, any of us should 
seem to come short of it," Heb. iv. 1. Wherefore, I beseech 
you, do not you say. It may be I am not elected, and therefore 
I will not believe in Christ ; but rather say, I do believe in 
Christ, and therefore I am sure I am elected.ij: And check 
your own heart for meddling with God's secrets, and prying 
into his hidden counsel, and go no more beyond your bounds^ 
as you have done, in this point : for election and reprobation 
is a secret ; and the Scripture tells us, " that secret things be- 
long unto God, but those things that are revealed belong unto 
us," Deut. xxix. 29. Now this is God's revealed will, for, in- 
deed, it is his express command, " That you should believe on 
the name of his Son," 1 John iii. 23 ; and it is his promise, 
" That if you believe, you shall not perish, but have everlast- 
ing life," John iii. 16. Wherefore, you having so good a 
warrant as God's command, and so great an encouragement 
as his promise, do your duty ;§ and by the doing thereof you 
may put it|| out of question, and be sure that you are also one 
of God's elect. Say, then, I beseech you, with a firm faith, 
The righteousness of Jesus Christ belongs to all that believe, 
but I believe,Tf and therefore it belongs to me. Yea, say with 
Paul, " I live by the faith of the Son of God who loved me, 

* Had the author once dreamt of an universal pardon, otherwise than that 
God offers the pardon generally to all, all this had been needless ; it would 
have furnished him with a short answer, viz : That God hath pardoned all 
already, 

f By believinof the offered pardon, with particular apph'cation to himself; 
without which one can never accept of it, but will undoubtedly come short 
of it. 

X Like that man mentioned Mark ix. 24, who at once did and said. 

g Believe on the name of Christ. 

II Namely, your believing-. 

^ This is what is commonly called the reflex act of faith, which presupposes, 
and here includes the direct act, namely, a man's doing of his duty, in obe- 
dience to the command to believe on Christ ; by reflecting on which, he may 
put it out of question that he is a believer, one of God's elect, and one of 
those for whom Christ died ; the which he insists upon in the following words, 
See the foregoing notej. This passage is taken out of Dr. Preston's Treatise 
of Faith, p. 8. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 133 

and gave himself for me," Gal. ii. 20. " He saw in me (says 
Luther on the text) nothing but wickedness, going astray, and 
fleeing from him. Yet this good Lord had mercy on me, and 
of his mere mercy he loved me, yea, so loved me, that he gave 
himself for me. Who is this me f Even I, wretched and 
damnable sinner, was so dearly beloved of the Son of-God that 
he gave himself for me." 

Oh ! print this word " me" in your heart, and apply it to 
your own self, not doubting but that you are one of those to 
whom this " me" belongs."^ 

Neo. But may such a vile and sinful wretch as I am be per- 
suaded that God commands me to believe, and that he hath 
made a promise to me ?t 

Evan. Why do you make a question, where there is none 
to be made? "Go," says Christ, "and preach the gospel to 
every creature under heaven," that is. Go tell every man with- 
out exception, whatsoever his sins be, whatsoever his rebellions 
be, go and tell him these glad tidings, that if he will come in, 
I will accept of him, his sins shall be forgiven him, and he 
shall be saved ; if he will come in and take me, and receive 
me, I will be his loving husband, and he shall be mine own 
dear spouse. Let me, therefore, say unto you, in the words 
of the apostle, " Kow, then, I as an ambassador for Christ, as 
though God did beseech you by me, I pray you, in Christ's 
stead, be ye reconciled unto God ; for he hath made him to be 
sin for you, who knew no sin, that ye might be made the 
righteousness of God in him," 2 Cor. v. 20, 21. 

Neo. But do you say, sir, that if I believe I shall be espoused 
unto Christ ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, shall you : for faith coupleth the soul 
with Christ, even as the spouse with her husband ; by which 
means Christ and the soul are made one : for as, in corporal 
marriage, man and wife are made one flesh, even so in this 
spiritual and mystical marriage, Christ and his spouse are 
made one spirit. And this marriage, of all others, is most per- 
fect, and absolutely accomplished between them ; for the mar- 
riage between man and wife is but a slender figure of this 

* " This manner of applying," says Luther, " is the very true force and power 
of faith." 

t He had told him, that for his warrant to believe on Christ, he had God's 
command, 1 John iii. 23. And for his encouragement, God's promise, 
John iii. 16. Thereupon this question is moved ; the particular application 
to oneself being a matter of no small difficulty in the experience of many 
who lay salvation to heart. 
12 



134 THE MARROW OF 

union ; wherefore, I beseecTi you to believe it, and then you 
shall be sure to enjoy it."^ 

Neo. But, sir, if David said, " Seemeth it to you a light 
thing to be an earthly king's son-in-law, seeing that I am a 
poor man and lightly esteemed ?" 1 Sam. xviii. 23 ; then 
surely I have much more cause to say, Seemeth it a light thing 
to be a heavenly King's daughter-in-law, seeing that I am 
such a poor sinful wretch ? Surely, sir, I cannot be persuaded 
to believe it. 

Evan, Alas ! man, how much are you mistaken ! for you 
look upon God, and upon yourself, with the eye of reason; 
and so as standing in relation to each other, according to the 
tenor of the covenant of works : whereas, you being now in 
the case of justification and reconciliation, you are to look both 
upon God and upon yourself with the eye of faith ; and so 
standing in relation to each other, according to the tenor of 
the covenant of grace. For, says the apostle, " God was in 
Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their 
sins unto them," 2 Cor. v. 19 ; as if he had said, Because as 
God stands in relation to man, according to the tenor of the 
covenant of works, and so out of Christ, he could not, without 
prejudice to his justice, be reconciled unto them, nor have any 
thing to do with them, otherwise than in wrath and indignation ; 
therefore to the intent that Justice and Mercy might meet 
together, and Kighteousness and Peace might embrace each 
other, and so God stand in relation to man, according to the 
tenor of the covenant of grace ; he put himself into his Son 
Jesus Christ, and shrouded himself there, that so he might 
speak peace to his people. Psalm Ixxxv. 8 — 10. Sweetly, 
says Luther, " Because the nature of God was otherwise 
higher than that we are able to attain unto it, therefore hath 
he humbled himself for us, and taken our nature upon him, 
and so put himself into Christ. Here he looketh for us, here 



* Believe the word of promise, the offer of the spiritual marriage, which is 
Christ's declared consent to be yours. Believe that it is made to you in 
particular, and that it shall be made out to you ; the which is, to embrace 
the offer, to receive Christ, as the evangelist teaches, John i. 12 ; [which 
was adverted to before ;] so shall you be indeed married or espoused to 
Christ. Thus the holy Scripture proposes this matter, Isa. Iv. 3, "Hear 
and your soul shall live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with 
you ;" to persuade us of the reality of the covenant betwixt Cod and the 
believer of his word, *' the Father hath made a fourfold gift," &c., Pract. 
Use of Sav. Knowl. tit. ; Warrant to Believe, fig. 7 ; Compare Isa. liii. 1 ; 
Heb. iv. 1, 2. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 135 

he will receive us ; and lie that seeketh him here shall find 
him."* " This," sajs God the Father, " is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased," Matt. iii. 17 ; whereupon the 
same Luther says in another place, " We must not think and 
persuade ourselves that this voice came from heaven for Christ's 
own sake, but for our sakes, even as Christ himself says, John 
xii. 30, 'This voice came not because of me, but for your 
sakes.' The truth is, Christ had no need that it should be 
said unto him, * This is my beloved Son,' he knew that from 
all eternity, and that he should still so remain, though these 
words had not been spoken from heaven ; therefore, by these 
words, God the Father, in Christ his Son, cheers the hearts of 
poor sinners, and greatly delights them with singular comfort 
and heavenly sweetness, assuring them, that whosoever is 
married unto Christ, and so in him by faith, he is as accept- 
able to God the Father as Christ himself;'!' according to that 
of the apostle, " He hath made us acceptable in his beloved," 
Eph. i. 6. Wherefore, if you would be acceptable to God, 
and be made his dear child, then by faith cleave unto his be- 
loved Son Christ, and hang about his neck, yea, and creep 
into his bosom ; and so shall the love and favour of God be 
as deeply insinuated into you as it is into Christ himself; and 
so shall God the Father, together with his beloved Son, wholly 



* An eminent type of this glorious mystery was that tabernacle so 
often mentioned in the Old Testament under the name of the tabernacle 
of the congregation, or rather the tabernacle of meeting, as the original 
word bears ; and the Lord himself seems to give the reason of the name, 
Exod. XXX. 36, " In the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will 
meet with thee ;" or, " in the tabernacle of meeting, where I will be met 
with by thee." — Chap, xxxiii. 7, " And it came to pass, that every one 
which sought the Lord, went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation," or 
meeting. 

f The acceptation, love, and the favour of God here treated of, do not re- 
fer to the real state of believers, but to the relative state, to their justifi- 
cation, reconciliation, and adoption : and so they have no respect to any 
qualities inherent in them, good or evil, to be increased by the one, or 
diminished by the other ; but they proceed purely upon the righteousness 
of Christ, which is theirs in virtue of their union with him, and is im- 
puted to them ; the which righteousness is the self-same righteousness 
wherewith Christ, as Mediator and Surety for elect sinners, pleased the 
Father. And therefore, says one, whom nobody suspects of Antino- 
mianism, " We are as perfectly righteous as Christ the Righteous," citing 
1 John iii. 7 : "He that doth righteousness is righteous, even as he is 
righteous," Isaac Ambrose's Media, chap. 1, sect. 2, p. 4. This I take to 
be the true meaning of these passages of our author and Isaac Ambrose, 
expressed in terms stronger than I would desire to use. There is a dan- 
ger in expressing concerning God even what is true. 



136 THE MARKOW OF 

possess you, and be possessed of you; and so God, and Christ, 
and you, shall become one entire thing, according to Christ's 
prayer, " that they may be one in us, as thou and I are one," 
John xvii. 21."^ 

And by this means you may have sufficient ground and 
warrant to say, (in the matter of reconciliation with God at 
any time, whensoever you are disputing with yourself, how 
God is to be found, that justifies and saves sinners,) I know 
no other God, neither will I know any other God, besides 
this God, that came down from heaven, and clothed himself 
with my flesh,t unto " whom all power is given, both in 

* The original word here rendered " one," indeed signifies " one thing." 
And it is evident from the text, that believers are united to God as well 
as to Christ. " Faith is that grace by which we are united to, and made 
one with, God and Christ," says the author of the Supplement to Poole's 
Annot. on the place. See 1 John iv. 16 ; 2 Cor. iv. 16, compared with 
Eph. iii. 17. And whosoever owns Jesus Christ to be one with the Father, 
must needs grant this, or else deny believers to be united to Christ. This 
derogates nothing from the prerogative of our Lord Jesus, who is one 
with the Father ; for he is one with him, as the Holy Ghost also is, by 
the adorable substantial union ; but believers are so only by mystical 
union. Neither does it intrench upon God's supremacy, more than their con- 
fessed union with Christ does ; who, notwithstanding of believers' union with 
him, remains to be, with the Father and Holy Spirit, the only supreme, and 
most high God. 

" Whosoever, therefore, cleaveth to Christ through faith, he abideth in 
the favour of God, he also shall be made beloved and acceptable as Christ 
is, and shall have fellowship with the Father and the Son." Luther's 
Chosen Sermons, Sermon of the Appearing of Christ, p. 23. " Here I 
will abide in the arms of Christ, cleaving inseparably about his neck, and 
creeping into his bosom, whatsoever the law shall say, and my heart shall 
feel," Ibid. Sermon of the Lost Sheep, p. 81. " Seeing, therefore, that 
Christ, the beloved Son, being in so great favour with God in all things 
that he does, is thine ; without doubt, thou art in the same favour and 
love of God that Christ himself is in." And again, " the favour and love 
of God are insinuated to thee as deeply as to Christ, that now God, together 
with his beloved Son, does wholly possess thee, and thou hast him again 
wholly ; that so God, Christ, and thou, do become as one certain thing, — that 
they may be one in us, as thou and I are one, John xvii." Ibid. Sermon of the 
Appearing of Christ, p. 25. 

f Luther, from whom this is taken, in the place quoted by our author, 
confirms it thus ; " For he that is a searcher of God's majesty, shall be 
overwhelmed of his glory. I know [adds he] by experience, what I say. 
But these vain spirits, which so deal with God, that they exclude the 
Mediator, do not believe me." And on Psalm cxxx, he has these re- 
markable words, " Ego saepe, et libenter hoc inculco, ut extra Christum, 
oculos et anres claudatis, et dicatis nullum vos scire Deum nisi qui fuit 
in gremio Maria^ et suxit ubera ejus :" that is, " Often and willingly do 
I inculcate this, that you should shut your eyes and your ears, and say, 
you know no God out of Christ, none but him that was in the lap of- 



'^ MODERN DIVINITY. 137 

heaven and in earth," who is my judge; "for the Father 
judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the 
Son," John v. 22. So that Christ may do with me whatso- 
ever he liketh, and determine of me according to his own 
mind ; and I am sure he hath said, " he came not to judge the 
world but to save the world," John xii. 47. And therefore I 
do believe that he will save me."^ 

Neo. Indeed, sir, if I were so holy and so righteous as some 
men are, and had such power over my sins and corruptions 
as some men have, then I could easily believe it ; but, alas I 
1 am so sinful and so unworthy a wretch, that I dare not pre- 
sume to believe that Christ will accept of me, so as to justify 
and save me. 

Evan. Alas I man, in thus saying, you seem to contradict 
and gainsay both the apostle Paul, and our Lord Jesus 
Christ himself ; and that against your own soul : for whereas 
the apostle Paul says, " that Christ Jesus came into the world 
to save sinners," 1 Tim. i. 15, and doth justify the ungodly, 
Eom. iv. 5, why, you seenj to hold, and do in effect say, that 
Christ Jesus came into the world to save the righteous, and 
to justify the godly. And whereas our Saviour says, the 
whole need not a physician, but the sick ; and that he came 
not to call the righteous but sinners to repentance. Matt. ix. 
12 ; why, you seem to hold, and do in effect say, that the 
sick need not a physician, but the whole : and that he came, 
not to call sinners, but the righteous to repentance. And in- 
deed, in so saying, you seem to conceive, that Christ's spouse 
must be purified, washed, and cleansed from all her filthi- 
ness, and adorned with a rich robe of righteousness, before 
he will accept of her ; whereas he himself said unto her, 
Ezek. xvi. 4 — 8, " As for thy nativity, in the day that thou 
wast born, thy navel was not cut, neither wast thou washed 
with water to supple thee; thou wast not swaddled at all, 
nor salted at all. No eye pitied thee to do any of these things 
unto thee ; but when I passed by thee, and looked upon thee, 
behold thy time was a time of love. And I spread my skirt 
over thee, and covered thy nakedness ; yea, and I sware unto 

Mary, and suckled her breasts." He means none out of him. Burroughs on 
Hos. iii. 5. p. 729. 

* This js the conclusion of that, which one, " by faith cleaving unto Christ, 
and hanging about his neck," has by that means warrant to say, according to 
our author. Whether or not there is sufficient warrant for it, according to the 
Scripture, let the reader judge : what shadow of the doctrine of universal 
atonement, or universal pardon, is in it, I see not 
12* 



138 THE MARROW OF 

thee, and entered into covenant with thee, and thou becamest 
mine." — Hos. ii. 19, " And I will marry thee unto me for ever; 
yea, I will marry thee unto me in righteousness, and in judg- 
ment, and in mercy, and compassion." 

Wherefore,! beseech you, revoke this your erroneous opinion, 
and contradict the word of truth no longer ; but conclude for 
a certainty, that it is not the righteous and godly man, but 
the sinful and ungodly man,* that Christ came to call, justify, 
and save : so that if you were a righteous and godly man, you 
were neither capable of calling, justifying, or saving by Christ ; 
but being a sinful and ungodly man, I will be bold to say unto 
you as the people said unto blind Bartimeus, Mark x. 49, 
" Be of good comfort ; arise, he calleth thee," and will justify 
and save thee.f Go then unto him, I beseech you ; and if he 
come and meet thee, (as his manner is,) then do not yon un- 
advisedly say, with Peter, " Depart from me, for I am a sinful 
man, Lord !" Luke v. 8 ; but say, in plain terms, O come 
nnto me ; for I am a sinful man, Lord ! Yea, go on fur- 
ther, and say, as Luther bids you, ^ost gracious Jesus and 
sweet Christ, I am a miserable, poor sinner, and, therefore, 
do judge myself unworthy of thy grace ; but yet I, having 
learned from thy word that thy salvation belongs unto such a 
one, therefore do I come unto thee, to claim that right which, 
through thy gracious promise, belongs unto me.:j: Assure 
yourself, man, that Jesus Christ requires no portion with his 
spouse; no, verily, he requires nothing with her but mere 
poverty : " the rich he sends empty away," Luke i. 53 ; but 
the poor are by him enriched. And, indeed, says Luther, 
" the more miserable, sinful, and distressed a man doth feel 
himself, and judge himself to be, the more willing is Christ to 
receive him and relieve him." So that, says he, in judging thy- 
self unworthy, thou dost thereby become truly worthy ; and so, 
indeed, hast gotten a greater occasion of coming to him. 
Wherefore, then, in the words of the apostle, I do exhort and 
beseech you to " come boldly unto the throne of grace, that 



* That is, such as are really so, and not, in their own opinion, only respect- 
ively. 

t As the people, observinj^ Christ's call to Bartimeus, bid him be of good com- 
fort, (or be confident) and arise ; intimating, that upon his going so unto Christ, 
he would cure him ; so one, observing the gospel call, may with all boldness 
bid a sinner comply with it confidently ; assuring him that thereupon Christ 
will justify and save him. 

X See the note on the Definition of Faith, fig. 1. 



MODEEN DIVINITY. 139 

you may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need," 
Heb. iv. 16. 

Neo. But, truly, sir, my heart, as it were, trembles within me, 
to think of coming to Christ, after such a bold manner ; and 
surely, sir, if I should so come unto him, it would argue much 
pride and presumption in me. 

Evan. Indeed, if you should be encouraged to come unto 
Christ and to speak thus unto him, because of any godliness, 
righteousness, or worthiness, that you conceive to be in you ; 
that, I confess, were proud presumption in you. But to come 
to Christ, by believing that he will accept of you, justify, and 
save you freely by his grace, according to his gracious pro- 
mise, this is neither pride nor presumption -J^ for Christ having 
tendered and offered it to you freely, believe it, it is true hu- 
mility of heart to take what ChrLst offers you. 

Nom. Bat, by your favour, sir, I pray you give me leave to 
speak a word by the way. I know my neighbour, Neophytus, 
it may be, better than you do ; yet 1 do not intend to charge 
him with any sin, otherwise than by way of supposition : as 
thus, suppose he has been guilty of the committing of gross 
and grievous sins, will Christ accept of him, and justify and 
save him for all that ? 

Evan. Yes, indeed ; for there is no limitation of God's 
grace in Jesus Christ, except the sin against the Holy Ghost.f 

* It is to believe the offer of the gospel, with particular application ; 
to embrace it, and therein to receive Christ. And no man can ever re- 
ceive and rest on Christ for salvation, without believing, in greater, or 
lesser measure, that Christ will accept of him to justification and salva- 
tion. Remove that gospel truth, that Christ will accept of him, and his faith 
has no ground left to stand upon. See the note on the Definition of Faith, 
fig. 1, 2. ^ 

f I doubt if the sin against the Holy Ghost can justly be said to be a 
limitation of God's grace in Jesus Christ. For in the original authentic 
gospel-offer, m which is the proper place for such a limitation (if there 
was any) that grace is so laid open to all men without exception, that no 
man is excluded ; but there is free access to it for every man in the way 
of believing, John iii. 15, 16; Rev. xxii. 17; and this offer is sometimes 
intimated to these reprobates, who fall into that sin, else they should not 
be capable of it. It is true, that sin is a bar in the way of the guilty, so 
as they can never partake of the grace of God in Christ ; for it shall never 
be forgiven, Matt. xii. 31 ; Mark iii. 29 ; and any further ministerial appli- 
cation of the offer to them seems to cease to be lawful or warranted, 1 John 
V. 16. Bat all this arises from their own wilful, obstinate, despiteful, and 
malicious rejecting of the offer : and fightmg against the Holy Ghost, whose 
office it is to apply the grace of Christ ; and not from any limitation, or exclu- 
sive clause in the offer, tor still it remains true, '• Whosoever shall believe, shall 
not perish." 



140 THE MARROW OF 

Christ " stands at the door and knocks," Eev. iii. 20. And if 
any murdering Manasseh, or any persecuting and blaspheming 
Saul, 1 Tim. i. 13, or any adulterous Mary Magdalene, " will 
open unto him, he will come in," and bring comfort with him, 
" and will sup with him." " Seek from the one end of the 
heavens to the other," says Hooker ; " turn all the Bible over, 
and see if the words of Christ be not true, * Him that cometh 
unto me, I will in no ways cast out,'" John vi. 87. 

Nom. Why, then, sir, it seems you hold, that the vilest sin- 
ner in the world ought not to be discouraged from coming unto 
Christ, and believing in him, by reason of his sins. 

Evan. Surely, if " Christ came into the world to seek, and 
call, and save sinners, and to justify the ungodly," as you 
have heard ; and if the more sinful, miserable, and distressed 
a man judge himself to be, the more willing Christ is to re- 
ceive him and relieve him ; then I see no reason why the 
vilest sinner should be discouraged from believing on the name 
of Jesus Christ by reason of his sins. Nay, let me say more ; 
the greater any man's sins are, either in number or nature, the 
more haste he should make to come unto Christ, and to say 
with David, " For thy name's sake, O Lord, pardon mine ini- 
quity, for it is great !" Psalm xxv. 11. 

Ant. Surely, sir, if my friend Neophytus did rightly consider 
these things, and were assuredly persuaded of the truth of 
them, methinks he should not be so backward from coming to 
Christ, by believing on his name, as he is ; for if the greatness 
of his sin should be so far from hindering his coming to Christ, 
that they should farther his coming, then I know not what 
should hinder him. 

Evan. You speak very truly indeed. And therefore I be- 
seech you, neighbour Neophytus, consider seriously of it ; and 
neither let your own accusing conscience, nor Satan the accuser 
of the brethren, hinder you any longer from Christ. For 
what though they should accuse you of pride, infidelity, covet- 
ousness, lust, anger, envy, and hypocrisy ? yea, what though 
they should accuse you of whoredom, theft, drunkenness, and 
such like ? yea, do what they can, they can make no worse a 
man of you than a sinner, or chief of sinners, or an ungodly 
person ; and so, consequently, such an one Christ came to 
justify and save; so that in very deed, if you do rightly con- 
sider of it, they do you more good than hurt by their accusa- 
tions."^ And therefore, I beseech you, in all such cases or 

* Which may put you in mind, that you are one of that sort which 



MODERN DIVINITY. 141 

conflicts, take the counsel of Luther, who, on the Galatians, 
(p. 20,) sajs, " When thy conscience is thoroughly afraid with 
the remembrance of thy sins past, and the devil assaileth thee 
with great violence, going about to overwhelm thee with heaps, 
floods, and whole seas of sins, to terrify thee, and to draw the.e 
from Christ ; then arm thyself with such sentences as these : 
Christ the Son of God was given, not for the holy, righteous, 
worthy, and such as were his friends ; but for the wicked sin- 
ners, ifor the unworthy, and for his enemies. Wherefore, if 
the devil say. Thou art a sinner, and therefore mast be 
damned ; then answer thou, and say, Because thou sayest I am 
a sinner, therefore will I be righteous and saved. And if he 
reply, Nay, sinners must be damned ; then answer thou, and 
say. No, for I flee to Christ, who hath given himself for my 
sins ; and, therefore, Satan, in that thou sayest I am a sinner, 
thou givest me armour and weapons against thyself, that with 
thine own sword I may cut thy throat, and tread thee under 
my feet."* And thus you see it is the counsel of Luther, that 
your sins should rather drive you to Christ than keep you 
from him. 

Nom. But, sir, suppose he hath not as yet truly repented 
for his many and great sins, hath he any warrant to come unto 
Christ, by believing, till he has done so ? 

JEvan. I tell you truly, that whatsoever a man is, or what- 
soever he hath done or not done, he hath warrant enough to 
come unto Christ by believing, if he can ;t for Christ makes 



" Christ Jesus came into the world to save," 1 Tim. i. 15 ; and in pleading 
for mercy, may furnish you with such an argument as David used, Psalm 
XXV. 11, and the woman of Canaan, Matt. xv. 27, " yet the dogs eat of the 
crumbs," &c. 

* He adds, in the place quoted, these weighty words, " 1 say not this 
for nought; for I have oftec-times proved by experience, and I daily find 
what an hard matter it is to believe (especially in the conflict of con- 
science) that Christ was given, not for the holy, righteous, worthy, and such 
as were his friends ; but for wicked sinners, for the unworthy, and for his 
enemies." 

t It is not in vain added, '* if he can ;" for there is, in this matter, a 
great difierence betwixt what a sinner may do, in point of warrant, and 
what he will or can do, in point of the event. " If we say to a man, the 
physician is ready to heal you ; before you will be healed, you must liave 
a sense of your sickness: this sense is not required by the physician (for 
the physician is ready to heal him) ; but if he be not sick, and have a 
sense of it, he will not come to the physician." Preston on Faith, p. 12. 
I make no question, but before a sinner will come to Christ by believing, 
he must be an awakened, convinced, sensible sinner ; pricked in his heart 
with a sense of his sin and misery ; made to groan under his burden, to 



142 THE MARROW OF 

a general proclamation^ saying, " Ho, every one tliat thirsteth, 
come ye to the waters ; and he that hath no money, come, buy 
and eat ; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money, and 
without price." This, you see, is the condition, "buy wine and 
njilk," that is, grace and salvation, " without money," that is, 
without any sufficiency of your own ;* only " incline your 
ear and hear, and your souls shall live ;" yea, live by hearing 
that " Christ will make an everlasting covenant with you, even 
the sure mercies of David." 

Sect. 4. — Nom. But yet, sir, you see that Christ requires a 
thirsting, before a man come unto him, the which, I conceive, 
cannot be without true repentance. 

Evan. In the last chapter of the Eevelations, verse 17, 

despair of relief from the law, himself, or any other creature, and to desire 
and thirst after Christ and his righteousness ; and this our author teaches 
afterwards on this subject. These things also are required of the sinner 
in point of duty. And, therefore, the law must be preached by all those 
who would preach Christ aright. But that these, or any other things 
in the sinner, are required to warrant him, that he may come to Christ by 
believing, is what I conceive the Scripture teaches not; but the general 
offer of the gospel, of which before, warrants every man that he may 
come. And in practice, it will be found, that requiring of such and such 
qualifications in sinners to warrant them to believe in Christ, is no great 
help to them in their way toward him ; forasmuch as it engages them in 
a doubtful disputation, as to the being, kind, measure, and degree of 
their qualifications for coming to Christ ; the time spent in which might 
be better improved in their going forward to Christ for all, by believing. 
And since no man can ever believe in Christ, without knowing that he 
has a warrant fo^ believing in him, otherwise he can but act presump- 
tuously : to tell sinners, that none may come to Christ, or have warrant 
to believe, but such as have a true repentance, must needs, in a special 
manner, entangle distressed consciences, so as they dare not believe, un- 
til they know their repentance to be true repentance. This must in- 
evitably be the issue in that case ; unless they do either reject that prin- 
ciple, or else venture to believe without seeing their warrant. For, how- 
beit they hear of Christ and his salvation offered in the gospel, these will 
be to them as forbidden fruit, which they are not allowed to touch, till 
once they are persuaded, that they have true repentance. And before 
they can attain to this, it must be made out to their consciences, that 
their repentance is not legal but evangelical, having such characters as 
distinguish it from the repentance of the Ninevites, Judas, and many re- 
probates. So that, one would think the suggesting of this principle is 
but a bad office done to a soul brought to " the place of the breaking 
forth of children." Let no man say, that, arguing at this rate, one must know 
also the truth of his faith, before he can come to Christ ; for faith is 
not a qualification for coming to Christ, but the coming itself, which will 
have its saving effects on the sinner, whether he knows the truth of it or 
not. 

•^ Take them freely, and possess them ; which every one sees to be no proper 
condition. 



MODEKN DIVINITY. 143 

Christ makes the same general proclamation, saying, "Let 
him that is athirst come ;" and as if the Holy Ghost had so 
long since answered the same objection that yours is, it follows 
in the next words, '• And whosoever will, let him take of the 
water of life freely," even without thirsting, if he will ; for 
" him that coraeth unto me, I will in nowise cast out,"* John 
vi. 37. But because it seems you conceive he ought to repent 
before he believe, I pray tell me what you do conceive repent- 
ance to be, or wherein does it consist ? 

Nom. Why, I conceive that repentance consists in a man's 
humbling himself before God, and sorrowing and grieving for 
offending him by his sins, and in turning from them all to 
the Lord. 

Evan. And would you have a man to do all this trulyf 
before he come to Christ by believing ? 

* That gospel- offer, Isa. Iv. 1, is the most solemn one to be found in 
all the Old Testament ; and that recorded, Rev. xxii. 17, is the parting- 
offer made to sinners by Jesus Christ, at the closing of the canon of the 
Scripture, and manifestly looks to the former ; in the which I can see no 
ground to think, that the thirsting therein mentioned does any way re- 
strict the offer ; or that the thirsty there invited, are convinced, sensible 
sinners, who are thirsting after Christ and his righteousness ; the which 
would leave without the compass of this solemn invitation, not only the 
far greater part of mankind, but even of the visible church. The context 
seems decisive in this point ; for the thirsting ones invited, are such as 
are ** spending money for that which is not bread, and their labour for 
that which satisfieth not," verses 1, 2 ; but convinced, sensible sinners 
who are thirsting after Christ and his righteousness, are not spending their 
labour and money at that rate ; but, on the contrary, for that which is 
bread and satisfieth, namely, for Christ. Wherefore, the thirsting there 
mentioned, must be more extensive, comprehending, yea, and principally 
aiming at that thirst after happiness and satisfaction, which, being na- 
tural, -is common to all mankind. Men pained with this thirst or hunger 
are naturally running, for quenching thereof, to the empty creation, and 
their fulsome lusts ; so '' spending money for that which is not bread, 
and their labour for that which satisfieth not," their hungry souls find no 
food, but what is meagre and lean, bad and unwholesome, and cannot 
satisfy their appetite. Compare Luke xv. 16. In this wretched case 
Adarra left all mankind, and Christ finds thera. Whereupon the gospel- 
proclamation is issued forth, inviting them to come away from the broken 
cisterns, filthy spuddles, to the waters of life, even to Jesus Christ, where 
they may have bread, fatness, what is good, and will satisfy that their painful 
thirst, John iv. 14, and vi. 35. 

t That is, in such a manner as it shall be true evangelical repentance, 
a gracious humiliation, sorrow and turning, acceptable in the sight of 
God. This question (grounded on Nomista's pretending that Neophytus 
had no warrant to believe, unless he had truly repented) supposes that 
there is a kind of repentance, humiliation, sorrow for sin, and turning from 
it, which goes before faith, but that they are not " after a godly sort," as the 
apostle's phrase is, 2 Cor. vii. 11. 



IM THE MARROW OF 

Nom. Yea, indeed, T think it is very meet he should. 

Evan. Why, then, I tell you truly, you would have him to 
do that which is impossible."^ 

For, first of all godly humiliation, in true penitents, pro- 
ceeds from the love of God their good Father, and so from the 
hatred of that sin which has displeased him ; and this cannot 
be without faith.f 

2dly. Sorrow and grief for displeasing God by sin, neces- 
sarily argue the love of God ; and it is impossible we should 
ever love God, till by faith we know ourselves loved of 
God.t 

* I think it nothing strange to find the author so very peremptory in 
this point, which is of greater weight than many are aware of. True re- 
pentance is a turning unto God, a coming back to him again ; a return- 
iug even unto the Lord, according to an usual Old Testament phrase, 
found, Hos. xiv. 1, and rightly so translated, Isa. xix. 22. But no man 
can come unto God " but by Christ ;" Heb. vii. 25, " He is able also to 
save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him." — John xiv. 6, 
" No man cometh unto the Father but by me." We must take Christ 
in our way to the Father, else it is impossible that we guilty creatures 
can reach unto him. And no man can come unto Christ, but by believ- 
ing in him, John vi. 35, therefore it is impossible that a man can truly 
repent before he believe in Christ. " Him hath God exalted with his 
right hand, to be a Prince [or leader) and a Saviour, for to give repent- 
ance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins," Acts v. 31. One would think 
this to be a sufficient intimation, that sinners not only may, but ought to 
go to him for true repentance ; and not stand off from him until they get 
it to bring along with them ; especially since repentance, as well as re- 
mission of sin, is a part of that salvation, which he as a Saviour is exalted 
to give, and consequently, which sinners are to receive and rest upon him 
for ; and likewise that it is that by which he, as a leader, doth lead back 
sinners even unto God, from whom they were led away in the first Adam, 
the head of the apostasy. And if one inquires anent the way of his 
giving repentance to Israel, the prophet Zechariah showed it before to be 
hy faith, Zech. xii. 10, " And they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, 
and they shall mourn." 

f This the Scripture teacheth, determining in the general, that with- 
out faith one can do nothing acceptable in the sight of God, John xv. 5, 
" Without me." i. e. separate from me, " ye can do nothing." — Heb. xi. 6, 
" Without faith it is impossible to please him :" and particularly with re- 
spect to this case, Luke vii. 37 — 47, " And behold a woman in the city, 
which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat, stood at his 
feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did 
wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet. And he turned 
to the woman, and said unto Simon : Her sins which are many, are for- 
given, for she loved much ; but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth 
little." — It is an argument gathered of the effects following, whereby anything 
is proved by signs ensuing." -Calvin. Inst. lib. 3. cap. 4. sect. 37. 

I There is a knowledge in faith, as our divines teach against the Papists, 
and the Scripture maketh manifest. Isa. liii. 11, "By his knowledgq 



MODERN DIVINITY. 145 

Zdly. No man can turn to God, except he be first turned of 
God : and after he is turned, he repents ; so Ephrahn says, 
" After I was converted, I repented,"^ Jer. xxxi. 19. The 
truth is, a repentant sinner first believes that God will do that 
which he promiseth, namely, pardon his sin, and take away 
his iniquity ; then he rests in the hope of it ; and from that, 
and for it, he leaves sin, and will forsake his old course,! be- 



shall my righteous Servant justify many." — Heb. xi. 3, *' Through faith 
we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God." Now, 
saving faith being a persuasion that we shall have life and salvation by 
Christ, or a receiving and resting on him for salvation, includes in it a 
Ivnowledge of our being beloved of God : the former cannot be without 
the latter. In the meantime, such as the strength or weakness of that 
persuasion is, the steadiness or unsteadiness of that receiving and resting, 
just so is this knowledge, clear or unclear, free of, or accompanied 
with doubtings. They are still of the same measure and degree. So that 
this is no more in effect, but that faith in Christ is the spring of true love 
to God ; the which, how it is attained by a guilty soul, men will the bet- 
ter know, if they consider well what it is. The true love of God is not a 
love to him only for his benefits, and for our own sake, but a love to him 
for himself, for his own sake ; a liking of, and a complacency in, his glo- 
rious attributes and perfections, his infinite, eternal and unchangeable 
being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth. If a con- 
vinced sinner is void of any the least measure of persuasion of life and 
salvation by Christ, and of the love of this God to him ; but apprehends, 
as he cannot miss to do in this case, that he hates him as his enemy, and 
will prove so at last ; this cannot fail of filling his whole soul with slavish 
fear of God ; and how then shall this love of God spring up in one's heart, 
in such a case ? for slavish fear and true love are so opposite the one to 
the other, that, according to the measure in which the one prevails, the 
other cannot have access. 2 Tim. i. 7, " God hath not given us the spirit 
of fear, but of power, of love, and of a sound mind." 1 John iv. 18, 
" There is no fear in love, but perfect love casteth out fear ; because fear 
hath torment." But when once life and salvation, and remission of sin, 
is with application believed by the convinced sinner, and thereby the love 
of God towards him is known ; then, according to the measure of that 
faith and knowledge, slavish fear of God is expelled, and the heart is 
kindly drawn to love him, not only for his benefits, but for himself, having 
a complacency in his glorious perfections. "■ We love him, because he 
first loved us," 1 John iv. 19. The love of God to us is the inducement 
of our love to him : but love utterly unknown to the party beloved can 
never be an inducement to him to love again. Now, in consequence 
hereof, the sinner's bands are loosed, and his heart, which before was still 
hard as a stone, though broken in pieces by legal terrors, is broken in 
another manner, softened, and kindly melted in sorrow for displeasing this 
gracious God. 

* God's turning of a sinner first brings him to Christ, John vi. 44, 45, " No 
man can come unto me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him." 
And then he comes to God by Christ, John xiv. 26, " No man coraeth unto 
the Father but by me." 

f In a right manner, in the manner immediately after mentioned. 
13 



14(> THE MARROW OF 

cause it is displeasing to God ; and will do that which is pleas- 
ing and acceptable to him.'^ So that, first of all, God's favour 
is apprehended, and remission of sins believed -.f then upon 
that cometh alteration of life and conversation4 



* Faith cometh of the word of God ; hope cometh of faith ; and charity 
springeth of them both. Faith believes that Avord ; hope tnisteth after 
that which is promised by the word ; and charity doth good unto her neigli- 
bour. Mr. Patrick Hamilton's Articles in Knox's Hist. p. 11. 

f Not as that they are pardoned already ; but that one must so appre- 
hend the favour of God, as to believe that God will pardon his sin, as 
the author speaks expressly in the premises from whence this conclusion 
is drawn ; or that God doth pardon his sin in the present time. See 
note, chap. 3, sect. 6. Now, remission of sin is a part of that salvation 
which faith receives and rests on Christ for. See the note on the Defini- 
tion of Faith, fig. 2. As for the phrase the author uses to express this, it ia 
most agreeable to the Scripture phrase, " Remission of sins preached," Luke 
xxiv. 47 ; Acts xiii. 38. 

X Namely, such an alteration as is pleasing and acceptable in the sight of 
God, the which he has described in the preceding sentence. Otherwise, he has 
already taught us, that there are notable alterations of life and conversation 
which do not proceed from faith ; and therefore are not accepted of God. And 
of these we shall hear more anon. 

It will not be amiss here to observe how our author, in his account of the re- 
lation betwixt faith and repentance, treads in the ancient paths, according to 
his manner. 

" It ought to be out of question," says Calvin, " that repentance doth 
not only immediately follow faith, but also spring out of it. As for them 
that think that repentance doth rather go before faith, than flow or spring 
forth of it, as a fruit out of a tree, they never knew the force thereof, and 
are moved with too weak an argument, to think so, Christ and John, 
[say they] in their preachings, first exhort the people to repentance, &c. 
A man cannot earnestly apply himself to repentance, unless he know him- 
self to be of God : but no man is truly persuaded that he is of God, bat 
he that hath first received his grace. No man shall ever reverently fear 
God, but he that trusteth that God is merciful to him : no man will will- 
ingly prepare himself to the keeping of the law, but he that is persuaded 
that his services please him." Instit. b. 3. chap. 3. sec. 1, 2. 

" How soon that ever the Spirit of the Lord Jesus, which God's elect 
children receive by true faith, takes possession in the heart of any man, so 
soon doth he regenerate and renew the same man. So that he begins to 
hate that which before he loved, and begins to love that which before he 
hated ; and from thence comes that continual battle which is betwixt the flesh 
and the spirit." Old Confess, art 13. 

" Being in Christ, we must be new creatures — so that we must hate 
and flee that which before we loved and embraced, and we must love and 
follow that which before we hated and abhorred. All which is impossible 
to them that have no faith, and have but a dead faith." Mr. John Davidson's 
Cat. p. 29. 

" Quest. When I shall ask you then. What is craved of us, after that we are 
joined to Christ by faith, and made truly righteous in him? ye shall answer. 
A. We must repent and become new persons, that we may show forth the vir- 
tues of him that hath called us." Ibid. p. 35. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 147 

Isfom. But, sir, as I conceive, tlie Scripture holds forth, 
that the Lord has appointed repentance to go before faith ; 
for, is it not said, Mark i. 15, " Eepent and believe the gos- 
pel?" 

Evan, To the intent that you may have a true and satisfac- 
tory answer to this your objection, I would pray you to con- 
sider two things : 

First. That the word "repent" in the original, signifies a 
change of our minds from false ways, to the right, and of our 
hearts from evil to good:^ and as that son in the gospel said, 
" He would not go " work in his father's vineyard : yet after- 
wards says the text, " he repented and went," Matt. xxi. 29 : 
that is, he changed his mind and went. 

Secondly. That in those days, when John the Baptist and 
our Saviour preached, their hearers were most of them erro- 
neous in their minds and judgments; for they being leavened 
with the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees, of which 
our Saviour bade his disciples take heed and beware, Matt, 
xvi. 6, 12, the most of them were of opinion, that the Messiah 



" What is thy repentance ? The effect of this faith, working a sorrow for 
my sins by-past, and purpose to amend in time to come." Mr. James Melvil's 
Cat. in his Propine, &c. p. 44. 

" Repentance unto life is a saving grace, whereby a sinner out of a true 
sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, doth with 
grief and hatred of sin, turn from it unto God." Shorter Cat. 

*' M. This is then thy saying. That unto tlie time that God hath received us 
to mercy, and regenerated us by his Spirit, we can do nothing but sin ; even 
as an evil tree can bring forth no fruit but that which is evil, Matt. vii. 17. C. 
Even so it is." Calvin's Cat. quest. 117. " He doth receive us into his favour, 
of his bountiful mercy, through the merits of our Saviour Christ, accounting 
his righteousness to be ours, and for his sake imputeth not our faults unto us." 
Ibid, quest. 118. 

" Quest. What is the first fruit of this union ? (namely of union with Christ 
by faith.) A. A remission of our sins, and imputation of justice. Q. Which 
is the next fruit of onr union with him ? A. Our sanctification and regenera- 
tion to the image of God." Craig's Cat. q. 24, 25. " Q. What is sanctifica- 
tion ? A. Sanctification is a work of God's grace, whereby they are renewed 
in their whole man, after the image of God, having the seeds of repentance 
unto life, and of all other saving graces, put into their hearts." Larger Cat. 
quest. 75. 

" We would beware of Mr. Baxter's order of setting repentance and works 
of new obedience before justification, which is indeed a new covenant of works." 
Rutherford's Influences of the Life of Grace, p. 346. 

* This is taken word for word out of the English Annotations on Matt. iii. 
2 ; which are cited for it by our author under the name of the Last Anno- 
tations, because they were printed in the year 1645, about which time 
this book also was first published. How the author applies it, will appear 
anon. 



148 THE MARROW OF 

wliom they looked for should be some great and mighty 
monarch, who should deliver them from their temporal bond- 
age, as I showed before. And many of them were of the 
opinion of the Pharisees, who held, that as an outward con- 
formity to the letter of the law was sufficient to gain favour 
and estimation from men, so it was sufficient for their justifi- 
cation and acceptation before God, and so, consequently, to 
bring them to heaven and eternal happiness ; and, therefore, 
for these ends, they were very diligent in fasting and prayer, 
Luke xviii. 12 — 14, and very careful to pay tithes of mint, 
anise, and cummin, and yet did omit the weightier matters of 
the law, as judgment, mercy, faith, and the love of God, Matt, 
xxiii. 23 ; Luke xi. 42. And so, as our Saviour told them, 
Matt, xxiii. 25, " they made clean the outside of the cup, and 
of the platter, but within they were full of extortion and ex- 
cess.'" 

And divers of them were of the opinion of the Sadducees, 
Acts xxiii. 8, who held " that there was no resurrection, nei- 
ther angel, nor spirit;" and so had all their hopes and comfort 
in the things of this life, not believing any other. 

Now our Saviour, preaching to these people, said, " The 
time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand : repent 
ye and believe the gospel." As if he had said. The time set 
by the prophets for the manifestation of the Messiah is fully 
come ; and his kingdom, which is a spiritual and heavenly 
kingdom, is at hand ; therefore change your minds from false 
ways to right, and your hearts from evil to good ;* and do not 
any longer imagine, that the Messiah you look for, shall be 
one that shall save and deliver you from your temporal ene- 
mies ; but from your spiritual, that is, from your sins, and 
from the wrath of God, and ifrom eternal damnation ; and 
therefore put your confidence no longer in your own right- 
eousness, though you walk never so exactly according to the 
letter of the law ; but believe the glad tidings that are now 
brought to you, namely, that the Messiah shall save you 
from sin, wrath, the devil, and hell, and bring you to eternal 
life and glory. Neither let any of you any longer imagine, 
that there is to be no resurrection of the dead, and so have 
your hopes only in this life : but believe these glad tidings, 

* The word rendered repent, is, " To change one's mind, and to lay aside false 
opinions, which they had drunk in, whether from the Pharisees, concerning the 
righteousness of works, traditions, worship, &c.; or from the Sadducees, con- 
cerning the resurrection," &c. Lucus Brugensis, apud Pol. Synop. Orit. in 
Matt. iii. 3, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 149 

that are now brought unto you, concerning the Messiah ; 
and he shall raise jou up at the last day, and give you an 
eternal life. Kow, with submission to better judgments, I do 
conceive, that if there be in the book of God any repentance ex- 
horted unto, before faith in Christ ; or if any repentance go, 
either in order of nature or time, before faith in Christ, it is 
only such a like repentance as this.* 

Nom. But, sir, do you think that there is such a like re- 
pentance, that goes before faith in Christ, in men now-a-days ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, I think there is. As, for example, 
when a profane sensual man (who lives as though, with the 
Saddacees, he did not believe any resurrection of the dead, 
neither hell nor heaven) is convinced in his conscience, that 
if he go on in making a god of his belly, and in minding only 
earthly things, his end shall be damnation ; sometimes such a 
man thereupon changes his mind, and of a profane man, be- 
comes a strict Pharisee, or (as some call him) a legal pro- 
fessor ; but being convinced, that all his own righteousness 
will avail him nothing, in the case of justification, and that it 
is only the righteousness of Jesus Christ that is available in 
that case, then he changes his mind, and, with the apostle, 
" desires to be found in Christ, not having his own righteous- 
ness which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of 
Christ, even the righteousness which is of God through faith," 
Philip, iii. 9. Now I conceive, that a man that does this, 
changes his mind from false ways to the right way, and his 
heart from evil to good ; and so, consequently, doth truly 
repent.f 

* That the reader may further see how little weight there is in the 
objection raised from Mark 1, 15, I subjoin the words of two learned 
commentators on the text. " Repent ye, turn from the wickedness of 
your ways and believe. There is a repentance that must go before faith, 
that is, the applicative of the promise of pardoning mercy to the soul ; 
though true evangelical repentance, which is a sorrow for sin, flowing from 
the sense of the love of God in Christ, be the fruit and effect of faith." Contin. 
of Poole's Annot. on the place. — " Faith or believing, in order of the work of 
grace, is before repentance, that being the first and mother grace of all others ; 
yet is here and in other places, named the latter : first, because though faith be 
first wrought, yet repentance is first seen and evidenced," &c. Lightfoot's 
Harmony, part 3. p. 164. 4to. 

f That is, his repentance is true in its kind, though not saving. There 
is a change of his mind and heart, in that, upon a conviction, he turns from 
profanity to strictness of life, and upon farther conviction, from a conceit of his 
own righteousness to a desire after the riuhteousness of Christ : nevertheless, 
all this is but selfish, and cannot please God while the man is void of faith, 
Heb. xi. 6. , - 

13* 



150 THE MARROT^ OF 

Nom. But, sir, do not you hold, that although repentance, 
according to my definition, goes not before faith in Christ, yet 
it follows after ? 

Evan. Yes, indeed ; I hold, that although it go not before 
as an antecedent of faith, yet it follows as a consequent. For 
when a man believes the love of God to him in Christ, then 
he loves God because he loved him first ; and that love con- 
strains him to humble himself at the Lord's footstool, and to 
acknowledge himself to be less than the least of all his mercies ; 
yea, and then will he " remember his own evil ways and do- 
ings, that were not good, and will loathe himself in his own 
sight for his iniquities, and for his abominations," Ezek. xxxvi. 
31 ; yea, and then will he also cleanse himself from all filthi- 
ness of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God, 
having respect unto all God's commandments,'^ 2 Cor. vii. 1 ; 
Psalm cxix, 6. 

Nora. Well, sir, I am answered. 

Sect. 5. — Neo. And truly, sir, you have so declared and 
set forth Christ's disposition towards poor sinners, and so an- 
swered all my doubts and objections, that I am now verily 
persuaded that Christ is willing to entertain me ; and surely I 
am willing to come unto him, and receive him ; but, alas! I 
want power. 

Evaii. But tell me truly, are you resolved to put forth all 
your power to believe, and so to take Christ ?t 



* See the note t, p. 144. 

f His conviction of his lost and undone state was before represented in 
its proper place. After much disputing whether such a vile and sinful 
wretch as he had any warrant to come to Christ, he appears, in his imme- 
diately foregoing speech, to be so far enlightened in the knowledge of 
Christ, that he is verily persuaded that Christ is willing to entertain him ; 
and to have his heart and will so overcome by divine grace, that he is willing 
to come unto Christ: yet, after all, he, through weakness of judgment, 
apprehends himself to want power to believe ; whereas it is by these very 
means that a soul is persuaded, and enabled too, to believe in Jesus Christ. 

Hereupon the author, waving the dispute anent his power to believe, 
wisely asks him. If he is resolved to put forth the power he has? for- 
asmuch as it was evident from the account given of the present condition of 
his soul that it had felt " a day of power," Psalm ex. 3, and that he was 
" drawn of the Father, and, therefore, could come to Christ," John vi. 44. 
For '•' effectual calling is the work of God's Spirit, whereby, convincing us of 
our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ, and 
renev/ing our wills, he doth persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ." 
Shorter Catechism. — " Savingly enlightening their minds, renewing and 
powerfully determining their wills, so as they are hereby made willing and 
able." Larg. Cat. quest. 67. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 151 

Keo. Truly, sir, methinks my resolution is mucli like the re- 
solution of the four lepers, who sat at the gate of Samaria; 
for as they said, " If we enter into the city, the famine is in 
the city, and we shall die there ; and if we sit still here, we 
die also ; now, therefore, let us fall unto the host of the Sy- 
rians ; if they save us, we shall live, and if they kill us, we 
shall but die," 2 Kings vii. 4 ; even so say I in mine heart, If I 
go back to the covenant of works to seek justification thereby, 
I shall die there ; and if I sit still and seek it no way, I shall 
die also ; now, therefore, though I be somewhat fearful, yet 
am I resolved to go unto Christ ; and if I perish, I perish.* 

Evan. Why, now I tell you the match is made ; Christ is 
yours,t and you are his, " this day is salvation come to your 
house," (your soul I mean :) for, what though you have not 
that power to come so fast to Christ, and lay such firm hold 
on him, as you desire ; yet coming with such a resolution to 
take Christ, as you do, you need not care for power to do it, 
inasmuch as Christ will enable you to do it ]X for is it not said, 
John i. 12, " But as many as received him, to them gave he 
power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe 
on his name ?§ O therefore, I beseech you, stand no longer 
disputing; but be peremptory and resolute in your faith, and 

* See the foregoing note. This is the concluding point in this matter ; the 
man being drawn by efficacious grace, though he is not without doubts and 
fears as to the event, yet is do more in doubt, whether to embrace the offer 
or not. And the inward motion of his heart breaking through the remaining 
doubts and fears, after a long struggle, unto Jesus Christ, in the free 
promise, being in itself indiscernible, but to God and one's own soul, it is 
agreeably enough to one's way in that case : discovered in that expression of 
a conquered soul, Now am I resolved to go unto Christ, now am I deter- 
mined to believe ; the which cannot but present to him who deals with 
the exercised person, the whole soul going out unto Jesus Christ. Hence 
the match may justly thereupon be declared to be made, as our author 
does in the words immediately following. Thus Job, in his distress, express- 
eth his faith. Job xiii. 15, " "Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him." 
Compare Acts xi. 33, " That with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the 
Lord." 

t In possession. 

X That is, you need not, holding back your hand, stand disputing with your- 
self how you will get power ; but with the power given, stretch forth the 
withered hand, and Christ will strengthen it, and enable you to take a firm 
hold. John xii. 32, " And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men 
unto me." — Isa. xl. 29, " He giveth power to the faint ; and to them that have 
no might he increaseth strength." 

I The power here mentioned, seems rather to denote right or privilege (as the 
original word is rendered in the margin of our Bibles) than strength or 
ability. 



152 THE MARROW OF 

ill casting yourself upon God in Christ for mercy ; and let the 
issue be what it will. Yet let me tell you, to your comfort, 
that such a resolution shall never go to hell."^ Nay? I will 
say more ; if any soul have room in heaven, such a soul shall ; 
for God cannot iind in his heart to damn such a one. I might, 
then, with as much true confidence say unto you, as John 
Careless said to John Bradford, in a letter to him, " Hearken, 

heavens, and thou O earth, give ear, and bear me witness, 
at the great day, that I do here faithfully and truly declare the 
Lord's message unto his dear servant and singularly beloved 
John Bradford, saying, ' John Bradford, thou man so specially 
beloved of God, I do pronounce and testify unto thee, in the 
word and name of the Lord Jehovah, that all thy sins what- 
soever they be, though never so many, grievous, or great, be 
fully and freely pardoned, released, and forgiven thee, by the 
mercy of God in Jesus Christ, the only Lord and sweet Saviour, 
in whom thou dost undoubtedly believe ; as truly as the Lord 
liveth, he will not have thee die the death ; but hath verily 
purposed, determined, and decreed, that thou shalt live with 
him for ever.' " 

Neo. O, sir, if I have as good warrant to apply this saying 
to myself as Mr. Bradford had to himself, then I am a happy 
man ! 

Evan. I tell you from Christ, and under the hand of the 
Spirit, that your person is accepted, your sins are done away, 
and you shall be saved ; and if an angel from heaven should 
tell you otherwise, let him be accursed. Therefore, you may 
(without doubt) conclude that you are a happy man ; for by 
means of this your matching with Christ, you are become one 
with him, and one in him, you " dwell in him, and he in you," 

1 John iv. 13. He is " your well beloved, and you are his," 
Cant. ii. 16. So that the marriage union betwixt Christ and 
you is more than a bare notion or apprehension of your mind ; 
for it is a special, spiritual, and real union : it is an union be- 
twixt the nature of Christ, God and man, and you ;f it is a 
knitting and closing, not only of your apprehension with a 
Saviour, but also of your soul with a Saviour. Whence it 
must needs follow that you cannot be condemned, except 
Christ be condemned with you ; neither can Christ be saved, 

* See the preceding note, *. 

f That is, an union with the whole Christ, God-Man ; 1 Cor. vi. 17, " He 
that is joined to the Lord, is one spirit." — Eph. v. 38, " For we are members 
of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones." 



MODERN DIVINITY. 153 

except you be saved with him."^ And as by means of corporeal 
marriage all .things become common betwixt man and wife; 
even so, by means of this spiritual marriage, all things become 
common betwixt Christ and you ; for when Christ hath mar- 
ried his spouse unto himself, he passeth over all his estate unto 
her ; so that whatsoever Christ is or hath, you may boldly 
challenge as your own. " He is made unto you, of God, wis- 
dom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption," 1 Cor. 
i. 30. And surely, by virtue of this near union it is, that as 
Christ is called " the Lord our righteousness," Jer. xxxiii. 6, 
even so is the church called, " the Lord our righteousness," 
verse 16. I tell you, you may, by virtue of this union, boldly 
take upon yourself, as your own, Christ's watching, abstinence, 
travails, prayers, persecutions, and slanders ; yea, his tears, 
his sweat, his blood, and all that ever he did and suffered in 
the space of three and thirty years, with his passion, death, 
burial, resurrection, and ascension ; for they are all yours. 
And as Christ' passes over all his estate unto his spouse, so 
does he require that she should pass over all unto him. Where- 
fore, you being now married unto Christ, you must give all 
that you have of your own unto him ; and truly you have no- 
thing of your own but sin, and, therefore, you must give him 
that. I beseech you, then, say unto Christ with bold confi- 
dence, I give unto thee, my dear husband, my unbelief, my 
mistrust, my pride, my arrogancy, my ambition, my wrath, 
and anger, my envy, my covetousness, my evil thoughts, affec- 



* Jesus Christ and the believer, being one person in the eye of the law, 
there is no separating of them in law, in point of life and death. John 
xiv. 19, "Because I live, ye shall live also." I have adventured this 
once to add one syllable to the text of the author ; and so to read " con- 
demned" for " damned." The words are of the same signification ; only, 
the latter has an idea of horror affixed to it, which the former has not ; 
and which perhaps it had not either, in the days of our forefathers, when 
godly Tindal used the expression, as our author informs us. And I take 
this liberty, the rather that a like expression of John Careless, in a letter 
to William Tyms, seems to me to run more smooth, by means of the 
same addition, though I doubt if the word stood so in the original copy. 
" Christ," says he, * is made unto us holiness, righteousness, and justifica- 
tion ; he hath clothed us in all his merits and taken to himself all our 
sin — so that, if any should be now condemned for the same, it must needs 
be Jesus Christ, who hath taken them upon him." The Sufferer's Mirror, 
p. 66. And in the Old Confession of Faith, art. 9, according to the ancient copies, 
it is said, " The clean, innocent Lamb of God was damned in the presence of 
an earthly judge, that we should be absolved before the tribunal seat 
of our God." But in the copy standing in Knox's History, reprinted at 
Edinburgh, anno 1644, it is read " condemned." 



154 THE MARROW OF 

tions, and desires ; I make one bundle of these and all my 
other offences, and give them unto thee.^ And thus was 
Christ made " sin for us, that knew no sin, that we might be 
made the righteousness of God in him,"f 2 Cor. v. 21. "Now 
then," says Luther, " let us compare these things together, and 
we shall find inestimable treasure. Christ is full of grace, life, 
and saving health ; and the soul is freight-full of all sin, death, 
and damnation ; but let faith come betwixt these two, and it 
shall come to pass, that Christ shall be laden with sin, death, 
and hell ; and unto the soul shall be imputed grace, life, and 



* This gift would indeed be a very unsuitable return, for all the bene- 
fits received from Christ by virtue of the spiritual marriage, if he did not 
deal with us in the way of free grace ; like unto a physician who desires 
nothing of a poor man full of sores, but that he will employ him in the 
cure of them. But this gift, such as it is, as it is all we have of our own 
to give, so one needs make no question but it will be very acceptable, 
Psalm Iv. 22, " Cast thy burden upon the Lord, and he shall sustain thee ;" 
not only thy burden of duty, suffering, and success, but 'of sin too, where- 
with thou art heavy laden. Matt. xi. 28. We are allowed, not only to 
give him our burden, but to cast it upon him. He knows very well that 
all these evils mentioned, and many more, are in the heart of the best : 
yet doth he say, Prov. xxiii. 26, " My son, give me thine heart ;" not- 
withstanding of the wretched stuff he knows to be in it. In the language 
of the Holy Ghost, these things, black as they are, are a gift by divine 
appointment to be given. Lev. xvi. 21 : speaking of the scape-goat, an 
eminent type of Christ, he says, " And Aaron shall confess over him all 
the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, and 
all their sins : and he shall give them upon the head of the goat." Thus the 
original expresses what we read, " putting them," &c. [ View again p. 69, 
and note. |] 

Now, the end for which the sinner is to give these to Christ is twofold : 
(1.) For removing of the guilt of them. (2.) For the mortifying of them. 
And though this is not an easy way of mortification, since the way of 
believing is not easy, but more difficult than all the Popish austerities, 
forasmuch as these last are more agreeable to nature, yet indeed it is the 
short way to mortification, because it is the only way ; without which, 
the practice of all other directions will be but as so many ciphers, with- 
out a figure standing at their head, signifying nothing, for true Christian 
mortification. Acts xv. 9, " Purifying their hearts by faith." — Eom. 
vi. 6, " Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him." And 
viii. 13, " If ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye 
shall live." — Gal. v. 24, " And they that are Christ's, have crucified the 
flesh, with the affections and lusts ; namely, nailing them to the cross of Christ 
by faith. 

f Thus, namely, by the giving of our sins to him, not by believers, but 
by his Father, as says the text, " He [not we] made him to be sin for us." 
Nevertheless, the Lord's laying our iniquities upon Christ is good warrant 
for every believer to give his sins in particular upon him ; the latter being 
a cordial falling in with, a practical approbation, and taking the benefit of 
the former. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 155 

salvation. Who then is able to value the royalty of this mar- 
riage accordingly ? Who is able to comprehend the glorious 
riches of his grace, where this rich and righteous husband, 
Christ, doth take unto wife this poor and wicked harlot, re- 
deeming her from all devils, and garnishing her with all his 
own jewels ? So that you, through the assuredness of your faith 
in Christ, your husband, are delivered from all sins, made safe 
from death, guarded from hell, and endowed with the ever- 
lasting righteousness, life, and saving health of this your hus- 
band Christ." And, therefore, you are now under the cove- 
nant of grace, and freed from the law, as it is the covenant of 
works ; for (as Mr. Ball truly says) at one and the same time, 
a man cannot be under the covenant of works and the covenant 
of grace. 

Neo. Sir, I do not well know how to conceive of this free- 
dom from the law, as it is the covenant of works ; and there- 
fore I pray you make it as plain to me as you can. 

Evan. For the true and clear understanding of this point, 
you are to consider, that when Jesus Christ, the second Adam, 
had, in the behalf of his chosen, perfectly fulfilled the law as 
it is the covenant of works ;* divine justice delivered that 
bond in to Christ, who utterly cancelled that hand-writing, 
Col. ii. 14 ; so that none of his chosen were to have any more 
to do with it, nor it with them. And now, you, by your be- 
lieving in Christ, having manifested that you are one, who was 
chosen in him " before the foundation of the world," Eph. i. 4, 
his fulfilling of that covenant, and cancelling that hand-writ- 
ing, is imputed unto you ; and so you are acquitted and ab- 
solved from all your transgressions against that covenant, either 
past, present or to come ;t and so you are justified, as the 



* Namely, by doing perfectly what it demanded to be done, by virtue of itg 
commanding power, and suffering completely what it demanded to be borne, by 
virtue of its condemning power. 

f Although believers in the first moment of their union with Christ by 
faith, are delivered from the law, as it is the covenant of works, and 
therefore their after sins neither are, nor can be, formally transgressions 
of that covenant ; yet they are interpretatively so, giving a plain proof of 
what they would have done against that covenant, had they been under 
it still. And forasmuch as they could never have been freed from it, had 
not the glorious Mediator wrought their deliverance, by fulfilling it in 
their room and stead; all their sins whatsoever, from their birth to their 
death, after as well as before their union with Christ, were charged upon 
him, as transgressions against that covenant; and such as are pardoned 
to them in their justification. Even as he who redeems a slave must pay 
in proportion to the service which it is supposed he would have done his 



156 THE MARROW OF 

apostle says, " freely by his grace, througli tlie redemption that 
is in Jesus Christ," Eom. iii. 24. 

Sect. 6. — Ant. I pray you, sir, give me leave to speak a 
word by the way ; was not he justified before this time ? 

Evan, If he did not believe in Christ before this time, as I 
conceive he did not, then certainly he was not justified before 
this time. 

Ant. But, sir, you know, as the apostle says, " It is God that 
justifieth ; and God is eternal ; and, as you have shown, Christ 
may be said to have fulfilled the covenant of works from all 
eternity, and if he be Christ's now, then was he Christ's from 
all eternity. And therefore, as I conceive, he was justified 
from all eternity. 

Evan. Indeed, God is from all eternity, and in respect of 
God's accepting of Christ's undertaking to fulfil the covenant 
of works, he fulfilled it from all eternity : and in respect of 
God's electing of him, he was Christ's from all eternity. And 
therefore it is true, in respect of God's decree, he was justified 
from all eternity ;* and he was justified meritoriously in the 

master during life ; and the slave is loosed from all obligation to these 
several pieces of service unto that master, upon the ransom paid, in com- 
pensation of all and every one of them. And thus our author says, that 
a believer, in his justification, is acquitted from all his transgressions 
against the covenant of works, not only past and present, but to come. 
So that he leaves no ground to question, but Christ satisfied for all the 
sins of believers whatsoever, whether in their state of regeneracy or unre- 
generacy. Nor does he make the least insinuation, that the sins of be- 
lievers, after their union with Christ, are not properly transgressions of 
that law which was (yea, and to unbelievers still is) in the covenant of 
works : but, on the contrary, expressly teaches, that it is the very same 
law of the ten commands which is the law of Christ, and which the be- 
liever transgresseth, that was and is in the covenant of works. And al- 
though the revenging wrath of God and eternal death are not threatened 
against the sins of believers after their uuion with Christ ; and that for 
this one reason, That that wrath and that death (the eternity whereof 
rose not from the nature of the thing, but the infirmity of the sufferer, and 
therefore could have no place in the Son of God) were not only threatened be- 
fore, but executed too upon their surety Jesus Christ, to whom they are 
united : it is manifest, that there was gi-eat need of Christ's being made a 
curse for these sins of believers, as well as for those preceding their uuion with 
him. 

*"The sentence of justification was, as it were, conceived in the mind 
of God by the decree of justifying. Gal. iii. 8, 'The Scripture foreseeing 
that God would justify the heathen through faith.' " Ames. Med. cap. 
xxxvii. sec. 9, — " In which sense grace is said to be given us in Christ 
before the world began." 2 Tim. i. 9. Turret, loc. 16. q. 9. th. 11.— " Sins 
were pardoned from eternity in the mind of God." Rutherford's Exer. 
Apolog. ex. 1. cap. 2. sec. 21. p. 53. The same Rutherford adds, " It is 



MODEKN DIVINITY. 157 

death and resurrection of Christ ;^ but yet he was not justified 
actually, till he did actually believe in Christ ; for, says the 
apostle, Acts xiii. 39, "By him all that believe are justified." f 
So that in the act of justifying, faith and Christ must have a 
mutual relation, and must always concur and meet together ; 
faith as the action which apprehendeth, and Christ the object 
which is apprehended ; for neither doth Christ justify without 
faith, neither doth faith, except it be in Christ. 

Ant. Truly, sir, you have indifferently well satisfied me in 
this point ; and surely I like it marvellously well, that you con- 
clude no faith justifies, but that whose object is Christ. 

JEvan. The very truth is, though a man believe that God is 

one thing for a man to be justified in Christ, and that from eternity : and an- 
other for a man to be justified in Christ in time, according to the gospel-cove- 
nant. Faith is not so much as the instrument of •eternal and immanent justifi- 
cation and remission of sins." Ihid. p. 55. 

* " Justification may be considered as to the execution of it in time ; 
and that again, either as to the purchase of it, which was made by the 
death of Christ on the cross, concerning which it is said, Rom. v. 9, 10, 
* That we are justified and reconciled to God by the blood of Christ ; and 
that Christ reconciled all thmgs unto God by the blood of the cross,' 
Col. i. 20. And elsewhere, Christ is said to be ' raised again for our jus- 
tification,' Rom. iv. 25. Because, as in him dying, we died, so in him 
raised again and justified, we are justified ; that is, we have a certain and 
undoubted pledge and foundation of our justification. Or as to the ap- 
plication of it," kc Turret, ubi sup. " The sentence of justification 
was pronounced in Christ our head, risen from the dead," 2 Cor. v. 19. 
Ames, ubi sup. — " We were virtually justified, especially when Christ 
having finished the purchase of our salvation, was justified, and we in 
him as our head," 1 Tim. iii. 16 ; 2 Cor. v. 19. Essen. Comp. cap. xv. sec. 
25. 

f •' Actual justification is done in time, and follows faith." Turret, loc. 16. 
q. 9. th. 3. — " Justification is done formally when an elect man, effectually 
called, and so apprehended of Christ, apprehends Christ again," Rom. viii. 30. 
Essen, ubi supra. — " The sentence of justification is pronounced virtually 
from that first relation which ariseth from faith," Rom. viii. 1. Ames, ubi 
supra. 

Upon the whole, it is evident our author keeps the path trodden by 
orthodox divines on the subject ; and though, in order to answer the ob- 
jections of his adversary, he uses the school terms, of being justified in 
respect of God's decree, meritoriously, and actually, agreeably to the 
practice of other sound divines ; yet otherwise he "begins and ends his 
decision of this controversy, by asserting in plain and simple terms, with- 
out any distinction at all, " That a man is not justified before he believes, 
or without faith." So his answer amounts just to this, " That God did, 
from all eternity, decree to justify all the elect ; and Christ did, in the 
fulness of time, die for their sins, and rise again for their justification: 
nevertheless, they are not justified, until tlie Holy Spirit doth in due 
time actually apply Christ unto them." Westm. Confess, cap. 11. 
art. 4. 
14 



158 THE MAEROW OF 

merciful and true to his promise, and that he has his elect 
number from the beginning, and that he himself is one of that 
number, yet if this faith do not eye Christ, if it be not in God 
as he is in Christ, it will not serve the turn : for God cannot 
be comfortably thought upon out of Christ our Mediator; 
"for if we find not God in Christ," says Calvin, Instit. p. 155, 
"salvation cannot be known." Wherefore, Neophytus, I will 
say unto you, as Mr. Bradford said unto a gentlewoman in 
your case, " Thus, then, if you would be quiet, and certain in 
conscience, then let your faith burst forth through all things, 
not only that you have within you, but also whatsoever is in 
heaven, earth, and hell ; and never rest until it come to Christ 
crucified, and the eternal sweet mercy and goodness of God in 
Christ." 

Sect. 7. — ISfeo. But, sir, I am not satisfied concerning the 
point you touched before ; and therefore, I pray you, proceed 
to show me how far forth I am delivered from the law, as it is 
the covenant of works. 

Evan. Truly, as it is the covenant of works, you are 
wholly and altogether delivered and set free from it ; you are 
dead to it, and it is dead to you ; and if it be dead to you, then 
it can do you neither good nor hurt ; and if you be dead to it, 
you can expect neither good nor hurt from it.* Consider, 

* Concerning the deliverance from the law, which, according to the 
Scripture, is the privilege of believers purchased unto them by Jesus 
Christ, there are two opinions equally contrary to the word of God, and 
to one another. The one of the Legalist, That believers are under the 
law, even as it is the covenant of works; the other of the Antinomian, 
That believers are not at all under the law, no, not as it is a rule of life. 
Betwixt these extremes, both of them destructive of true holiness and 
gospel-obedience, our author, with other orthodox divines, holds the 
middle path ; asserting (and in the proper place proving) that believers 
are under the law, as a rule of life, but free from it as it is the covenant 
of works. To be delivered from the law as it is the covenant of works, 
is no more but to be delivered from the covenant of works. And the 
as&erting, that believers are delivered from the law as it is the covenant 
of works, doth necessarily import, that they are under the law, in some 
other respects thereto contra-distinguished. And forasmuch as the author 
teaches, that believers are under the law, as it is the law of Christ, and a 
rule of life to thera, it is reasonable to conclude that to be it. He must 
needs, under the term, " the covenant of works," understand and com- 
prehend the law of the ten commandments ; because no man, under- 
standing what the covenant of works is, can speak of it, but he nmst, 
under that term, understand and comprehend the ten commandments, 
even as none can speak of a man, with knowledge of a sense of that word, 
but under that term must understand and comprehend an organic body, 
as well as a soul. But it is manifest, that the law of the ten command- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 159 

man, I pray you, that, as I said before, you are now under 
another covenant, viz : the covenant of grace ; and you cannot 



meuts, without the form of the covenant of works upon it, is not the 
thing he understands by that term, " the covenant of works." Neither 
is the form of the covenant of works (which is no more the covenant 
itself, than the soul without the body is the man) essential to the ten 
commandments, so that they cannot be without it. [See p. 6, note.*J If 
it be said, that the author, by the covenant of works, understands the 
moral law, as it is defined, [Larg. Cat. q. 92,] it is granted ; but then it 
amounts to no more, but that, by the covenant of works, he understands the 
covenant of works ; for by the moral law there, is understood the covenant of 
works, as has been already evinced. 

The doctrine of believers' freedom from the covenant of works, or from 
the law as that covenant, is of the greatest importance, and is expressly 
taught. [Larg. Cat. q. 97.] " They that are regenerate, and believe in 
Christ, be delivered from the moral law, as a covenant of works," Rom. vi. 
14 ; Rom. vii. 4, 6 ; Gal. iv. 4, 5. Westra. Confess, chap. xix. art. 6. — 
" True believers be not under the law as a covenant of works." To these 
I subjoin one testimony, from the Prac. Use of Saving Knowledge, tit. 
" For Strengthening the Man's Faith," &c. Rom. vii. fig. 3, " Albeit 
the apostle himself (brought in here for example's cause) and all other 
true believers in Christ, be by nature under the law of sin and death, or 
under the covenant of works ; (called the law of sin and death, because it 
bindeth sin and death upon us, till Christ set us free :) yet the law of the 
Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, or the covenant of grace, (so called be- 
cause it doth enable and quicken a man to a spiritual life through Christ,) 
doth set the apostle, and all true believers, free from the covenant of 
works, or the law of sin and death." See more, ibid. fig. 4. As also tit. 
"For convincing a man of Judgment by the Law," par. 2, and last. 
And tit. " Evidences of true Faith. And tit. " For the First," &c. 
fig. 4. 

Now, delivering from a covenant being the dissolution of a relation 
which admits not of degrees, believers being delivered from the covenant of 
works, must be wholly and altogether set free from it. 

This appears also from the believer's being dead to it, and it dead to him, 
of which before at large. 

There is a twofold death competent to a believer with respect to the 
law, as it is the covenant of works ; and so to the law as such, with res- 
pect to the believer. (1.) The believer is dead to it really, and in point 
of duty, while he carries himself as one who is dead to it. And this I 
take to be comprehended in that saying of the apostle. Gal. ii. 19, "I 
through the law am dead to the law." In the best of the children of God 
here, there are such remains of the legal disposition and inclination of 
heart to the way of the covenant of works, that as they are never quite 
free of it in their best duties, so at sometimes their services smell so rank 
of it, as if they were alive to the law, and still dead to Christ. And 
sometimes the Lord for their correction, trial, and exercise of faith, 
suffers the ghost of the dead husband, the law, as a covenant of works, to 
come in upon their souls and make demands on them, command, threaten, 
and affright them, as if they were alive to it, and it to them. And it is 
one of the hardest pieces of practical religion, to be dead to the law in 
such cases. This death to it admits of degrees, is not alike in all be- 



160 THE MARROW OF 

be under two covenants at once, neither wholly nor partly ; 
and, therefore, as, before you believed, you were wholly under 
the covenant of works, as Adam left both you and all his 
posterity after his fall ; so now, smce you have believed, you 
are wholly under the covenant of grace. Assure yourself 
then, that no minister, or preacher of God's word has any 
warrant to say unto you hereafter, " Either do this and 
this duty contained in the law, and avoid this and this 
sin forbidden in the law, and God will justify thee and save 
thy soul : or do it not, and he will condemn thee and damn 
thee."^ No, no, you are now set free both from the com- 
manding and condemning power of the covenant of works.f 
So that I will say unto you, as the apostle says unto the 

lievei-s, and is perfect in none till the death of the body. But of this 
kind of death to the law, the question proceeds not here. (2.) The 
believer is dead to it relatively, and in point of privilege; the relation 
betwixt him and it is dissolved, even as the relation between a husband 
and wife is dissolved by death ; Rom. vii. 4, " Wherefore, my brethren 
ye also are become dead to the law, by the body of Christ, that ye should 
be married to another." This can admit of no degrees, but it is perfect in all 
believers ; so that they are wholly and altogether set free from it, in point of 
privilege, upon which the question here proceeds, and in this respect they can 
expect neither good nor hurt from it. 

* See p. 113, and note.* *' Believers be not under the law, as a covenant 
of works, to be thereby justified or condemned." Westra. Confess, chap. 19. 
art. 6. 

t From the general conclusion already laid down and proved, namely, 
That believers are wholly and altogether set free from the covenant 
of works, or from the law as it is that covenant, this necessarily follows. 
But to consider particulars, for further clearing of this weighty point, (1.) 
That the covenant of works hath no power to justify a sinner, in regard 
to his utter inability to pay the penalty, and to fulfil the condition of it, 
is clear from the apostle's testimony, Rom. viii. 3, " What the law 
could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own 
Son," &c. (2.) That the believer is not imder the condemning power of 
it, appears from Gal. iii. 13, " Christ hath redeemed us from the curse 
of the law, being made a curse for us." — Rom. viii. 1, " There is, there- 
fore, now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus." — Veises 33, 
34, " It is God that justifieth ; who is he that condemneth ?" (3.) As to 
its commanding power, believers are not under it neither ; for, 

1. Its commanding and condemning power, in case of transgression, 
are inseparable ; for by the sentence of that covenant, every breaker of 
its commands is bound over to death ; Gal. iii. 10, " Cursed is every 
one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of 
the law, to do them." — " And whatsoever it saith, it saith to them that 
are under it," Rom. iii. 19, Therefore, if believers are under its command- 
ing power, they must needs be under its condemning power, yea, and 
actually bound over to death ; forasmuch as they are, without quesr 
tion, breakers of its commands, if they be indeed under its commanding 
power. 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 161 

believing Hebrews, Heb. xii. 18, 22, 24, " Ye are not 
come to Mount Sinai that might be touched, and that 
burned with fire ; nor unto blackness, and darlcness, and tem- 
pest ; but ye are come unto Mount Zion, the city of the 
living God : and to Jesus, the Mediator of the new covenant." 
So that (to speak with holy reverence) God cannot, by virtue 
of the covenant of works, either require of you any obedience, 
or punish you for any disobedience ; no, he cannot, by virtue 
of that covenant, so much as threaten you, or give you an 



2. If, as to any set of men, the justifying and condemning power be 
removed from that law which God gave to Adam as a covenant of works, 
and to all mankind in him, then the covenant form of that law is done 
away as to them ; so that there is not a covenant of works in being unto 
them, to have a commanding power over them ; but such is the case of 
believers, that law can neither justify them, nor condemn them ; there- 
fore, there is no covenant of works in being betwixt God and them, to 
have a commanding power over them ; our Lord Jesus " blotted 
out the hand-writing, took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross," 
Col. ii. 14. 

3. Believers are dead to the law, as it is the covenant of works, and 
" married to another," Eom. vii. 4. Therefore they are set free from the com- 
manding power of the first husband, the covenant of works. 

4. U'hey are not under it ; Rom. vi. 14, " Ye are not under the law, 
but under grace :" how then can it have a commanding power over 
them ? 

5. The consideration of the nature of the commands of the covenant 
of works may sufficiently clear this point. Its commands bind to per- 
fect obedience, under the pain of the curse, which, on every slip, is bound 
upon the transgressor ; Gal. iii. 10, " Cursed is every one who contiuueth 
not in all things," &c. But Christ hath redeemed believers from the 
curse, verse 13, and the law they are under speaks in softer terms. Psalm 
Lxxxix. 31, 32, " If they break ray statutes, then will I visit their trans- 
gression with the rod," &c. Moreover, it commands obedience upon the 
ground of the strength to perform, given to mankind in Adam, which is 
now gone, and afibrds no new strength ; for there is no promise of strength 
for duty belonging to the covenant of works : and to state believers under 
the covenant of works, to receive commands for their duty, and under 
the covenant of grace, for the promise of strength to perform, looks very 
unlike to the beautiful order of the dispensation of grace, held forth 
to us in the word ; Rom. vi. 14, *' Ye are not under the law, but under 
grace." 

Lastly. Our Lord Jesus put himself under the commanding power of 
the covenant of works, and gave it perfect obedience, to deliver his 
people from under it ; Gal, iv. 4, 5, " God sent forth his Son, made of a 
woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law." 
That they then should put their necks under that yoke again, cannot but 
be highly dishonouring " to this crucified Christ, who disarmed the law 
of its thunders, defaced the obligation of it as a covenant, and, as it were, 
grinded the stones upon which it was wrought to powder." Charuock, 
vol. 2. q. 531. 
14* 



162 THE MARROW OF 

angry word, or show you an angry look ; for indeed he can 
see no sin in you, as a transgression of that covenant ; for, 
says the apostle, " Where there is no law, there is no trans- 
gression, Kom. iv. 15.^ And therefore, though hereafter 
you do through frailty transgress any of all the ten command- 
ments,! yet do you not thereby transgress the covenant of 
works: there is no such covenant now betwixt God and you.:j: 
And therefore, though hereafter you shall hear such a 
voice as this, " If thou wilt be saved, keep the command- 
ments ;" or " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things which are written in the book of the law to do them ;" 
nay, though you hear the voice of thunder and a fearful noise ; 
nay, though you see blackness and darkness, and feel a great 
tempest ; that is to say, though you hear us that are preachers, 
according to our commission, Isa. Iviii. 1, " lift up our voice 
like a trumpet," in threatening hell and damnation to sinners 
and transgressors of the law ; though these be the words of 
God, yet are you not to think that they are spoken to you.J 
No, no ; the apostle assures you that there is no condemnation 
to them that are in Christ Jesus, Kom. viii. 1. Believe it, 
God never threatens eternal death, after he has given to a man 
eternal life. Nay, the truth is, God never speaks to a be- 



* And therefore since there is no covenant of works (or law of works, as 
it is called, Kom. iii. 27,) betwixt God and the believer, it is manifest 
there can be no transgressing of it, in their case. God requires obedience 
of believers, and not only threatens them, gives them angry words and looks, 
but brings heavy judgments on them for their disobedience ; but the promise 
of strength, and penalty of fatherly wrath only, annexed to the commands 
requiring obedience of them, and the anger of God against them, purged of 
the curse, do evidently discover, that none of these come to them, in the chan- 
nel of the covenant of works. 

f And though all the sins of believers are not sins of daily infirmity, 
yet they are all sins of frailty; Gal. v. 17, "For the flesh lusteth against 
the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh, so that ye cannot do the things that 
ye would ;" — Rom. vii. 19, " The evil which I would not, that I do." See chap. 
V. 15 17, and vi. 12. 

J Thus far of the believer's complete deliverance from the covenant of 
works, or from the law, namely, as it is the covenant of works. Follows 
the practical use to be made of it by the believer. And, 1. In hearing of 
the word. 

§ Though they are God's own sayings, found in his written word, and 
spoken by his servants, as having commission from him for that effect ; yet, 
forasmuch as they are the language of the law, as it is the covenant of works, 
they are directed only to those who are under that covenant, Rom. iii. 19, and 
not to believers, who are not under it. 

II And to believers he hath given eternal life already, according to the Scrip- 
ture. See p. 114, note f. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 163 

liever out of Christ ; and in Christ he speaks not a word in 
the terms of the covenant of works * And if the law, of 
itself, should presume to come into your conscience, and say, 
" Herein and herein thou hast transgressed, and broken me, 
and therefore thou owest so much and so much to divine 
justice, which must be satisfied, or else I will take hold on 
thee ;" then answer you and say, " law ! be it known unto 
thee, that I am now married unto Christ, and so I am under 
covert ; and therefore if thou charge me with any debt, thou 
must enter thine action against my husband, Christ, for the 
wife is not sueable at the law, but the husband. But the truth 
is, I through him am dead to thee, law ! and thou art dead 
to me ; and therefore Justice hath nothing to do with me, 
for it judgeth according to the law."t And if it yet reply, 

* Follows, II. The use of it, in conflicts of conscience with the law in 
its demands, sin in its guilt, Satan in his accusations, death in its terrors. 

t He begins with the conflict with the law ; for, as the apostle teaches, 
*' the sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law," 1 Cor. xv. 
56. While the law retains its power over a man, death has its sting, and 
sin its strength against him ; but if once he is dead to the law, wholly 
and altogether set free from it, as it is the covenant of works; then sin 
hath lost its strength, death its sting, and Satan his . plea against him. 
That the author still speaks of the law as it is the covenant of works, 
from the commanding and condemning power of which believers are de- 
livered, and no otherwise, cannot reasonably be questioned, since he is 
still pursuing the practical use of the doctrine anent it as such ; and hav- 
ing before spoken of it as acting by commission from God he treats of it 
here, as acting, as it were, of its own proper motion, and not by any such 
commission. To those who are under the law, the law speaks its demands 
and terrors, as sent from God : but to believers, who are not under it, it cannot 
so speak, but of itself. Rom. viii. 15, " For ye have not received the spirit of 
bondage again to fear." See p. 159. note*, fig. 4. 

Now, in the conflict the believer has with the law or covenant of works, the 
author puts two cases ; in which the conscience needs to be soundly directed, as 
in cases of the utmost weight. 

The first case is this, The law attempting to exercise its condemning 
power over him, accusing him of transgression, demands of him satis- 
faction to the justice of God for his sin, and threatens to hale him to 
execution. In this case, the author dare not advise the afllicted to say, 
with the servant in the parable, Matt, xviii. 26, '' Have patience with 
me, and I will pay thee all ;" but he teaches him to devolve his burden 
wholly upon his surety : he bids him plead, that since " he is married to 
Christ," whatever action the law may pretend to be competent to it, for 
the satisfaction of justice, upon the account of his sin, it must lie betwixt 
the law and Christ, the husband ; but that, in very deed, there remains 
no place for such action, forasmuch as, through Jesus Christ's suffering 
and satisfying to the full, he is set free from the law, and owes nothing to 
justice, nor to the law upon that score. If any man will venture to deal 
in other terms with the law in this case, his experience will at length 



164: THE MARBOW OF 

and say, " Aye, but good works must be done and the com- 
mandments must be kept, if thou wilt obtain salvation ;""^ then 

sufficiently discover his mistake. Now it is manifest that this relates to the 
case of justification. 

* Here is the second case, namely, the law attempting to exercise its 
commanding power over the believer, requires him to do good works, and 
to keep the commandments, if he will obtain salvation. This comes in 
natively in the second place. The author could not, reasonably, rest 
satisfied with the believei-'s being delivered from the curse of the cove- 
nant of works, from the debt owing to divine justice, according to its 
penal sanction ; if he had, he would have left the afflicted still in the 
lurch, in the point of justification, and of inheriting eternal life : he would 
have proposed Christ to him only as a half saviour, and left as much of 
the law's plea behind without an answer as would have concluded him 
incapable of being justified before God, and made an heir of eternal life ; 
for the law, as it is the covenant of works, being broken, has a twofold 
demand on the sinner, each of which must be answered, before he can 
be justified. The one is a demand of satisfaction for sin, arising from, 
and according to its penal sanction : this demand was made in the pre- 
ceding case, and solidly answered. But there remains yet another, namely, 
the demand of perfect obedience, arising from, and according to the set- 
tled condition of that covenant ; and the afflicted must have wherewith 
to answer it also ; otherwise he shall still sink in the deep mire, where 
there is no standing. For as no judge can absolve a man, merely on his 
having paid the penalty of a broken contract, to which he was obliged, 
by and attour the fulfilling of the condition, so no man can be justified 
before God, nor have a right to life, till this demand of the law be also 
satisfied in his case. Then, and not till then, is the law's mouth stopped 
in point of his justification. Thus Adam, before his fall, was free from 
the curse ; yet neither was, nor could be justified and entitled to life, un- 
til he had run the course of his obedience, prescribed him by the law as a 
covenant of works. Accordingly, we are taught that " God justifies sin- 
ners, not only by imputing the satisfaction, but also the obedience of Christ 
unto them." Westm. Confess, chap. 11. art. 1. And that " justification is 
an act of God's free grace, wherein he not only pardoneth all our sins, but 
accepteth us as righteous in his sight." Short. Cat. 

Here then is the second demand of the law, namely, the demand of 
perfect obedience, respecting the case of justification, no less than the 
demand of satisfaction for sin. And it is proposed in such terms as the 
Scripture uses to express the self-same thing. Luke x. 28, " This do, 
and thou shalt live." — Matt, xix. 17, " If thou wilt enter into life, keep 
the commandments." In both which passages our Lord proposeth this 
demand of the covenant of works, for the conviction of the proud legal- 
ists with whom he there had to do. And the truth is, that the terms in 
which this demand stands here conceived, are so very agreeable to the 
style and language of the covenant of works expressed in these texts, and 
elsewhere, that the law, without receding in the least from the propriety 
of expression, might have addressed innocent Adam, in the very same 
terms ; changing only the word salvation into life, because he was not 
yet miserable ; and so saying to him, Good works must be done, and the 
commandments must be kept, if thou wilt obtain life. What impropriety 
there could have been in this saving, while as yet there was no covenant 



MODERN DIVINITY. 165 

answer you, and say, " I am already saved before thou earnest ;* 

known in the world, but the covenant of works, I see not. Even innocent 
Adam was not, by his works, to obtain life, in the way of proper merit ; but in 
virtue of compact only. 

Now, this being the case, one may plainly perceive, that in the true answer 
to it, there can be no place for bringing in any holiness, righteousness, good 
works, and keeping of the commandments, but Christ's only ; for nothing 
else can satisfy this demand of the law. And if a believer should acknowledge 
the necessity of his own holiness and good works, in this point, and so 
set about thera, in order to answer this demand ; then he should grossly 
and abominably pervert the end for which the Lord requires them of him ; put- 
ting his own holiness and obedience in the room of Christ's imputed obe- 
dience ; and so should fix himself in the mire out of which he could never 
escape, until he gave over that way and betook himself again to what Christ 
alone has done for satisfying this demand of the law. But that the excluding 
of our holiness, good-works, and keeping of the commandments, from any 
part in this matter, militates nothing against the absolute necessity of holiness 
in its proper place, (without which, in men's own persons, no man shall see the 
Lord,) is a point too clear among sound Protestant divines, to be here insisted 
upon. 

And hence our author could not instruct Neophytus to say, in this con- 
flict with the law or covenant of works, " It is my sincere resolution, in 
the strength of grace, to follow peace with all men, and holiness." Neither 
would any sound Protestant divine have put such an answer into the mouth 
of the afflicted in this case ; knowing that our evangelical holiness and good 
works (suppose we could attain unto them before justification) would be re- 
jected by the law, as filthy rags ; forasmuch as the law acknowledges no 
holiness, no good works, no keeping of the commandments, but what is every 
way perfect, and will never be satisfied with sincere resolutions, to do, in the 
strength of grace to be given ; but requires doing in perfection, in the 
strength of grace given already, Gal. iii. 10. Therefore our author sends the 
afflicted unto Jesus Christ, the surety for all that is demanded of him by the 
law or covenant of works : and teaches him in this case, to plead Christ's 
works, and keeping of the commands ; and this is the only safe way, which all 
true Christians will find themselves obliged to take at the long run, in this con- 
flict. 

The difficulty raised on this head is owing to that anti-scriptural principle, 
" That believers are under the commanding power of the covenant of works ;" 
which is overthrown before. 

The case itself, and the answer to it at large, is taken from Luther's Sermon 
of the Lost Sheep, pp. 77, 78, and Sermon upon the Hymn of Zacharias, 
p. 50. 

* Saved, namely, really, though not perfectly ; even as a drowning man 
is saved when his head is got above the water, and he, leaning on his 
deliverer, is making towards the shore ; in this case, the believer has no 
more need of the law, or covenant of works, than such a man has of one, 
who, to save him, would lay a weight upon him, that would make him 
sink again beneath the stream. Observe the manner of speaking and 
reasoning used on this head. Tit, iii. 5, " Not by works of righteous- 
ness, which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saved us, by 
the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost." 
— Eph. ii. 8 — 10, " For by grace are ye saved, through faith, not of 
WORKS, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, 



16^ THE MAREOW OF 

created in Christ Jesiis, unto g^ood works." Here (1.) It is undeniable, 
especially according to the original words, that the apostle asserts believers 
to be saved already. (2.) Denying that we are saved by works Avhich 
we have done, he plainly enough intimates, that we are saved by the 
works which Christ has done. (3.) He argues against salvation by our 
works, upon this very ground, that our good works are the fruit following 
our being saved, and the end for which we are saved. Thus he at once 
overthrows the doctrine of salvation by our good works, and establishes 
the necessity of them, as of breathings and other actions of life to a man 
saved from death. (4.) He shows, that inherent holiness is an essential 
part of salvation, without which it can no more consist, than a man 
without a reasonable soul ; for, according to the apostle, •' We are saved 
by our being regenerated, renewed, created in Christ Jesus, unto good 
works." And so is our justification also, with all the privileges depend- 
ing thereupon. In one word, the salvation bestowed on believers, com- 
prehends both holiness and happiness. Thus the apostle Peter disproves 
that principle. Acts xv. 1, ''Except ye be circumcised after the manner of 
Moses, ye cannot be sa\ted," from his own observation of the contrary, 
namely, that God purified the hearts of the Gentiles by faith, ver. 9, adding for 
the part of the Jews, who were circumcised, ver. 11, " We believe, that 
through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they ;" 
that is, even as they were saved, namely, by faith without the works of the 
law. And the apostle Paul, encountering the same error, carries on the dis- 
pute in these terms, that a man is not justified by works. Gal. ii. and iii. 
From whence one may conclude, that justification does no further differ 
from salvation, in the Scripture sense, than an essential part from the 
whole. 

This is the doctrine of holy Luther, and of our author after him, upon this 
head, here and elsewhere. And the disuse of this manner of speaking, and the 
setting of salvation so far from justification, as heaven is from earth, 
are not without danger, as leaving room for works, to obtain salvation 

" They that believe, have already everlasting life, and therefore un- 
doubtedly are justified and holy, without all their own labour." Luther's Chos. 
Sermons, Serm. 10, page [mihi] 113. " How has God, then, remedied 
thy misery ? He has forgiven all my sins, and freed me from the reward there- 
of, and made me righteous, holy, and happy, to live for ever, and that 
of his free grace alone, by the merits of Jesus Christ, and working of the 
Holy Ghost." Mr. James Melvil's Cat. Propine of a Pastor, p. 44. — 
" Now, being made truly and really partakers of Christ, and his righteousness, 
by faith only, and so justified, saved, and counted truly righteous, we are 
to see what God craveth of us in our own part, to witness our thankful- 
ness." Mr. John Davidson's Cat. p. 27. See Palat. Cat. q. 86. — 
*' God delivereth his elect out of it [viz : the estate of sin and misery] and 
bringeth them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant." Larg. Cat. 
q. 30. And surely one cannot be in a state of salvation who is not really 
saved ; more than one can be in a state of health and liberty, who is not 
really saved from sickness and slavery. " Those whom God hath predestinated 
unto life, and those only he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, ef- 
fectually to call, by his word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death in 
which they are by nature, to grace and salvation — effectually drawing them to 
Jesus Christ." Westm. Confess, chap. 10, art. 1. Whence one may easily 
perceive, that a sinner drawn to Jesus Christ, is saved ; though not yet carried 
to heaven. 



MODERN DIVIISriTY. 167 

and therefore I have no need of thy presence,^ for in Christ I 
have all things at once ; neither need I any thing more that is 
necessary t to salvation. He is my righteousness, my treasure, 

*A good reason why a soul united to Jesus Christ, and already saved 
by him really, though not perfectly, hath no need of the presence of her 
first husband, the law, or covenant of works : namely, because she hath 
in Christ, her head and present husband, all things necessary to save her 
perfectly, that is, to make her completely holy and happy. If it were 
not so, believers might yet despair of attaining to it : since Christ shareth 
his office of Saviour with none ; neither is their salvation in any other, 
whether in whole or in part. Acts iv. 12. But surely believers have all 
that is necessary to complete their salvation, in Jesus Christ : forasmuch 
as he " of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctifi- 
catiou, and redemption ;" in the compass of which, there is sufficient pro- 
vision for all the wants of all his people. It is the great ground of their 
comfort, that " it pleased the Father, that in him should all fulness 
dwell," Col. i, 19. And it becomes them, with their whole hearts, to ap- 
prove of the design and end of that glorious and happy constitution, 
namely, that " he that glorieth, glory in the Lord," 1 Cor. i. 31. It is 
true, that fulness is so iar from being actually conveyed, in the measure 
of every part, into the persons of believers at once, that the stream of 
conveyance will run through all the ages of eternity, in heaven, as well 
as on earth. Nevertheless, whole Christ, with all his fulness, is given 
to them at once, and therefore they have all necessary for them at once, 
in him as their Head. 1 Cor. iii. 21, "All things are yours." — Philip, iv. 
18, " I have all, and abound." — 2 Cor. vi. 10, " As having nothing, yet pos- 
sessing all things." — Col. ii. 10, *' And ye are complete in him, which is the 
Head." 

f But are not personal holiness, and godliness, good works, and perse- 
verance in holy obedience, jostled out at tliis rate as unnecessary ? No, 
by no means. For Christ is the only fountain of holiness, and the cause 
of good works, in those who are united to him ; so that, where union 
with Christ is, there is personal holiness infallibly ; there they do good 
works, if capable of them, and persevere therein ; and where it is not, 
all pretences to these things are utterly vain. Therefore are ministers di- 
rected to prosecute such doctrines, and make choice of such uses, espe- 
cially, " as may most draw souls to Christ, the fountain of light, holi- 
ness, and comfort." Directory, tit. " Of the Preaching of the Word." 
— " As we willingly spoil ourselves of all honour and glory of our own 
creation and redemption, so do we also of our regeneration and sanctifi- 
cation ; for of ourselves we are not sufficient to think one good thought ; 
but he who has begun the work in us, is only he that continues us in 
the same, to the praise and glory of his undeserved grace. So that the 
cause of good works, we confess to be, not our free will, but the Spirit of the 
Lord Jesus, who, dwelling in our hearts by true faith, bringeth forth 
such works, as God has prepared for us to walk in. For this we most 
boldly affirm, that blasphemy it is to say, that Christ abideth in the 
hearts of such, as in whom there is no spirit of sanctification." Old 
Confes. art. 12, 13.—" M. What is the effect of thy faith ? C. That Jesus 
Christ his Sou came down into this world, and accomplished all things, 
which were necessary for our salvation." The Manner to Examine Cliil- 
dren, &c,, quest. 3. — " Whether we look to our justification or sanctifi- 



168 THE MAREOW OF 

and work ;* I confess, law ! that I am neither godly nor 
righteous,! but yet this I am sure of, that he is godly and 

cation, they are wholly wrought and perfected by Christ, in whom we 
are complete, howbeit after a diverse sort." Mr. John Davidson's Cat. 
p. 34. The truth is, personal holiness, godliness, and perseverance, are 
parts of the salvation already bestowed on the believer, and good works 
begun, the necessary fruit thereof. See the preceding note, and p. 114, 
notef. And he hath, in Christ his head, what infallibly secures the con- 
servation of his personal holiness and godliness : his bringing forth of 
good w^orks still, and perseverance in holy obedience, and the bringing 
of the whole to perfection in another life, and so completing the begun 
salvation. If men will, without warrant from the word, restrain the term 
salvation to happiness in heaven, then all these, according to the doctrine 
here taught, are necessary to salvation, as what of necessity must go be- 
fore it, in subjects capable ; since, in a salvation carried on by degrees, 
what is by the unalterable order of the covenant first conferred on a 
man, must necessarily go before that which, by the same unalterable 
order, is conferred on hira in the last place. But in the sense of Luther 
and our author, all these are comprehended in the salvation itself. For 
justifying of which, one may observe, that when the salvation is com- 
pleted, they are perfected ; and the saints in glory work perfectly good 
works, without interruption, throughout all eternity ; for they were the 
great end God designed to bring about by the means of salvation. To 
the Scripture texts adduced in the preceding note, add 2 Tim. ii. 10, 
" I endure all things, for the elect's sake, that they also may obtain the 
salvation, which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory," Here is a spirit- 
ual salvation, plainly distinguished from eternal glory. Compare 1 Pet. 
i. 8, 9, " Believing, ye rejoice. Receiving the end of your faith, even 
the salvation of your souls." This receiving of salvation, in the present 
time, is but the accomplishment of that promise, in part ; Acts xvi. 31, 
" Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved ;" which, I 
make no question, bears a great deal of salvation, communicated on this 
side death, as well as beyond it ; Matt. i. 21, " He shall save his people 
from their sins." Thus, salvation comprehends personal holiness and 
godliness. And the Scripture holds out good works, as things that ac- 
company salvation, Heb. vi. 9, and as the fruit of it, Luke i. 71 — 75, 
" That we should be saved from our enemies — being delivered out of the 
hands of our enemies, we might serve him without fear, in holiness and 
righteousness before him, all the days of our life." For it is an ever- 
lasting salvation, Isa. xlv. 17, importing a perseverance in holy obedience to 
the end. 

* My righteousness, upon which I am justified, my treasure, out of which 
all my debt to the law, or covenant of works, is paid, and my work, 
whence my righteousness arises, and which I can, with safety and comfort, 
oppose to the law-demand of work. " The law of God we confess and ac- 
knowledge most just, most equal, most holy, most perfect, commanding these 
things, which being wrought in perfection, were able to give life, and able to 
bring man to eternal felicity. But our nature is so corrupt, so weak, and so 
imperfect, that we are never able to fulfil the works of the law in perfection — 
and therefore it behoves us to apprehend Christ Jesus, with his justice, i. e., his 
righteousness and satisfaction, who is the end and accomplishment of the law." 
Old Confess, art. 1.5. 

t Namely, in the eye of the law, which acknowledgeth no godliness 



MODERN DIVINITY. 169 

righteous for me."^" And to tell the truth, law ! I am now 
with him in the bridechamber, where it maketh no matter 
what I am,f or what I have done ; but what Christ, my sweet 
husband, is, has done, and does for me ::[: and therefore leave 
off* law, to dispute with me, for by faith ' I apprehend him 
who hath apprehended me,' and put me into his bosom. 
Wherefore I will be bold to bid Moses with his tables, and 
all lawyers with their books, and all men with their works, 
hold their peace and give place :§ so that I say unto thee, O 

nor righteoasness, bat what is every way perfect ; Rom. iv. 5, " Be- 
lieveth on him that justifieth the ungodly." And to plead any other sort of 
godliness or righteousness, in the conflict of conscience with the law, is vain. 
Gal. iii. 10. 

*That is, Christ hath perfect purity of nature and life, which is all 
that the law can demand in point of conformity and obedience to its 
commandments ; he was born holy, and he lived holy in perfection. 
Now, both these are imputed to believers, not in point of sanctification, 
but of jiLstification ; for without the imputation of them both, no flesh 
could be justified before God, because the law demands of every man 
purity of nature, as well as purity of life, and both of them in perfection ; 
and since we have neither the one nor the other in ourselves, we must 
have both by imputation, else wo must remain under the condemnation 
of the law. So, the Palatine Catechism. *' Q. How art thou righteous 
before God? A. The perfect satisfaction, righteousness, and holiness of 
Christ is imputed and given unto me, as if I had neither committed any 
sin, neither were there any blot or corruption cleaving unto me. Q. 60. 
The use — If Satan yet lay to my charge, Although in Christ Jesus thou 
hast satisfied the punishment which thy sins deserved, and hast put on 
his righteousness by faith, yet thou canst not deny, but that thy nature 
is corrupt, so that thou art prone to all ill, and thou hast in thee, the seed of 
all vices. Against this temptation this answer is sufficient. That by the good- 
ness of God, not only perfect righteousness, but even the holiness of Christ 
also, is imputed and given unto me," &c. Ibid. — " The satisfaction, righteous- 
ness, and holiness of Christ alone is my righteousness, in the sight of God." 
Ibid, quest. 61. 

t Namely, to the law or covenant of works, which has no power over me, 
who am now married to another. 

X Luther expresses it thus, " What I am, or what I ought to do, and what 
not to do ; but what Christ himself is, ought to do. and doth." 

g Moses with his tables, here, is no more, in the sense of Luther and 
our author, but the law, as it is the covenant of works ; the which, whoso 
in the conflict of conscience with it, can treat at this rate, he is strong in 
faith, and happy is he. Consider the Scripture phrase, John v. 45, 
*' There is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust.'' Com- 
pare Rom. ii. 17, " Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the 
LAW." By Moses here, is not meant the person of Moses, but Moses' 
law, which the carnal Jews trusted to be saved and justified by ; that is 
plainly, by the law, as it is the covenant of works. And in our author's 
judgment, the law was given on Mount Sinai as the covenant of works. 
And he shows, that although Luther, and Calvin too, do thus exempt 
a believer from the law, in the case of justification, and as it is the covenant of 
15 



•170 THE MAEROW OF 

law [ be gone." And if it will not be gone, tben thrust it out 
by force, saj^s Luther."^ 

And if sin offer to take hold of you, as David said his did 
on him, Psalm xl, 12; then say you unto it, "Thy strength, 
O sin, is the law, 1 Cor. xv. 66, and the law is dead to me, 
So that, sin, thy strength is gone ; and therefore be sure 
thou shalt never be able to prevail against me, nor do me any 
hurt at all."t 

And if Satan take you by the throat, and by violence draw 
you before God's judgment-seat, then call to your husband, 
Christ, and say, "Lord, I suffer violence, make answer for 
me, and help me." And by his help you shall be enabled to 
plead for yourself, after this manner : God the Father ! I 
am thy Son Christ's ; thou gavest me unto him, and thou hast 
given unto him "all power, both in heaven and in earth, and 
hast committed all judgment to him ;" and therefore I will 
stand to his judgment, who says, " he came not to judge the 
world, but to save it ;" and therefore he will save me, accord- 



works, yet do they not so out of the case of justification, and as it is the law of 
Christ. P. 184—186. And so, at once, clears them and himself from that 
odious charge which some might find in their hearts to fix upon them from 
such expressions. 

* Luther's words are, " Then it is time to send it (the law) away, and if it 
will not give place," &c. See the preceding note. 

t Here is the use to be made of the same former doctrine, in the con- 
flict of conscience with sin. Guilt, even the guilt of revenging wrath is 
the handle by which, in this conflict, sin offers to take hold of the be- 
liever, as it did of David, Psalm xl. 12. Who, in that Psalm, speaks ag 
a type of Christ, on whom the guilt of the elect's sin was laid. " Now, in 
respect of that guilt, the strength of sin is the law, or covenant of works, 
with its cursing and condemning power, from which, since believers are 
delivered, that strength of sin is gone as to them ; they are free from the 
guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of God." Westra. Confess, chap. 
20. art. 1. — " The revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this 
life." Larg. Cat. quest. 77. Whence it necessarily follows, that sin, in 
this attack, can never prevail nor really hurt them in this point, since 
there neither is, nor can be, any such guilt remaining upon them. How 
sin may otherwise prevail against a believer, and what hurt it may do him 
in other respects, the author expressly teaches here and elsewhere. In 
the manner of expression, he follows famous divines, whose names are 
in honour in the church of Christ. " God saith unto me, I will forgive 
thee thy sin, neither shall thy sins hurt thee." Luther, Chos. Serm. 
p. 40.— "Forasmuch as Jesus Christ hath, by one infinite obedience, 
made satisfaction to the infinite majesty of God, it followeth, that my 
iniquities can no more fray nor trouble me, my accounts being assuredly 
razed by the precious blood of Christ." Beza, Confess, point 4. art. 10. — 
*' Even as the viper that was upon Paul's hand, though the nature of it 
was to kill presently, yet when God had charmed it, you see it hurt bun 



MODERN DIVINITY. 171 

ing to his office. And if the jury* shouldf bring in their ver- 
dict that they have found you guilty, then speak to the Judge, 
and say. In case any must be condemned for my transgres- 
sions, it must needs be Christ, and not I ; :j: for albeit I have 
committed them, yet he hath undertaken and bound himself 
to answer for them, and that by the consent and good-will of 
God his Father: and indeed he hath fully satisfied for them. 

And if death creep upon you, and attempt to devour you ; 
then say, "Thy sting, death! is sin; and Christ my hus- 
band has fully vanquished sin, and so deprived thee of thy 
sting; and therefore do I not fear any hurt that thou, O 
death ! canst do unto me." And thus you may triumph 
with the apostle, saying, "Thanks be unto God, who hath 
given me the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ." 1 Cor. 
XV. 56, 57. 

And thus have I also declared unto you how Christ, in the 
fulness of time, performed that which God before all time 
purposed, and in time promised, touching the helping and 
delivering of fallen mankind. 

And so have I also done with the " Law of Faith." 

not ; so it is with sin, though it be in us, and though it hang upon us, yet 
the venom of it is taken away, it hurts us not, it condemns us not. Dr. Preston 
on Faith, p. 51. Hear the language of the Spirit of God, Luke x. 19 ; " And 
nothing shall by any means hurt you." — " Notliing shall hurt their souls, as to 
the favour of God, and their eternal happiness," says the author of the Supple- 
ment to Poole's Annot. on the Text. 

* The ten commandments. 

f By your own conscience. 

X See page 153, note^. 



1?S THE MARROW OF 

CHAPTER III. 
OF THE LAW OF CHRIST. 

Sect. 1. The nature of the Law of Christ.— 2. The law of the ten com- 
mandments a rule of life to believers. — 3. Antiuomian objections an- 
swered. — 4. The necessity of marks and signs of grace. — 5. Antinomian 
objections answered. — 6. Holiness and good works attained to only by 
faith. — 7. Slavish fear and servile hope not the springs of true obe- 
dience. — 8. The efficacy of faith for holiness of heart and life. — 9. Use 
of means for strengthening of faith. — 10. The distinction of the law of works, 
and law of Christ, applied to six paradoxes. — 11. The use of that distinction 
in practice. — 12. That distinction a mean betwixt Legalism and Antinomian- 
ism. — 13. How to attain to assurance. — 14. Marks and evidences of true 
faith. — 15. How to recover lost evidences. — 16. Marks and signs of union 
with Christ. 

Sect. 1. — Nom. Then sir, I pray you, proceed to speak of the 
law of Christ ; and first, let us hear what the law of Christ is. 

Evan. The law of Christ, in regard of substance and 
matter, is all one with the law of works, or covenant of works. 
Which matter is scattered through the whole Bible, and 
summed up in the decalogue, or ten commandments, com- 
monly called the moral laiv, containing such things as are 
agreeable to the mind and will of God, that is, piety towards 
God, charity towards our neighbour, and sobriety towards 
ourselves. And therefore was it given of God to be a true 
and eternal rule of righteousness, for all men, of all nations, 
and at all times. So that evangelical grace directs a man to 
no other obedience than that whereof the law of the ten com- 
mandments is to be the rule.^ 

Nom. But yet, sir, I conceive, that though (as you say) 

* The author here teaches, that the matter of the law of works and of 
the law of Christ, is one, namely, the ten commandments, commonly 
called the moral law. — See p. 28, note*. And that this law of the ten 
commandments was given of God, and so of divine authority, to be a 
rule of righteousness for men to walk by ; a true rule agreeable in all tilings 
to the divine nature and will ; an eternal rule, indispensable, ever to con- 
tinue, without interruption for any one moment ; and that for all men, 
good, bad, saints and sinners, of all nations, Jews and Gentiles, and at all 
times, in all ages, from the moment of man's creation, before the fall, and 
after the fall ; before the covenant of works, under the covenant of works, 
and under the covenant of grace, in its several periods. Thus he asserts this 
great truth, in terms used by orthodox divines, but with a greater variety of 
expression than is generally used upon this head, the which serves to 
inculcate it the more. And speaking of the ten commandments, he 
declares in these words, "That neither hath Christ delivered believers 
any otherwise from them, than as they are the covenant of works. The 
scope of this part of the book, is to show that believers ought to receive 



MODERN DIVINITY. 173 

the law of Christ, in regard of substance and matter, be all one 
with the law of works, yet their forms do differ. 

Evan. True, indeed; for (as you have heard) the law of 
works speaks on this wise, " Do this and thou shalt live ; 
and if thou do it not, then thou shalt die the death :" but the 
law of Christ speaketh on this wise, Ezek. xvi. 6, "And when 
I passed by thee, and saw thee polluted in thine own blood, I 
said unto thee, when thou wast in thy blood, live." — John xi. 
26, " And whosoever liveth and believeth in me, shall never 
die."* — Eph. v. 1, 2, " Be ye therefore followers of God, as 



them as the law of Christ, whom we believe to be with the Father, and 
the Holy Ghost, the eternal Jehovah, the Supreme, the most High God ; 
and consequently as a law having a commanding power, and binding force, 
upon the believer, from the authority of God, and not as a simple pas- 
sive rule, like a workman's rule, that hath no authority over him, to 
command and bind him to follow its direction. Nay, our author owns 
the ten commandments to be a law to believers, as well as others, 
again and again commanding, requiring, forbidding, reproving, condemn- 
ing sin, to which believers must yield obedience, and fenced with a 
penalty, which transgressing believers are to fear, as being under the 
law to Christ. These things are so manifest, that it is quite beyond my 
reach to conceive how, from the author's doctrine on this head, and es- 
pecially from the passage we are now upon, it can be inferred that he 
teaches, that the believer is not under the law as a rule of life ; or can 
be affirmed that he does not acknowledge the law's commanding power, 
and binding force upon the believer, but makes it a simple passive rule 
to him ; unless the meaning be, that the author teaches, " That the 
believer is not under the covenant of works as a rule of life ?" or, " That 
the law, as it is the covenant of works, is not a rule of life to the believer ; 
and that he does not acknowledge the commanding power, and binding 
force of the covenant of works upon the believer ; nor that obedience is 
commanded him upon the pain of the curse, and bound upon him with 
the cords of the threatening of eternal death in hell." For, otherwise, it 
is evident that he teaches the law of the ten commandments to be a rule 
of life to a believer, and to have a commanding and binding power over 
him. Now, if these be errors, the author is undoubtedly guilty ; and if 
his sentiments on these heads were proposed in those terms, as the thing 
itself doth require, no wrong would be done him therein. But that these 
are gospel-truths, appears from what is already said : and the contrary 
doctrines do all issue out of the womb of that dangerous position, " That 
the believer is not set free both from the commanding and condemning 
power of the covenant of works," — of which before. See p. 22, note*, and p. 26, 
note*. 

* These texts are adduced to show, that they to whom the law of the 
ten commandments is given, as the law of Christ, are those who have 
already received life, even life that shall never end; and that of God's 
free gift, before they were capable of doing good works ; who therefore 
need not to work for life, but from life. " The preface to the ten com- 
mandments teaches us, that because God is the Lord, and our God, and 
Redeemer, therefore we are bound to keep all his commandments*" 
15* 



174 THE MARROW OF 

dear cTiildren: and walk in love, as Christ hath loved us." 
And " if ye love me, keep my commandments," John xiv. 15. 
And "if they break my statutes, and keep not my command- 
ments, then will I visit their transgressions with a rod, and 
their iniquity with stripes ; nevertheless my loving-kindness 
will I not utterly take away from him, nor suffer my faithful- 
ness to fail," Psalm Ixxxix. 31 — 33. Thus, you see, that 
both these laws agree in saying, " Do this." But here is the 
difference ; the one saith, *'Do this and live;" and the other 
saith, " Live, and do this;" the one saith, Do this /o?- life; 
the other saith. Do this from life: the one saith, "If thou do 
it not, thou shalt die ;" the other saith, " If thou do it not, 
I will chastise thee with the rod."^ The one is to be delivered 
by God as he is Creator out of Christ, only to such as are 
out of Christ ; the other is to be delivered by God, as he is 
a Redeemer in Christ, only to such as are in Christ.f Where- 
fore, neighbour Neophytus, seeing that you are now in Christ, 

Luke i. 74, " That we being delivered out of the hands of our ene- 
mies, might serve him without fear." — 1 Pet. i. 15, "As he that hath 
called you is holy, so be ye holy ; because it is written, Be ye holy for I am 
holy. Forasmuch as ye know, that ye were not redeemed with corruptible 
things — but with the precious blood of Christ." Short. Cat. with the Scrip- 
tures at large. 

^ See pages 113, 114, notes*, f. Of this penalty of the law of Christ, the 
author treats afterwards. 

t To direct the believer how to receive the law of the ten command- 
ments with application to himself, he assigns this difference betwixt the 
law of works and the law of Christ. The one, namely, the law of works, 
is the law of the ten commandments, but supposed to be delivered by 
God as he is Creator out of Christ; and so standing in relation to man, 
only as Creator, not as Eedeemer ; the other, namely, the law of Christ, 
is the same law of the ten commandments, but supposed to be delivered 
by God, as he is not only Creator but Redeemer in Christ. And al- 
though the notion of Creator doth not imply that of Redeemer, yet the 
latter implies the former ; as he is Redeemer, he is sovereign Lord Crea- 
tor, else we are yet in our sins, for none of inferior dignity could remove 
our offence or guilt ; but the word of truth secures this foundation of be- 
lievers' safety and comfort ; Isa. xliv. 6, 24, " Thus saith the Lord, the 
King of Israel, and his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts, I am the First, and 
I am the Last, and besides me there is no God. Thus saith the Lord, 
thy Redeemer, and He that formed thee from the' womb, I am the Lord 
that maketh all things, that stretcheth forth the heavens alone, that 
spreadeth abroad the earth by myself." — Chap. liv. 5, " Thy Maker is thine 
Husband." 

Now, the law of the ten commandments is given, the former way, only 
to unbelievers, or such as are out of Christ, the latter way to believers, 
or such as are in Christ. And to prove whether this be a vain distinc- 
tion or not, one needs but to consult the conscience, when thoroughly 
awakened, whether it is all a case to it, to receive the law of the ten 



MODERN DIVINITY. 175 

beware that 3^ou receive not the ten commandments at the 
hands of God out of Christ, nor yet at the hands of Moses, but 
only at the hands of Christ ; and so shall you be sure to re- 
ceive them as the law of Christ."^ 

Nom. But, sir, may not God out of Christ deliver the ten 
commandments, as the law of Christ? 

Evan. no ! for God out of Christ stands in relation to 
man, according to the tenor of the law as it is the covenant of 
works ; and, therefore, can speak to man upon no other terms 
than the terms of that covenant.f 

commandments in the thunders from Mount Sinai, or in the still small voice, 
out of the tabernacle, that is, from an absolute God, or from a God in 
Christ. 

It is true, unbelievers are not under the law, as it is the law of Christ ; 
and that is their misery, even as it is the misery of the slaves, that the com- 
mands of the master of the family, though the matter of them be the very 
sanie to them, and to the children, yet they are not fatherly commands to them, 
as they are to the children, but purely masterly. And they are not hereby 
freed from any duty, within the compass of the perfect law of the ten com- 
mandments ; for these commands are the matter of the law of works, as well 
as of the law of Christ. Neither are they thereby exempted from Christ's 
authority and jurisdiction, since the law of works is his law, as he is with the 
Father and the Holy Ghost, the Sovereign Lord Creator : yea, and even as 
Mediator, he rules in the midst of his enemies, and over them, with a rod of 
iron. 

^ The receiving of the ten commandments at the hands of Christ, is 
here opposed, (1.) To the receiving of them at the hands of God out of 
Christ. (2.) To the receiving of them at the hands of Moses, namely, as 
our Lawgiver. The first is a receiving of them immediately from God, 
without a Mediator ; and so receiving of them as the law of works. The 
second is a receiving of them from Christ, the true Mediator, yet imme- 
diately by the intervention of a typical one, and so is a receiving of them 
as a law of Moses, the typical Mediator, who delivered them from the 
ark or tabernacle. To this it is, and not to the delivering of them from 
Mount Sinai, that the author doth here look, as is evident from his own words, 
page 181. The former manner of receiving them is not agreeable to the 
state of real believers, since they never were, nor are given in that manner 
to believers in Christ, but only to unbelievers, whether under the Old or New 
Testament. The latter is not agreeable to the state of New Testament be- 
lievers, since the true Mediator is come, and is sealed of the Father, as the 
great Prophet, to whom Moses must give place, Matt. xvii. 5 ; Acts iii. 22. 
See Turret, loc. 11. q. 24, th. 15. However, the not receiving of Moses as the 
lawgiver of the christian church, carries no prejudice to the honour of that 
faithful servant ; nor to the receiving of his writings, as the word of 
God, they being of divine inspiration, yea, and the fundamental divine 
revelation. 

f This plainly concludes, that to receive the law of the ten commandments 
from God, as Creator out of Christ, is to receive them as the law (or covenant) 
of works ; unless men will fancy, that after God hath made two covenants, the 
one of works, the other of grace, he will yet deal with them neither in the way 
of the one, nor of the other. 



rlTlB THE MARROW OF 

Sect. 2. — Nom. But, sir, why may not believers amongst the 
Gentiles receive the ten commandments as a rule of life, at 
the hands of Moses, as well as the believers amongst the Jews 
did? 

Evan. For answer hereunto, I pray you consider that, the 
ten commandments being the substance of the law of nature* 
engraven in the heart of man in innocency, and the express 
idea, or representation of God's own image, even a beam of his 
own holiness, were to have been a rule of life both to 
Adam and his posterity, though they never had been the cove- 
nant of works ;t but being become the covenant of words, they 
were to have been a rule of life to them, as a covenant of 
works.:]: And then, being as it were raised out of man's heart 
by his fall, they were made known to Adam, and the rest of 
the believing fathers, by visions and revelations, and so were a 



* Callino: the ten commandments but the substance of the law of na- 
ture, he plainly intimates, that they were not the whole of that law, but 
that the law of nature had a penal sanction. Compare his speaking of 
the same ten commands, still as the substance of the law of works, and of 
the law of Christ, pages 170, 171. Indeed, he is not of opinion, that a 
penal sanction is inseparable from the law of nature. That would put the 
glorified saints, and confirmed angels in heaven, (to say nothing more,) 
under a penal sanction too ; for without question, they are, and will re- 
main for ever, under the law of nature. The truth is, the law of nature is 
suited both to the nature of God, and to the nature of the creature ; and 
there is no place for a penal sanction, where there is no possibility of trans- 
gression. 

fThe ten commands being the substance of the law of nature, a 
representation of God's image, and a beam of his holiness, behoved for 
ever unalterably to be a rule of life to mankind, in all possible states, 
conditions, and circumstances ; nothing but the utter destruction of hu- 
man nature, and its ceasing to be, could divest them of that office, since God 
is unchanging in his image and holiness. Hence, their being a rule of 
life to Adam and his posterity, had no dependence on their becoming 
the covenant of works ; but they would have been that rule, though there 
never had been any such covenant : yea, whatever covenant was introduced, 
whether of works or of grace, whatever form might be put upon them, they 
behoved still to remain the rule of life ; no covenant, no form whatsoever, 
could ever prejudice this their royal dignity. Now, whether this state 
of the matter, or their being the covenant of works, which was merely 
accessory to them, and might never have been at all, is the firmer foun- 
dation, to build their being a rule of life upon, is no hard question to deter- 
mine. 

X And would have been so always to them all, till they had perfectly fulfilled 
that covenant, had they not been divested of that form, unto believers, through 
Jesus Christ their surety. To them they remain to be a rule of life, but not 
-under the forn\ of the covenant of works ; but to unbelievers they are, and 
still will be, a rule of life under that form. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 177 

rule of life to him f yet not as the covenant of works, as 
they were before his fall, and so continued until the time of 
Moses. And as they were delivered by Moses unto the be- 
lieving Jews from the ark, and so as from Christ, they were a 
rule of life to them, until the time of Christ's coming in the 
flesh.f And since Christ's coming in the flesh, they have 
been and are to be, a rule of life both to believing Jews and 
believing Gentiles, unto the end of the world; not as they are 
delivered by Moses, but as they are delivered by Christ : for 
when Christ the Son comes and speaks himself, then Moses 
the servant must keep silence; according as Moses himself 
foretold, Acts iii. 22, saying, "A prophet shall the Lord your 
God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him 
shall ye hear in all things which he shall say unto you.":!: And, 
therefore, when the disciples seemed to desire to hear Moses 



* And to them. One will not think strange to hear, that the ten com- 
mands were, as it were, razed out of man's heart by the fall, if one 
considers the spirituality and vast extent of them, and that they were, in 
their perfection engraven on the heart of man, in his creation, and doth 
withal take notice of the ruin brought on man by the fall. Hereby he 
indeed lost the very knowledge of the law of nature, if the ten commandg 
are to be reckoned, as certainly they are, the substance and matter of 
that law ; although he lost it not totally, but some remains thereof were 
left with him. Concerning these the apostle speaks, Rom. i. 19, 20 ; and 
ii. 14, 15. And our author teaches expressly, that the law is partly 
known by nature, that is, in its corrupt state, See page 181. And here 
he says, not simply, that the ten commandments were razed, though in 
another case (page 44,) he speaks after that manner, where yet it is evi- 
dent he means not a razing quite; but he says, "They were, as it were, 
razed." But what are these remains of them in comparison with that 
body of natural laws, fairly written, and deeply engraven, on the heart of 
innocent Adam ? If they were not, as it were, razed, what need is there 
of writing a new copy of them in the hearts of the elect, according to the 
promise of the new covenant ? "I will put my laws into their hearts, 
and in their minds will I write them," Heb. x, 16, and viii. 10 ; Jer. 
xxxi. 33. What need was there of writing them in the book of the Lord, 
the Bible, in which they were made known again to us, as they were to 
Adam and the believing fathers, the author speaks of, by visions and re- 
velations ? the latter being as necessary to them as the former is to us, for that 
end, since these supplied to them the want of the Scriptures. As for those, 
who neither had these visions and revelations given to themselves, nor the 
doctrine thereby taught communicated to them by others, it is manifest they 
could have no^ more knowledge of those laws, than was to be found among the 
ruins of mankind in the fall. 

f As to the delivering of the ten commandments from the ark, or the 
tabernacle, see the sense of it, and the Scripture ground for it. Page 74, note*, 
and page 83, note f. 

X See page 175, note *. 



178 THE MARROW OF 

and Elias* speak on the mountain Tabor, they were presently- 
taken away; and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, " This 
is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased ; hear ye him," 
Matt. xvii. 4, 5. As if the Lord had said. You are not now to 
hear either Moses or Elias, but my " well-beloved Son ;" and, 
therefore, I say unto you. Hear HiM.f And is it not said, 
Heb. i. 2, " That in these last days God hath spoken to us by 
his Son?" and doth not the apostle say, "Let the word of 
Christ dwell in you richly ; and whatsoever 3''0u do, in word 
or deed, do all in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ." The 
wife must be subject unto the husband, as unto Christ ;:f the 
child must yield obedience to his parents, as unto Christ ; and 
the believing servant must do his master's business, as Christ's 
business ; for says the apostle, " Ye serve the Lord Christ," 
Col. iii. 16—24. Yea, says he to the Galatians, " Bear ye one 
another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ," Gal. vi. 2. 

Ant. Sir, I like it very well, that you say, Christ should be 
a Christian's teacher, and not Moses ; but yet I question whe- 
ther the ten commandments may be called the law of Christ ; 
for where can you find them repeated, either by our Saviour, 
or his apostles, in the whole New Testament ? 

Evan. Though we find not that they are repeated in such 
a method as they are set down in Exodus and Deuteronomy, 
yet so long as we find that Christ and his apostles did require 
and command these things, that are therein commanded, and 
reprove and condemn those things that are therein forbidden, 
and that both by their lives and doctrines, it is sufficient to 
prove them to be the law of Christ.g 

* The former, the giver of the law, the latter the restorer of it. 

f " Which words establish Christ as the ODly doctor and teacher of his 
church ; the only one whom he had betrusted to deliver his truths and will to 
his people ; the only one to whom Christians are to hearken," Sup. to Poole's 
Annot. on Matt. xvii. 5. 

X " Wives, submit yourselves unto your husbands as unto the Lord," 
Eph. V. 22. 

^ Whether or not this be suflScient to prove them to be the law of 
Christ, having a divine, authoritative, binding power on men's consciences, 
notwithstanding of the term doctrines here used by the author, one may 
judge from these texts : Matt. vii. 28, 29, " The people were astonished 
at his doctrine, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the 
scribes." — John vii. 16, "My doctrine is not mine, but His that sent me." 
— Heb. i. 1 — 3, " God, who at sundry times, and in divers manners, spake 
in time past unto the fathers, by the prophets, hath in these last days 
spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, 
by whom also he made the worlds ; who being the brightness of his glory, 
and the express image of bis person," &c. — Matt, xxvii. 18 — 20, " All 



MODERK DIVINITY. 179 

Ant. I think, indeed, they have done so, touching some of 
the commandments, but not touching all. 

Evan. Because you say so, I entreat you to consider, — 

Ist^ Whether the true knowledge of God required, John iii. 
19 ; and the want of it condemned, 2 Thess. i. 8 ; and the true 
love of God required. Matt. xxii. 37 ; and the want of it re- 
proved, John V. 42 ; and the true fear of God required, 1 Pet. 
ii. 17 ; Heb. xii. 28 ; and the want of it condemned, Kora. iii. 
18 ; and the true trusting in God required, and the trusting 
in the creature forbidden, 2 Cor. i. 9 ; 1 Tim. vi. 17 ; be not 
the substance of the first commandment. 

And consider, 2dly, Whether the " hearing and reading of 
God's word," commanded, John v. 39 ; Eev. i. 3 ; and " prayer," 
required, Eom. xii. 12 ; 1 Thess. v. 17 ; and " singing of 
psalms," required, Col. iii. 16 ; James v. 13 ; and whether 
*' idolatry," forbidden, 1 Cor. x. 14 ; 1 John v. 21 ; be not the 
substance of the second commandment. 

And consider, ^dly^ Whether " worshipping of God in 
vain," condemned. Matt. xv. 9 ; and " using vain repetitions 
in prayer," forbidden. Matt. vi. 7 ; and " hearing of the word 
only, and not doing," forbidden, James i. 22 ; whether " wor- 
shipping God in spirit and truth," commanded, John iv. 24 ; 
and "praying with the spirit and with understanding also;" 
and " singinoj with the spirit" and " with understanding also," 
commended, 1 Cor. xiv. 15 ; and " taking heed what we hear," 
Mark iv. 24 ; be not the substance of the third command- 
ment. 

Consider, 4ithly^ Whether Christ's rising from the dead the 
first day of the week, Mark xvi. 2, 9 ; the disciples assembling, 
and Christ's appearing unto them, two several first days of the 
week, John xx. 19, 26 ; and the disciples coming together and 
breaking bread, and preaching afterwards on that day, Acts 
XX. 7 ; 1 Cor. xvi. 2 ; and John's being in the Spirit on the 
Lord's day, Eev. i. 10 ; I say, consider whether these things do 
not prove, that the first day of the week is to be kept as the 
Christian Sabbath. 

Consider, bthly^ Whether the apostle's saying, " Children, 



power is given unto me in heaven and earth : go ye, therefore, and teach 
all nations, to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you." The 
original word, in the Old Testament, rendered law, doth properly signify a doc- 
iriue. Hence, Matt. xv. 9, " Teaching for doctrines the commandments of men," 
'. e., the laws and commands of men, for the laws and commands of God. 
Jompare verses 4 — 6. 



18(X THE MARROW OF 

obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right : honour "thy 
father and thy mother, which is the first commandment with 
promise," Eph. vi. 1, 2, and all these other exhortations, given 
by him and the apostle Peter, both to inferiors and superiors, 
to do their duty to each other, Eph. v. 22, 25 ; Eph. vi. 4, 5, 
9 ; Col. iii, 18—22 ; Tit. iii. 1 ; 1 Pet. iii. 1 ; 1 Pet. ii. 18 ; 
I say, consider whether all these places do not prove that the 
duties of the fifth commandment are required in the New Tes- 
tament. 

Here you see are five of the ten commandments; and as 
for the other five, the apostle reckons them up altogether, say- 
ing, " Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, 
Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness. Thou 
shalt not covet," Kom. xiii. 9. Now, judge you whether the 
ten commandments be not repeated in the New Testament ; 
and so consequently whether they be not the law of Christ, 
and whether a believer be not under the law to Christ, or 
*' in the law through Christ," as the apostle's phrase is, 1 Cor. 
ix. 21. 

Sect. 3. — Ant. But yet, sir, as I remember, both Luther and 
Calvin do speak as though a believer were so quite freed from 
the law by Christ, as that he need not make any conscience at 
all of yielding obedience to it. 

Evan. I know right well that Luther on the Galatians, 
p. 59, says, " The conscience hath nothing to do with the law or 
works ;" and that Calvin, in his Instit. p. 403, says, " The con- 
science of the faithful, when the affiance of their justifica- 
tion before God is to be sought, must raise and advailce them- 
selves above the law, and forget the whole righteousness of 
the law, and lay aside all thinking upon works." Now, for 
the true understanding of these two worthy servants of Christ, 
two things are to be considered and concluded. First^ That 
when they speak thus of the law, it is evident they mean only 
in the case of justification. Secondly^ That when the con- 
science hath to do with the law in the case of justification, it 
hath to do with it only as it is the covenant of works ; for as 
the law is the law of Christ, it neither justifies nor condemns."^ 



* That is, the law of the ten commandments, commonly called the moral 
law, as it is the law of Christ, neither justifies nor condemns men's per- 
sons in the sight of God. How can it do either the one or the other as 
such, since to be under it, as it is the law of Christ, is the peculiar pri- 
vilege of believers, already justified by grace, and set beyond the reach 
of condemnation ; according to that of the apostle, Rom. viii. 1, ** There 



MODERN DIVINITY. 181 

And so, if you understand it of the law, as it is tlie covenant 
of works, according to their meaning, then it is most true 
what they say ; for why should a man let the law come into 
his conscience ? That is, why should a man make any con- 
science of doing the law, to be justified thereby, considering it 
as a thing impossible ? Nay, what need hath a man to make 
conscience of doing the law to be justified thereby, when he 
knows he is already justified another way ? Nay, what need 
hath a man to make conscience of doing that law, which is 



is, therefore, now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus?" 
But to say that this makes the law of Christ despicable, is to forget the 
sovereign authority of God in him, his matchless love in dying for sin- 
ners, the endearing relations wherein he stands to his people, and upon 
the one hand, the enjoyment of actual communion and fellowship with 
God, and the many precious tokens of his love, to be conferred on them, 
in the way of close walking with God ; and upon the other hand, the 
want of that communion and fellowship, and the many fearful tokens of his 
anger against them for their sins. (See sec. 11.) All these belong to the law 
of Christ, and will never be despicable in the eyes of any gracious soul ; though 
I doubt if ever hell and damnation were more despised in the eyes of others, 
than they are at this day, wherein believei-s and unbelievers ai'e set so much on 
a level with respect to these awful thing-s. 

As to the point of condemnation, it is evident from Scripture, that no 
law can condemn those " who are in Christ Jesus," Rom. viii. 1, 33, 34. 
And the law, as it is the covenant of works, condemns all those who are 
not in Christ, but under the law. Gal. iii. 10 ; Rom. iii. 19. And par- 
ticularly, it condemns every unbeliever, whose condemnation will be fear- 
fully aggravated by his rejection of the gospel offer; the which rejected 
offer will be a witness against him in the judgment ; in respect whereof 
our Lord says, John xii. 48, " The word that I have spoken, the same 
shall judge him in the last day." Compare chap. xv. 22, " If I had not 
come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin ; but now they have no cloak 
for their sin." Therefore the law, which unbelievers still remain under, 
as a covenant of works, will condemn them with a double condemnation. 
John iii. 18, " He that believeth not is condemned already, because he 
hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. And 
hence it appears that there is as little need of, as there is warrant for, a 
condemning gospel. The holy Scripture states it as the difference betwixt 
the law and the gospel, that the former is the ministration of coudemna- 
tion and death, the latter, the ministration of righteousness and life. 2 
Cor. iii. 6 — 9. Compare John xii. 47, " If any man hear my words, and 
believe not, I judge him not, for I came not to judge the world, but to 
save the world." 

As to the point of justification ; no man is, nor can be justified by the 
law. It is true, the Neonomians or Baxterians, to wind in a righteous- 
ness of our own into the case of justification, do turn the gospel into a 
law, properly so called ; and do tell us, that the gospel justifieth as a 
law, and roundly own what is the necessary consequent of that doctrine, 
namely, that faith justifieth, as it is our evangelical righteousness, or our 
keeping the gospel law, which runs thus : He that believeth shall not 
16 



182 THE MARROW OF 

dead to Mm, and he to it ? Hath a woman any need to make 
conscience of doing her duty to her husband when he is dead, 
nay, when she herself is dead also ? or, hath a debtor any need 
to make any conscience of paying that debt which is already 
fully discharged by his surety ? W ill any man be afraid of 
that obligation which is made void, the seal torn off, the writing 
defaced, nay, not only cancelled and crossed, but torn in 
pieces ?* I remember the apostle says, Heb. x. 1, 2, That 
if the sacrifices which were offered in the Old Testament 
" could have made the comers thereunto perfect, and have 
purged the worshippers, then should they have had no more 
conscience of sin ;" that is, their conscience would not have 
accused them of being guilty of sins. Now, the " blood of 
Christ" hath " purged the conscience" of a believer from all his 
sins, chap. ix. 14, as they are transgressions against the cove- 
nant of works ; and, therefore, what needs his conscience be 
troubled about that covenant ? But now, I pray you, observe 

perish. (Gibbon's Ser. Morn. Ex. Meth. p. 418—421.) But the holy Scrip- 
ture teaches, that we are justified by grace, and by no law nor deed, (or work 
of a law, properly so called,) call it the law of Christ, or the gospel law, or 
what law one pleaseth ; and thereby faith itself, considered as a deed or work 
of a law, is excluded from the justification of a sinner, and hath place there- 
in, only as an instrument. Gal. iii. 11, " That no man is justified by a law 
in the sight of God, it is evident." — Chap. v. 4, " Whosoever of you are jus- 
tified by a law, ye are fallen from grace." — Kom. iii. 28, " Therefore we con- 
clude that a man is justified by faith, without deeds of a law." Gal. ii. 16, 
" Knowing that a man is not justified by works of a law." I read, a law, deeds, 
works, simply ; because so the original words, used in these texts, do undeni- 
ably signify. 

To this agrees Westm. Confess, chap. xi. art. 1, " These whom God 
effectually calleth, he also freely justifieth, not for any thing wrought in 
them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake alone ; not by imputing 
faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience, to 
them, as their righteousness ; but," &c. Larg. Cat. quest. 73. — " Faith 
justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not as if the grace of faith, or any 
act thereof, were imputed to him for his justification ; but only as it is 
an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his right- 
eousness. West. Confess, chap. xix. art. 6. — " Although true believers 
be not under the law, as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or 
condemned, yet it is of great use to them, as well as to others, in that, as 
a rule of life, informing them of the will of God and their duty, it directs 
and binds them to walk accordingly." From this last passage of the con- 
fession, two important points plainly offer themselves. (1.) That the law 
is a rule of life to believers, directing and binding them to duty, though 
they are neither justified nor condemned by it. (2.) That neither justi- 
fying nor condemning belong unto the law, as a rule of life simply, but 
as a covenant of works. And these are the very points here taught by our 
author. 

* Col. ii. 14, " Blotting out the hand-writing, nailing it to his cross." 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 183 

and take notice, that althougli Luther and Calvin do thus ex- 
empt a believer from the law, in the case of justification, and 
as it is the law or covenant of works, yet they do not so, out 
of the case of justification, and as it is the law of Christ. 

For thus saith Luther, on the Galatians, p. 182, " Out of 
the matter of justification, we ought, with Paul, Rom. vii. 12, 
14, to think reverently of the law, to commend it highly, to 
call it holy, righteous, just, good, spiritual, and divine. Yea, 
out of the case of justification, we ought to make a God of 
it."* And in another place, says he, on the Galatians, p. 5, 
"There is a civil righteousness, and a ceremonial righteous- 
ness ; yea, and besides these, there is another righteousness, 
which is the righteousness of the law, or of the ten command- 
ments, which Moses teacheth ; this also we teach after the 
doctrine of faith." And in another place, he having showed 
that believers, through Christ, are far above the law, adds, 
" Howbeit, I will not deny but Moses showeth to them their 
duties, in which respect they are to be admonished and urged ; 
wherefore such doctrines and admonitions ought to be among 
Christians, as it is certain there was among the apostles, 
whereby every man may be admonished of his estate and 
office." 

And Calvin, having said, as I told you before, "That 
Christians, in the case of justification, must raise and advance 
themselves above the law," adds, " Neither can any man 
thereby gather that the law is superfluous to the faithful, 
whom, notwithstanding, it doth not cease to teach, exhort, and 
prick forward to goodness, although before God's judgment- 
seat it hath no place in their conscience." 

Ant. But, sir, if I forget not, Musculus says, " That the law 
is utterly abrogated." 

Evan. Indeed, Musculus, speaking of the ten command- 
ments, says, If they be weak, if they be the letter, if they do 
work transgression, anger, curse, and death : and if Christ, 
by the law of the Spirit of life, delivered them that believed in 
him from the law of the letter, which was weak to justify, and 
strong to condemn, and from the curse, being made a curse 
for us, surely, they be abrogated. Now, this is most certain, 
that the ten commandments do no way work transgression, 
anger, curse, and death, but only as they are the covenant of 

* That is, raise our esteem of it to the highest pitch, and give it illimitable 
obedience, Compare this with what is cited from the same Luther concerning 
the law, page 113. 



IS4: THE MARKOW OF 

works * Neither hath Christ delivered believers any other- 
wise from them, than as they are the covenant of works. And 
therefore we may assuredly conclude, that they are no other- 
wise abrogated, than as they are the covenant of works.f 

* According to the holy Scripture, it is certain, that the law of the 
ten commandments has an irritating- effect, whereby they increase sin ; and 
a condemning and killing effect, so that they work curse, death, and wrath, 
called anger (it would seem) in the language of our forefathers, when 
Musculus's commonplaces were Englished. And it is no less certain, 
that Jesus Christ hath delivered believers from the law as it hath these 
effects, Kom. xiv. 1 5, " For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is 
made void, and the promise made of none effect, because the law worketh 
wrath." — Chap. vii. 5, 6, " For when we were in the flesh, the motions of 
sins which were by the law, did work in our members, to bring forth 
fruit unto death. But now we are delivered from the laAV that we should 
serve in newnevss of spirit," &c. — Chap. viii. 2, " For the law of the spirit 
of life, in Christ Jesus, has made me free from the law of sin and 
death." — Gal. iii. 13, " Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, 
being made a curse for us." If then the ten commandments have these effects, 
not only as they are the covenant of works, but as they are the law of 
Christ, or a rule of life, then believers are altogether delivered from them, 
which is absurd and abominable doctrine. Therefore it evidently follows, that 
the ten commandments have these effects, only as they are the covenant 
of works. The truth is, unto a gracious soul, the strongest possible 
temptation to Antinomianism, or casting off the ten commandments for 
good and all, would be to labour to persuade him, that they have these effects, 
not only as they are the covenant of works, but as they are the law of Christ ; 
so that, take them what way he will, he shall find they have not only a 
cursing, condemning, and killing power, but also an irritating effect, in- 
creasing sin in him. Nevertheless, a Christian man's doing against them 
(which is the reverend Musculus's phrase, as cited by the author in the fol- 
lowing page,) may be a transgression, for a man may transgress the law, 
though the motions of his sins be not by the law. And how such a man's 
sinning is more outrageous than an ungodly man's will convincingly appear, if 
one measures the outrageousness of sinning, by the obligations to duty lying 
on the sinner, and not by his personal hazard, which is a measure more becom- 
ing a slave than a son. 

f Thus our author has proved, that the law of the ten commandments 
is a rule of life to believers ; and hath vindicated Luther and Calvin 
from the opposite Antinomian error, as he does Musculus also, in the follow- 
ing words : and that from their express declarations, in their own words. 
And here is the conclusion of the whole matter. To show the judgment of 
other orthodox Protestant divines, on this head, against the Antino- 
mians, it will not be amiss to adduce a passage out of a system of divinity, 
commonly put into the hands of students not very many years ago, I am 
sure. " It is one thing (says Turretine, disputing against the Antino- 
mians) to be under the law as a covenant ; another thing, to be under 
the law as a rule of life. In the former sense, Paul says, ' That we are 
not under the law, but under grace,' Rom. vi. 14, as to its covenant rela- 
tion, curse, and rigour ; but in the latter sense we always remain bound 
unto it, though for a different end ; for in the first covenant man was to 
do this, to the end that he might live ; but in the other, he is bound to 



MODERN DIVINITY. 185 

Neither did Musculus intend any otherwise ; for says he, in 
the words following, it must not be understood, that the points 
of the substance of Moses' covenant are utterly brought to 
nothing ;* God forbid. For a Christian man is not at liberty . 
to do those things that are ungodly and wicked ; and if the do- 
ing of those things the law forbids, do not displease Christ ; if 
they be not much different,t yea contrary ; if they be not re- 
pugnant to the righteousness which we received of him ; let 
it be lawful for a Christian man to do them; or else not.:{: 
But a Christian man doing against those things which are 
commanded in the decalogue, doth sin more outrageously 
than he that should so do, being under the law ;§ so far off is 

perform the same th'mg, not that he may live, but because he lives." 
Turret, loc. 11. quest. 24. thes. 7. View again, Westm. Confess, chap. 
19. art. 6, the words whereof are cited page 166. note 7. Hereunto 
agreeth our author's conclusion, viz : That believers are no otherwise, 
not any otherwise delivered from the law of the ten commandments, but 
as they are the covenant of works, Now, how can those who oppose 
Antinomiauism, on this head, contradict the author thereupon but by 
asserting, " That believers are not delivered from the law, as it is the 
covenant of works, but that they are still under the power of the covenant of 
works ?" The which are principles as opposite to the received doctrine of or- 
thodox Protestant divines, and to the Confession of Faith, as they are to the 
doctrine of our author. 

* That is, that the particular precepts of the law of the ten commandments, 
called by Musculus the substance of the law-covenant, are disannulled, and no 
more to be regarded. 

f That is, very unsuitable. 

j That is, or if they be, as certainly they are, displeasing to Christ : most un- 
suitable, contrary, and repugnant to the righteousness which the believer hath 
received from Christ, then they are by no means to be done. 

§ These are the words of Musculus still, adduced by the author to 
show, that that famous divine was no Antinomian ; and if they will not 
serve to clear him, but he must still be on that side, I apprehend ortho- 
dox Protestants will be sorry for their loss of that great man. But though 
it be observed, that he speaks of doing against the things commanded in 
the law, but not against the law itself, there is no hazard : for it is evi- 
dent, that by the law, Musculus understands the covenant of works, or, in 
his style, Moses's covenant ; and since he was not of the opinion that be- 
lievers are under the covenant of works, no, nor under the commanding 
power of that covenant, he could not say that they sinned against it. 
However, he still looks on the ten commandments, the substance of that 
covenant, to be also the law of Christ, binding the Christian man to obe- 
dience. From his saying. That a Christian doing against these things, 
sins more outrageously than one who is under the law ; it does, indeed, 
follow, that a Christian's sin is more displeasing to God, and deserves a 
heavier curse in itself, though in the mean time, the law of Christ has no 
curse annexed unto the transgressions of it. For, sin's deserving of a 
curse, arises not from the threatening, but from its contrariety to the 
precept, and consequently, to the holy nature of God ; since it is mani- 
16 * 



186 THE MARROW OF 

he from being free from those things that be there com- 
manded. 

Sect. 4. — Wherefore, friend Antinomista, if either you, or 
any man else, shall, under a pretence of your being in Christ, 
exempt yourselves from being under the law of the ten com- 
mands, as they are the law of Christ, I tell you truly, it is a 
shrewd sign you are not yet in Christ ; for if you were, then 
Christ were in you ; and if Christ were in you, then would he 
govern you, and you would be subject unto him. I am sure 
the prophet Isaiah tells us, that the same Lord, who is our 
Saviour, " is also our King and Lawgiver," Isa. xxxiii. 22 ; 
and, truly, he will not be Jesus a Saviour to any but only to 
those unto whom he is Christ a Lord ; for the very truth is, 
wheresoever he is Jesus a Saviour, he is also Christ a Lord ; 
and, therefore, I beseech you, examine yourself whether he be 
so to you or no. 

; Ant. Why then, sir, it seems that you stand upon marks 
and signs ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, I stand so much upon marks and signs, 
that I say unto you in the words of the apostle John, 1 John iii. 
10, " In this the children of God are manifest, and the children 
of the devil; whosoever does not righteousness, is not of God." 
For says Luther, *' He that is truly baptized, is become a new 
man, and has a new nature, and is endowed with new disposi- 
tions; and loveth, liveth, speaketh, and does far otherwise than 
he was wont, or could before." For says godly Tindal, " God 
worketh with his word, and in his word : and bringeth faith 
into the hearts of his elect, and looseth the heart from sin, and 
knitteth it to God, and giveth a man power to do that which 
was before impossible for him to do, and turneth him into a 
new nature."* And, therefore, says Luther in another place, 
" Herein works are to be extolled and commended, in that they 
are fruits and signs of faith ; and, therefore, he that hath no 
regard how he leadeth his life, that he may stop the mouths of 
all blamers and accusers, and clear himself before all, and tes- 



fest that sin does not therefore deserve a curse, because a curse is threatened ; 
but a curse is threatened, because sin deserves it. And the sins of believers 
do in themselves deserve a heavier curse than the sins of others. Yet 
the law of Christ has not a curse annexed to the transgressions of it ; because 
the heavy curse, deserved by the sins of believers, was already laid on 
Christ, to whom they are united, and he bare it for them, and bore it away 
from them ; so that they cannot be threatened with it over again, after their 
union with him. 

^ That is, makes him a new man. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 187 

tify that lie has lived, spoken, and done well, is not yet a Chris- 
tian. How then, says Tindal again, "dare any man think 
that God's favour is on him, and God's Spirit within him, when 
he feels not the working of his Spirit, nor himself disposed to 
any good thing?"* 

A7it. But, by your favour, sir, I am persuaded that many 
a man deceives his own soul by these marks and signs. 

Evan. Indeed, I must needs confess with Mr. Bolton and 
Mr. Dyke, that in these times of Christianity, a reprobate 
may make a glorious profession of the gospel, and perform 
all the duties and exercises of religion, and that, in outward 
appearance, with as great spirit and zeal as a true believer ; 
yea, he may be made partaker of some measure of inward il- 
lumination, and have a shadow of true regeneration ; there 
being no grace eftectually wrought in the faithful, a resem- 
blance whereof may not be found in the unregenerate. And 
therefore, I say, if any man pitch upon the sign, without the 
thing signified by the sign,f that is, if he pitch upon his 
graces (or gifts rather) and duties, and conclude assurance 
from them, as they are in him, and come from him, without 
having reference to Jesus Christ, as the root and fountain of 
them ; then are they deceitful marks and signs -.X but if he 
look upon them with reference to Jesus Christ, then are they 
not deceitful, but true evidences and demonstrations of faith 
in Christ. And this a man does, when he looks upon his out- 
ward actions as flowing from the inward actions of his mind, 
and upon the inward actions of his mind as flowing from the 
habits of grace within him, and upon the habits of grace with- 
in him as flowing from his justification, and upon his justifi- 
cation as flowing from his faith, and upon his faith as given by 
and embracing Jesus Christ : thus, I say, if he rests not till 



* Namely, habitually. 

f Namely, Christ in the heart. 

X Because all true grace and acceptable duty flow from Jesus Christ, 
dwelling in one's heart by his .Spirit ; and whatsoever comes not that way, 
is but a show and semblance of these things, Rom. viii. 9, " If any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." — John xv. 5, " Without 
me ye can do nothing," — Chap. i. 16, " And of his fulness have we all 
received, and grace for grace." — Gal. ii. 20, " I live, yet not 1, but Christ 
liveth in me." — '< The cause of good works we confess to be, not our free- 
will, but the Spirit of the Lord Jesus, who, dwelling in our hearts, by true 
faith, bringeth forth such works as God has prepared for us to walk in." 
Old Confess, art. 13 — " So good works follow as effects of Christ in us 
possessed by faith." Mr. John Davidson's Cat. p. 30. 



188 THE MARROW OF 

he comes to Christ, his marks and signs are not deceitful, btit 
true."^ 

* Here is a chain, serving to lead a child of God unto ^ assurance, that 
he is in the state of grace ; wherein duties and graces, being run up unto 
their true spring, do so shine after trial of them, as one may conclude as- 
surance from them, as the author phrases it. And here it is to be ob- 
served, that these words, " outward actions— actions of the mind — habits 
of grace — justification — faith — embracing of Christ," are, in the progress 
of the trial, to be taken in their general notion, agreeing both to what is 
true, and what is false, in each particular ; as faith feigned and unfeigned, 
justification real and imaginary, grace common and saving, &c. For the 
special nature of these is still supposed to be undetermined to the person 
under trial, until he come to the end of trial. This is evident from the 
nature of the thing : and from the author's words too, in the sentence 
immediately preceding, where he says, "If he pitch upon his graces, or 
gifts rather ;" the which correction he makes, because the former word 
is ordinarily restricted to saving grace, the latter not so. And hence it 
appears that the author was far from imagining that a man must have 
the assurance he speaks of, before he can conclude it from his graces or 
duties. 

■■ The links of this chain are five. The Jirst, Outward actions, or works 
materially good, flowing from the inward actions of the mind : otherwise 
they are but pieces of gross dissimulation, as was the respect and honour 
put upon Christ by the Herodians and others, when they asked him, if 
it was lawful to give tribute unto Caesar. Matt. xxii. 16 — 18. The 
second, These actions of the mind, flowing from the habits of grace, 
within the man ; otherwise they are but . fair flowers, which, " because 
they have no root, wither away," Matt. xiii. 6 ; like the Israelites, their 
seeking, returning, inquiring after, and remembering God, when he slew 
them, Psalm Ixxviii. 34 — 37. The third, Those habits of grace within 
the man, flowing from his justification ; otherwise they are but the habits 
of common grace, or of mere moral virtues, to be found in hypocritical 
professors, and sober heathens. The fourth, The man's justification, 
flowing from his faith ; otherwise it is but as the imaginary justification 
of Pharisees, Papists and legalists, who are they which justify themselves. 
Luke xvi. 15. The//i'^, His faith given by Christ, and embracing Christ : 
otherwise it is but feigned faith, which never knits the soul to Christ, but 
leaves the man in the case of the fruitless branch, which is to be ** taken 
away," John xv. 2. 

This chain is not of our author's framing, but is a Scriptural one. 1 
Tim. i. 5, " Now (1.) the end of the commandment is charity, (2.) out 
of a pure heart, (3.) and of a good conscience, (4.) and of faith, (5.) 
unfeigned." — "Wherein the apostle teacheth, that the obedience of the 
law must flow from love, and love from a pure heart, and a pure heart 
from a good conscience, and a good conscience from faith unfeigned ; 
thus he maketh the only right channel of good works." Practical Use of 
Saving Knowledge ; tit. " The third thing requisite to evidence true faith, 
is, that obedience to the law run in the right channel, that is through faith in 
Christ." 

If one examines himself by this infallible rule, he cannot safely take his obe- 
dience for a mark or evidence of his being in the state of grace, until he 
run it up unto his faith, embracing Christ. But then finding that his 
faith made him a good conscience, and his good conscience a pure heart, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 189 

Ant, But, sir, if an unbeliever may have a resemblance of 
every grace that is wrought in a believer, then it must be a 

and his pure heart produced love, from whence his obedience flowed ; in 
that case, his obedience is a true mark of the unfeignedness of his faith ; 
from whence he may assuredly conclude, that he is in the state of grace. 
Our author's method being a copy of this, the objections against it must 
affect both. 

Let us suppose two men to put themselves on a trial of their state, ac- 
cording to this method, and to pitch upon some external duties of theirs, 
or some graces which they seem to discern in themselves, as to the substance 
thereof ; though, as yet, they know not the specific nature of the same, namely, 
whether they be true or false, 

The one finds, that his external duties proceeded not from the inward 
actions of his mind ; or if they did, that yet these actions of his mind did 
not proceed from habits of grace in him; or if they did proceed from 
these, yet these flowed not from his justification, or, which is the same, 
followed not upon the purging of his conscience ; or if they did, that yet 
his justification, or good conscience, such as they 'are, proceeded not from 
his faith ; or if they did proceed from it, that yet that faith of his did not 
embrace Christ, and consequently was not of the special operation of 
God, or given him by Christ in him, by his Spirit. In all, or any of these 
cases, it is plain that the external duties, or the [so called] graces, which 
he pitched upon, can be no true marks from which he may conclude himself 
to be in a state of grace. 

The other finds that his external duties did indeed flow from the in- 
ward actions of his mind, and these from habits of grace in him, and 
these again from his justification or good conscience, and that from his 
faith, and that his faith embraced Christ. Here two things are observa- 
ble : (I.) That neither the duties nor graces pitched upon, could be sure 
marks to him, before he came to the last point ; in regard of the flaw 
that possibly might still be found in the immediate or mediate springs of 
them. And therefore the looking, mentioned by the author, is indeed a 
progressive knowledge and discovery, but still unclear and uncertain, till 
one comes to the end, and the whole evidence is put together ; even as it 
is in searching out some abstruse point, by observation of the depend- 
ence and connection things have one with another. Wherefore our 
author does by no means suppose, that I must know certainly that I am 
in Christ and justified, and that my faith is given me by Christ, before 
these duties or graces can be true marks or evidences to me. (2.) That 
the man perceiving his embracing of Christ, as to the substance of the 
action, is assured of the saving nature of it, (namely, that it is a faith 
uniting him to Christ, and given him by Christ in him) by the train of 
eSects he sees to have followed it, according to the established order in 
the covenant of grace : 1 Tim. i. 5, From which effects of his faith em- 
bracing Christ, that which might have deceived him, was all along gra- 
dually removed in the progress. Thus he is indeed sent back to the 
fruits of his faith, for true marks and evidences of it ; but he is sent 
back to them, as standing clear now in his regress, though they were not 
so in his progress. And at this rate he is not left to run in a circle, but 
has a comfortable end of his self-examination, being assured by his du- 
ties and graces, the fruits of his faith, that his faith is unfeigned, and himself 
in the state of grace, Of the placing of faith before the habits of grace, see p. 
210 notef. 



19(l' THE MARROW OF 

hard matter to find out the difference : and therefore I con- 
ceive it is best for a man not to trouble himself at all about 
marks and signs. 

Evan. Give me leave to deal plainly with you, in telling 
you, that although we cannot say, every one that hath a form 
of godliness hath also the power of godliness, yet we may 
truly say, that he who hath not the form of godliness, hath not 
the power of godliness ; for though all be not gold that glit- 
ters, yet all gold doth glitter. And therefore, I tell you truly, 
if you have no regard to make the law of Christ your rule, by 
endeavouring to do what is required in the ten command- 
ments, and to avoid what is there forbidden, it is a very evil 
sign : and, therefore, I pray you consider of it. 

Sect. 5. — Ant. But, sir, you know the Lord hath promised 
to write his law in a believer's heart, and to give him his Spirit 
to lead him into all truth : and therefore he hath no need of 
the law, written with paper and ink, to be a rule of life to 
him ; neither hath he any need to endeavour to be obedient 
thereunto, as you say. 

Eva7i. Indeed, says Luther, the matter would even so fare 
as you say, if we were perfectly and altogether the inward 
and spiritual men, which cannot be in any wise before the 
last day at the rising again of the dead :* so long as we be 
clothed with this mortal flesh, we do but begin and proceed 
onwards in our course towards perfection, which will be con- 
summated in the life to come : and for this cause the apostle, 
Eom. viii. doth call this the " first fruits of the Spirit," which 
we do enjoy in this life, the truth and fulness of which we shall 
receive in the life to come. And therefore, says he in another 
place, it is necessary so to preach to them that have received 
the doctrine of faith, that they might be stirred up to go on in 
good life, which they have embraced ; and that they suffer 
not themselves to be overcome by the assaults of the raging 
flesh ; for we will not so presume of the doctrine of faith, as 
if, that being had, every man might do what he listed : no, we 
must earnestly endeavour ourselves, that we may be without 

■^ We would have no need for the law written without us, if, as we are 
spiritual in part, in respect of sanctifieation begun in us, we were per- 
fectly and altogether spiritual, both in body and soul. But that is not 
to be expected till the resurrection ; when that which is now " sown a 
natural body, is raised a spiritual body," 1 Cor. xv. 44 ; being re-united 
to the spirit or soul " made perfect at death ;" Heb. xii. 23 ; the which 
doth therefore no more, from the moment of death, need the law written 
without it. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 191 

blame ; and when we cannot attain thereunto, we must flee to 
prayer, and say before God and man, " Forgive us our tres- 
passes." And, says Calvin, Instit. p. 162, one proper use and 
end of the law, concerning the faithful,"^ in whose hearts liveth 
and reigneth the Spirit of Grod, is this : namely, although they 
have the law written and engraven in their hearts by the 
finger of God, yet is thef law to them a very good means, 
whereby they may daily, better and more assuredly, learn what 
is the will of the Lord : and let none of us exempt himself 
from this need, for no man hath hitherto attained to so great 
wisdom, but that he hath need to be daily instructed by the 
law. And herein Christ differeth from us, that the Father 
hath poured out upon him the infinite abundance of his Spirit : 
but whatsoever we do receive, it is so by measure, that we 
have need one of another. 

Now mind it, I pray you, if believers have the Spirit but in 
measure, and know but in part, then have they the " law 
written in their hearts" but in measure and in part,^ 1 Cor. 
xiii. 9 ; and if they have the law written in their hearts but in 
measure and in part, then have they not a perfect rule within 
them ; and if they have not a perfect rule within them, then 
they have need to have a rule without them. And therefore, 
doubtless, the strongest believer of us all, had need to hearken 
to the advice of Tindal, who says, " Seek the word of God in 
all things, and without the word of God do nothing." And 
says another godly and evangelical writer, " My brethren, let 
us do our whole endeavour to do the will of God as it be- 
cometh good children, and beware that we sin not, as near as 
we can." 

Ant. Well, sir, I cannot tell what to say, but, methinks, 
when a man is perfectly justified by faith, it is a very needless 
thing for him to endeavour to keep the law, and to do good 
works.§ 



* That is, respecting believers. 

t Written. 

JThey have not the law written completely and perfectly in their 
hearts. 

^ §This Antinomian principle, That it is needless for a man, perfectly 
justified by faith, to endeavour to keep the law, and do good works, is a 
glaring evidence that legality is so engrained in man's corrupt nature, 
that until a man truly come to Christ, by faith, the legal disposition will 
still be reigning in him; let him turn himself into what shape, or be of 
what principles he will in religion ; though he run into Antinomianism he 
will carry along with him his legal spirit, which will always be a slavish and 



192 THE MARROW OF 

Evan. I remember Luther says, that in his time there were 
some that did reason after the like manner : " If faith, say 
they, do accomplish all things, and if faith be only and alone 
sufficient unto righteousness, to what end are we commanded 
to do good deeds ? we may go play then, and work no work- 
ing at all." To whom he makes an answer, saying, " Not so, 
ye ungodly! not so." And there were others that said, "If 
the law do not justify, then it is in vain, and of none effect." 
" Yet it is not therefore true, says he ; for like as this conse- 
quence is nothing worth, money doth not justify or make a man 
righteous, therefore it is unprofitable ; the eyes do not justify, 
therefore they must be plucked out ; the hands make not a 
man righteous, therefore they must be cut off ; so is this naught 
also, the law doth not justify, therefore it is uprofitable. 
We do not therefore destroy and condemn the law, because 
we say it doth not justify ; but we say with Paul, 1 Tim. i. 8, 
* the law is good, if a man do rightly use it.' And that this 
is a faithful saying, that they ' which have believed in God 
might be careful to maintain good works ; these things are 
good and profitable unto men,' " Tit. iii. 8. 

Sect. 6. — Neo. Truly, sir, for mine own part, I do much 
marvel that this my friend Antinomista should be so confident 
of his faith in Christ, and yet so little regard holiness of life, 
and keeping of Christ's commandments, as it seems he does. 
For I give the Lord thanks, I do now, in some small measure, 
believe that I am, by Christ, freely and fully justified and ac- 
quitted from all my sins, and therefore have no need either to 
eschew evil or do good, for fear of punishment or hope of re- 
ward; and yet, methinks, I find my heart more willing and 
desirous to do what the Lord commands, and to avoid what 
he forbids, than ever it was before I did thus believe.* Surely, 
sir, I do perceive that faith in Christ is no hinderance to holi- 
ness of life, as I once thought it was. 



unholy spirit. He is constrained, as the author observes, to do all that he 
does for fear of punishment, and hope of reward ; a nd if it is once fixed in his 
mind that these are ceased in his case, he stands still like a clock when the 
weights that made her go are removed, or like a slave when he is in no hazard 
of the whip ; than which there cannot be a greater evidence of loathsome le- 
gality. 

* It is not the scope or design of Neopliytus here, to show wherein the 
essence of faith consists, or to give a definition to it. But suppose it was 
so, his definition falls considerably short of some given by famous ortho- 
dox Protestant divines, yea, and churches too. See the note on the de- 
finition of faith. I repeat here Mr. John Davidson's definition only, viz : 



MODERN DIVINITY. 193 

"Faith is an hearty assurance that our sins are freely forgiven us in 
Christ." From whence one may clearly see, that some time a-day, it 
was reckoned no absurdity that one's justification was made the object 
of one's belief. For the understanding of which ancient Protestant doc- 
trine, grown almost quite out of ken with unlearned readers, I shall ad- 
duce a passage out of Wendeline's Christ. Theol. lib. 1. cap. 24, p. 542, 
543. He proposes the Popish objection thus, '* Justifying faith must go 
before justification ; but the faith of special mercy doth not go before 
justification ; if it did, it were false ; for at that rate, a man should be- 
lieve that his sins are forgiven, which as yet are not forgiven, since they 
are not forgiven but by justification ; therefore the faith of special mercy 
is not justifying faith." In answer to which, he denies the second of 
these propositions, with the proofs thereof, and concludes in these words : 
" Justifying faith, therefore, hath for the special object of it, forgiveness 
of sins, future, present, and past." He explains it thus, " By the faith 
of special mercy, as it goeth before justification, a man doth not believe 
that his sins are forgiven him already, before the act of believing ;" this, 
by the by, is the Antinomian faith, justifying only declaratively. Follows 
the true doctrine of faith : " But that he shall have forgiveness of sins ; 
in the very act of justification, he believes his sins are forgiven him, and 
so receives forgiveness ; after justification, he believes the past applica- 
tion," viz: forgiveness, that is, that his sins are now already forgiven 
him. 

But the design of Neophytus is, to make a profession of his faith, and, by 
an argument drawn from Christian experience, to refute the Antinomian pre- 
tended faith, whereby a sinner, at first brush, believes his sins to be 
ah-eady forgiven him, before the act of believing, and thereafter hath no re- 
gard to holiness of life ; a plain evidence that that persuasion is not 
of God. And in opposition to it, is this profession made, which consists of 
three parts : 

(1.) He professes that he believes himself to be justified and acquitted 
from all his sins ; and this is the belief of the past application, after jus- 
tification, which we heard before from Wendeline. For we have already found 
Neophytus brought unto. faith in Christ, and the match betwixt Christ and 
him declared to be made, though his faith was accompanied with fears, p, 150. 
And now he finds his faith grown up in some small measure unto the height 
which Antinomista pretended his faith to be at, namely, unto believing himself 
to be already justified ; but withal he intimates, that his faith had not come 
to this pitch all of a sudden, as Antinomista's had done, p. 94 — 97 ; but that 
it was some time after he believed, ere he did thus believe. And now, 
indeed, his believing thus, only in some small measure, was his sin, and argued 
the weakness of his faith : but such a man's believing, in any measure, great 
or small, that he was justified and acquitted from all his sins, must be com- 
mended and approved, unless we will bring back the Popish doctrine of doubt- 
ing. 

(2.) He professes. That therefore, namely, since he was justified, and 
believed himself to be so, he had no need to eschew evil, or do good for 
fear of punishment or hope of reward ; the which Antinomista pretending 
to likewise, had cast off all care of keeping the law, or doing good works, 
having no other principle of obedience within him. This does not at all 
look to punishments and rewards, improperly so called, that is, fatherly 
chastisements and favours, of which the author afterwards treats ex- 
pressly ; but it is plainly meant of rewards and punishments taken in a 
proper sense, as flowing from the justice of God, remunerative and viu- 



19i THE MARROW OF 

Evan. Neighbaur Neophytus, if our friend Antinomista do 
content himself with a mere gospel knowledge, in a notionary 
way, and have run out to fetch in notions from Christ, and 
yet is not fetched in by the power of Christ, let us pity him, 
and pray for him. And in the mean time, I pray you, know 
that true faith in Christ * is so far from being a hinderance 
from holiness of life and good works, that it is the only further- 
ance ; for only by faith in Christ, a man is enabled to exercise 
all Christian graces aright, and to perform all Christian duties 
aright, which before he could not. As, for example, before a 
man believe God's love to him in Christ,t though he may have 
a kind of love to God, as he is his Creator and Preserver, and 
gives him many good things for this present life, yet if God 
do but open his eyes, to see what condition his soul is in, that 
is, if he do but let him see that relation that is betwixt God 
and him, according to the tenor of the covenant of works, 
then he conceives of him as an angry Judge, armed with jus- 
tice against him, and must be pacified by the works of the law, 
whereunto he finds his nature opposite and contrary ; and 
therefore he hates both God and his law, and doth secretly 
wish and desire there were neither God nor law. And though 
God should now give unto him ever so many temporal bless- 
ings, yet could he not love him ; for what malefactor could 
love that judge or his law, from whom he expected the sen- 
tence of condemnation, though he should feast him at his table 
with ever so many dainties? "But after that the kindness 
and love of God his Saviour hath appeared, not by works of 

dictive, and proceeding upon our works, good and evil ; and particularly it is 
meant of heaven and hell. This is the sense in which that phrase is commonly 
used by divines ; and that it is so to be taken here, is evident from its being 
inferred from his justification, which indeed leaves no place for fear of punish- 
ment and hope of reward in the latter sense : but not so in the former 
sense. And thus, it appears, Nomista understood it, as shall appear afterwards, 
p. 200. 

(3.) He professes. That he was so far from being the less inclined to 
duty, that he believed himself to be fully justified, and that the fear of 
punishment and hope of reward were ceased in his case ; that, on the 
contrary, he found, as his faith grew, his love to and readiness for holi- 
ness of life, grew : he was more willing, and more desirous to do the 
Lord's commandments than he had been before his faith was advanced to 
that pitch. And herein, I conceive, the experience of the saints will not 
contradict him. Thus he gives a plain testimony against the Antinomian 
faith. 

* Namely, the faith of special mercy, or a faith of particular application, 
without which, in greater or lesser measure, it is not saving faith. 

•j See page 144, notej. 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 195 

righteousness that lie hath done, but according to his mercy 
he saved him," Titus iii. 4, 5 ; that is, when as by the eye of 
faith, he sees himself to stand in relation to God, according 
to the tenor of the covenant of grace,* then he conceives of 
God as a most merciful and loving Father to him in Christ, 
that hath freely pardoned and forgiven him all his sins, and 
quite released him from the covenant of works ;t and by this 
means *' the love of God is shed abroad in his heart, through 
the Holy Ghost which is given to him," and then *' he loves 
God because he first loved him," Rom. v. 5 ; 1 John iv. 19. 
For as a man seeth and feeleth by faith the love and favour 
of God towards him in Christ his Son, so doth he love 
again both God and his law ; and indeed it is impossible for 
any man to love God, till by faith he know himself beloved 
of God4 

Secondly^ Though a man, before he believe God's love to 
him in Christ, may have a great measure of legal humiliation, 
compunction, sorrow, and grief, and be brought down, as it 
were, to the very gate of hell, and feel the very flashing of 
hell-fire in his conscience for his sins, yet it is not because he 
hath thereby offended God, but rather because he hath thereby 
offended himself, that is, because he hath thereby brought 
himself into the danger of eternal death and condemnation.§ 
But when once he believes the love of God to him in Christ, 
in pardoning his iniquity, and passing by his transgressions,] 
then he sorrows and grieves for the offence of God by sin ; 
reasoning thus with himself: And is it so indeed ? Hath the 
Lord given his own Son to death for me who have been such 
a vile sinful wretch ? And hath Christ borne all thy sins ? and 
was he wounded for thy transgressions? Oh then, the working 
of his bowels, the stirring of his affections, the melting and 
relenting of his repenting heart ! " Then he remembers his 
own evil ways, and his doings that were not good, and loathes 



* His soul resting on Christ, whom he hath received for salvation. 
t Thus he conceives of God according to the measure of his faith, or of his 
soul's resting on Christ, which admits of various degrees. 
X See page 144, note %. 

I A man's believing God's love to him, is woven into the very nature of 
saving faith, as hath been already shown. Wherefore, whatsoever humilia- 
tion, compunction, sorrow, and grief for sin, go before it, they must needs 
be but legal, being before faith, " without which it is impossible to please 
God," Heb. xi. 6. 

II The belief of which, in some measure, is included in the nature of faith. — 
See Dote on the definition of faith, and p. 192, note *. 



196 THE MABROW OF 

himself in his own eyes for all his abominations ;" and looking 
upon Christ, " whom he hath pierced, he mourns bitterly for 
him, as one mourneth for his only son," Ezek. xxxvi. 31 ; 
Zech. xii. 10. Thus, when faith has bathed a man's heart in 
the blood of Christ, it is so mollified that it quickly dissolves 
into tears of godly sorrow ; so that if Christ do but turn and 
look upon him. Oh then, with Peter, he goes out and weeps bit- 
terly ! And this is true gospel-mourning; and this is right 
evangelical repenting * 

Thirdly^ Though, before a man do truly believe in Christ, 
he may so reform his life and amend his ways, that as " touch- 
ing the righteousness which is of the law," he may be, with 
the apostle, blameless, Philip, iii. 6 ; yet, being under the cove- 
nant of works, all the obedience that he yields to the law, 
all his leaving off of sin, and performance of duties, all his 
avoiding what the law forbids, and all his doing what the law 
commands, is begotten by the law of works, of Hagar the 
bond- woman, by the force of self-love ; and so, indeed, they 
are the fruit and works of a bond-servant, that is moved and 
constrained to do all that he doth, for fear of punishment and 
hope of reward.f " For," says Luther, on the Galatians, p. 

* This is the springing up of the " seeds of repentance put into the 
heart in sanctification," Larg. Cat. q. 75 ; a work of sanctifying grace, 
acceptable to God ; the curse being taken oflf the sinner, and his person 
accepted in the Beloved, and like to the mourning and repenting of that 
woman, Luke vii. 47, " who, having much forgiven her, loved much." 
Betwixt which repentance and pardon of sin, there is an inseparable con- 
nection, so that it is of such necessity to all sinners, that none may expect 
pardon without it. Westm. Confess, chap. 15. art. 3. — See also p. 146, 
note X- 

t This can have no reference at all to the motives of a believer's obe- 
dience, unless believers, as well as unbelievers, are to be reckoned to be 
under the covenant of works ; for it is manifest, that the author speaks 
here of such only as are under that covenant. But, on the contrary, if a 
man is under the covenant of works called the law, in the style of the 
Holy Ghost, he is not a believer, but an unbeliever, Rom. vi. 14, " Sin 
shall not have dominion over you ; for ye are not under the law, but 
under grace." This reasoning proceeds upon this principle, viz: Those 
who are under the covenant of works, and they only, are under the do- 
minion or reigning power of sin. And if men, being under the covenant 
of works, are under the dominion of sin, it is evident that they are not 
believers, but bond-servants, that the love of God dwelleth not in them, 
but corrupt self-love reigns in them ; and, therefore, unto the good they 
do, they are constrained, by fear of punishment and hope of reward, 
agreeable to the threatening and promise of the broken covenant of 
works they are under ; that their obedience, conform to their state and 
condition, is but servile ; no better than it is here described to be, having 
only the letter, but not the spirit of true obedience, the which, before any 



MODERN DIVINITY. 197 

218, " the law given on Mount Sinai, which the Arabians call 
Agar, begetteth none but servants." And so indeed all that 
such a man doth is but hypocrisy ; for he pretends the serving 
of God, whereas, indeed, he intends the serving of himself. 
And how can he do otherwise ? for whilst he wants faith, he 
wants all things : he is an empty vine, and therefore must 
needs bring forth fruit unto himself: Hosea x. 1. Till a man 
be served himself, he will not serve the Lord Christ.* Nay, 
while he wants faith, he wants the love of Christ, and there- 
fore he lives not to Christ, but to himself, because he loves 
himself. And hence, surely, we may conceive it is that Dr. 
Preston says, " All that a man doeth, not out of love, is 
out of hypocrisy. Wheresoever love is not, there is nothing 
but hypocrisy in such a man's heart." 

But when a man, through the "hearing of faith, receives 
the Spirit of Christ," Gal. iii. 2, that Spirit, according to 
the measure of faith, writes the lively law of love in his 
heart, (as Tindal sweetly says,) whereby he is enabled to 
work freely and of his own accord, without the co-action or 
compulsion of the law.f For that love wherewith Christ, or 

man can attain unto, he must be set free from the covenant of works, as 
the apostle teaches ; Rom. vii. 6, " But now, we are delivered from the 
law, that being dead wherein we were held that we should serve in new- 
ness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter:" and finally, that as 
is the condition and the obedience of those under the covenant of works, 
so shall their end be, Gal. iv. 30, " Cast out the bond-woman and her 
son : for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free- 
woman." 

* That is, till the empty vine be filled with the Spirit from Jesus Christ, 
it will never bring forth fruit unto him. Till a man do once eat by faith 
he will never work aright. The conscience must be purged from dead works, 
else one is not in case " to serve the living God," Heb. ix. 14. The covenant 
of works says to the sinner, who is yet without strength, " AVork, and then ye 
shall be filled ;" but the covenant of grace says to him, " Be filled, and then 
thou must work." And until the yoke of the covenant of works be taken off 
a man's jaws, and meat be laid unto him, he will never take on and bear the 
yoke of Christ acceptably. 

t The words co-action and compulsion signify one and the same thing, viz : 
forcing ; so that to work without the co-action or compulsion of the law, is to 
work without being forced thereto by the law. 

One would think it so very plain and obvious, that the way how the 
law forceth men to work, is by the terror of the dreadful punishment which 
it threatens in case of not working, that it does but darken the matter to say, 
The co-action or compulsion of the law consists in its commanding and 
binding power or force ; the which must needs be meant of the com- 
manding and binding power of the covenant of works, or of the law, as 
it is the covenant of works. For it cannot be meant (as these words seem 
to bear) of that power which the law of the ten commandments, as a rule 
17 * 



198 THE MARROW OF 

God in Christ, hatli loved liim, and which by faith is appre- 
hended of him, will constrain him to do so ; according to that 
of the apostle, 2 Cor. v. 14, " The love of Christ constrain- 
eth us." That is, it will make him do so, whether he will or 

of life, hath over men, to bind them to obedience, under which, I think, 
the impartial reader is by this time convinced that the author denies not 
believers still to be ; for to call that co-action or compulsion, is contrary 
to the common understanding and usage of these words in society. At 
this rate, one must say. That the glorified saints and angels (to ascend no 
higher) being, as creatures of God, under the commanding and binding 
power of the eternal rule of righteousness, are compelled and forced to their 
obedience too ; and that when we pray, " Thy will be done on earth, as it 
is in heaven," we pray to be enabled to obey the will of God, as the an- 
gels do in heaven, by co-action and compulsion in the height thereof ; for 
surely the angels have the sense of the commanding and binding power 
of the eternal rule of righteousness upon them in a degree far beyond 
what any believer on earth has. Wherefore that exposition of the co-ac- 
tion or compulsion of the law, and so putting believers under the law's co- 
action or compulsion, amount just to what we met with before, namely, 
That believers are under the commanding power (at least) of the cove- 
nant of works, having obedience bound upon them with the cords of hell, 
or under the pain of the curse. Accordingly, the compulsion of the law 
is more plainly described to be its binding power and moral force, which 
it derives from the awful authority of the sovereign Lawgiver, command- 
ing obedience to his law, and threatening disobedience with wrath, or 
with death, or hell. And so our author is blamed for not subjecting believers 
to this compulsion of the law. 

. In the preceding paragraph he had shown, that the obedience of unbelievers 
to the law of the ten commandments is pi-oduced by the influence of the 
law (or covenant) of works upon them, forcing or constraining them thereto 
by the fear of the punishment which it threatens. Thus, they work by the 
co-action or compulsion of the law, or covenant of works, being destitute of 
the love of God. Here he affirms, that when once a man is brought unto 
Christ, he having the sanctifying Spirit of Christ dwelling in him, and being 
endowed with faith that purifies the heart, and with love that is strong as 
death, is enabled to work freely, and of his own accord, without that co-action 
or compulsion. 

This is the doctrine of the holy Scripture. Psalm li. 12, " Uphold me 
with thy free spirit." Compare Gal. v. 18, " But if ye be led by the Spirit, 
ye are not under the law." So Psalm ex. 3, " Thy people shall be willing in 
the day of thy power." Compare 1 Pet. v. 2, " Not by constraint but will- 
ingly." And believers are declared to be " not under the law," Kom. vi. 14. — 
" To be made free from the law of death. Not to have received the spirit of 
bondage again to fear, but the spirit of adoption," Chap. viii. 2, 15. How 
then can they still be under the co-active and compulsive power of the law, 
frightening and forcing them to obedience by its threatenings of the second 
death, or eternal wrath ? 

And it is evident that this is the received doctrine of orthodox divines, which 
might be attested by a cloud of witnesses, if the nature of this work did permit. 
" Not to be under the law," says Luther, " is to do good things, and abstain 
from wicked things, not through compulsion of the law, but by free love, 
and with pleasure." Chos. Ser. xx. o. 232. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 199 

no ; "he cannot choose, but do it."^ I tell you truly, answer- 
ably as the love of Christ is shed abroad in the heart of any 
man, it is such a strong impulsion, that it carries him on to 
serve and please the Lord in all things, according to the say- 
ing of an evangelical man :t " The will and affection of a 

"The second part {viz: of Christian liberty) is," says Calvin, " that con- 
sciences obey the law, not as compelled by the necessity of the law, but bein^ 
free from the yoke of the law itself, of their own accord they obey the will of 
God." Instit. book iii. chap. 19, sec. 4. 

" We would distino^uish betwixt the law, considered as a law and as a 
covenant. A law doth necessarily imply no more than, (1.) To direct. (2.) 
To command, enforcino^ that obedience by authority. A covenant doth further 
necessarily imply promises made upon some condition, or threatenings added, 
if such a condition be not performed. The first two are essential to the law, 
the last two to believers, are made void through Christ ; in which sense it 
is said, that by him we are freed from the law as a covenant ; so that believers' 
lives depend not on the promises annexed to the law, nor are they 
in danger by the threatenings adjoined to it." Durham on the Commands, 
p. 4. 

" What a new creature doth, in observance of the law, is from natural free- 
dom, choice, and judgment, and not by the force of any threatenings annexed to 
it." Charnock, vol. ii. p. 59. 

See Westminster Confession, chap. 20, art. 1, of which afterwards. 

And thus is that text, 1 Tim. i. 9, " The law is not made for a righteous 
man," generally understood by divines, critics, and commentators, the 
law, threatening, compelling, condemning, is not made for a righteous 
man, because he is pushed forward to duty of his own accord, and is no 
more led by the spirit of bondage, and fear of punishment." Turret, loc. 
2, q. 24, th. 8. — " By the law is to be understood the moral law, as it is 
armed in stings and terrors, to restrain rebellious sinners. By the righteous 
man is meant one in whom a principle of divine grace is planted, and who, 
from the knowledge and love of God, chooses the things that are pleasing to 
him. As the law has annexed so many severe threatenings to the 
transgressors of it, it is evident that it is directed to the wicked, who will only 
be compelled by fear from an outrageous breaking of it." Continuation of 
Poole's Annotations on the Text. " The law is not for him, as a master 
to command him, to constrain him as a bondman." Lodovic de Dieu. " The 
law doth not compel, press on, fright, lie heavy upon, and punish a righteous 
man." Strigelius. — " It lies not on him as a heavy burden, compelling a man 
against his will, violently pressing him on, and pushing him forwards ; it 
doth not draw him to obedience; but leads him, being willing." Scultetus 
— " For of his own accord he doth right." Castalio, apud Pol. Synop. in 
Loc. 

* '•' It is a metonymy from the effect, that is, love makes me to do it in that 
manner, as a man that is compelled ; that is the meaning of it. So it has the 
same effect that compulsion hath, though there be nothing more different from 
compulsion than love." Dr. Preston, ibid. p. 29. 

f If one considers that the drift and scope of this whole discourse, 
from p. 192, is to discover the naughtiness of Antinomista's faith, ob- 
served by Neophytus, one may perceive, that by the author's quoting 
'J'owne, the Antinomian, upon that head, he gives no more ground to sus- 
pect himself of Antinomianism, though he calls him an evangelical man, 



200 THE MARROW OF 

believer, according to the measure of faith and the spirit 
received, sweetly quickens and bends, to choose, affect, and 
delight in whatever is good and acceptable to God, or a good 
man ; the Spirit freely and cheerfully moving and inclining 
him to keep the law, without fear of hell or hope of heaven."* 
For a Christian man, says sweet Tindal, worketh only because 
it is the will of his Father ; for after that he is overcome with 
love and kindness, he seeks to do the will of God, which is in- 
deed a Christian man's nature ; and what he doth, he doth it 
freely after the example of Christ. As a natural son, ask him 
why he does such a thing. Why, says he, it is the will of my 
Father, and I do it that I may please him ; for, indeed, love de- 
si reth no wages, it is wages enough to itself, it hath sweetness 
enough in itself, it desires no addition, it pays its own wages. 
And therefore it is the true child-like obedience, being begotten 
by faith, of Sarah the free-woman, by the force of God's love. 
And so it is indeed the only true and sincere obedience : for, 
says Dr. Preston, " To do a thing in love, is to do it in sincer- 
ity ; and, indeed, there is no other definition of sincerity ; that 
is the best way to know it by." 

Sect. 7. — Nom. But stay, sir, I pray you, would you not 
have believers to eschew evil and do good, for fear of hell, or 
for hope of heaven ? 

Evan. No, indeed, I would not have any believer to do 
either the one or the other ; for so far forth as they do so, 
their obedience is but slavish.f And therefore though, when 

than a Protestant gives in point of Popery, by quoting Cardinal Bellar- 
mine against a Papist, though withal he call him a Catholic. And the 
epithet given to Towne, is so far from being a high commendation, that, really, 
it is none at all ; for, though both these epithets, the latter as well as 
the former, are in themselves honourable, yet in these cases, a man speaking in 
the language of his adversary, they are nothing so. Evangelista could not 
but remember that Antinomista had told him roundly, " That he had not 
been so evangelical as some others in the city, which caused him to leave 
hearing of him, to hear them," viz : those evangelical men ; and why 
might not he give him a sound note from one of those evangelical men, even 
under that character, so acceptable to him, without ranking himself with 
them? 

* See p. 197, note f, and the following one. 

fAs for what concerns the hope of heaven, the author purposely ex- 
plains that matter, (p. 205,) that he would not have any believer to eschew 
evil or do good for fear of hell ; the meaning thereof plainly is this, you 
being a believer in Christ, ought not to eschew evil and do good, for fear 
you be condemned, and cast into hell. So far as a believer doth so, the 
author justly reckons his obedience accordingly slavish. This is the 
common understanding and sense of such a phrase, as when we say, The. 
slave works for fear of the whip. Some men abstain from stealing, rob- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 201 

they were first awakened and convinced of their misery, and 
set foot forward to go on in the way of life, they, with the 



bing, and the like, for fear of the gallows ; they eschew evil, not from love 
of virtue, but for fear of punishment, as the heathen poet says of his pretender 
to virtue, 

Oderunt peccare boni virtutis araore, 

Tu nihil admittes in te formidine poenaa. 

HoRAT. Epist. 1 6. 
■Which may be thus Englished : 

Hatred of vice, in generous souls, 
From love of virtue flows, 

While nothing vicious minds controls 
But servile fear of blows. 
This is quite another thing than to say, that a believer in doing good, or 
eschewing evil, ought not to regard threatenings, nor be influenced by 
the threatening of death. For though believers ought never to fear that 
they shall be condemned and cast into hell, yet they both may and ought 
awfully to regard the threatenings of the holy law : and how they ought 
to regard them, one may learn from the Westm. Confess, chap. xix. art. 
6, in these words, " The threatenings of it [viz : the law] serve to show 
what even their sins deserve ; aud what aSlictions in this life they may 
expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the 
law." Thus they are to regard them, not as denunciations of their doom, 
in case of sinning, but as a looking-glass wherein to behold the fearful 
demerit of their sin ; the unspeakable love of God in freeing them from 
bearing it, his fatherly displeasure against his own for their sin, and the 
tokens of his anger to be expected by them in that case. So will they 
be influenced to eschew evil and do good, being thereby filled with hatred 
and horror of sin, thankfulness to God, and fear of the displeasure and frowns 
of their Father, though not with a fear that he will condemn them, and destroy 
them in hell ; this glass represents no such thing. 

Such a fear in a believer is groundless. For (1.) He is not under the 
threatening of hell, or liable to the curse. See p. 113, 114, notes* andf. 
If he were, he behoved that moment he sinneth to fall under the curse. 
For since the curse is the sentence of the law, passing on the sinner, ac- 
cording to the threatening, adjudging, and binding him over to the punish- 
ment threatened ; if the law say to a man, before he sinneth, *' In the day 
thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die," it says unto him, in the mo- 
ment he sinneth, " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things 
written in the law, to do them." And forasmuch as believers sin in every 
thing they do, their very believing and repenting being always attended 
with sinful imperfections, it is not possible, at this rate, that they can be 
one moment from under the curse ; but it must be continually wreathed 
about their necks. To distinguish in this case, betwixt gross sins and 
lesser sins, is vain ; for as every sin, even the least, deserves God's wrath 
and curse, [Short. Cat.,] so, against whomsoever the curse takes place, 
(and by virtue of God's truth, it takes place against all those who are 
threatened with hell or eternal death) they are cursed for all sins, smaller 
or greater : " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things :" 
though still there is a difierence made betwixt greater and lesser sins, in 
respect of the degree of punishment, yet there is none in respect of the 
kind. But now believers are set free from the curse. Gal. iii. 13,. 



202 THE MAREOW OP 

prodigal, would be hired servants ; yet when, by the eye of 
faith, they see the mercy and indulgence of their heavenly 

" Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse 
for us." (2.) By the redemption of Christ already applied to the believer, 
and by the oath of God, he is perfectly secured from the return of the 
curse upon him," Gal. iii. 13, [see before,] compared with Isa. liii. and 
liv. 9, " For this is as the waters of Noah unto me : for. as I have sworn 
that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I 
sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee." Therefore 
he is perfectly secured from being made liable any more to hell or eternal 
death. For a man, being under the curse, is " so made liable to the 
pains of hell for ever." Short. Cat. (3.) He is justified by faith, and so 
adjudged to live eternally in heaven. This is unalterable, " for the gifts 
and calling of God are without repentance," Rom. xi. 29. And a man 
can never stand adjudged to eternal life, and to eternal death, at one and 
the same time. (4.) One great difference betwixt believers and unbe- 
lievers lies here, that the latter are bound over to hell and wrath, the 
former are not : John iii. 18, " He that believeth is not condemned : but 
he that believeth not, is condemned already ;" not that he is in hell al- 
ready, but bound over to it. Now, a believer is still a believer, from the 
first moment of his believing ; and therefore it remains true concerning 
him, from that moment for ever, that he is not condemned or bound over 
to hell and wrath. He is expressly secured against it for all time to 
come, from that moment. John v. 24, "He shall not come into con- 
demnation." And the apostle cuts off all evasion by distinctions of con- 
demnation here, while he tells us in express terms, "There is no condem- 
nation to them which are in Christ Jesus," Rom. viii. 1. (5.) The be- 
liever's union with Christ is never dissolved. Hosea ii. 19, "I will betroth 
thee unto me for ever :" and being in Christ he is set beyond the reach 
of condemnation, Rom. viii. 1. Yea, and being in Christ, he is perfectly 
righteous for ever ; for he is never again stripped of the white raiment of 
Christ's imputed righteousness ; while the union remains, it cannot be 
lost : but to be perfectly righteous, and yet liable to condemnation before a 
just Judge, are inconsistent. 

Neither is such a fear in a believer acceptable to God ; for, (1.) It is 
not from the Spirit of God, but from one's own spirit, or a worse ; 
Rom. viii. 15, "Ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear;" 
namely, to fear death or hell. Heb. ii, 15, " Who through fear of death 
were all their life-time subject to bondage." (2.) It was the design of 
the sending of Christ, that believers in him might serve God without that 
fear, Luke i. 74. That " we, being delivered out of the hands of our 
enemies, might serve him without fear." Compare 1 Cor. xv. 26, " The 
last enemy that shall be destroyed is death." And for this very cause 
Jesus Christ came, "That through death he might destroy him that had 
the power of death, that is the devil ; and deliver them, who, through 
fear of death, were all their life-time," namely, before their deliverance by 
Christ, " subject to bondage," Heb. ii. 14, 15. 

(3.) Though it is indeed . consistent with, yet it is contrary to faith; 
Matt. viii. 26, " Why are ye fearful, ye of little faith !" And to love too ; 

1 John iv. 18, " Perfect love casteth out fear, because fear hath torment." — 

2 Tim. i. 7, " God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, of love, 
and of a sound miud." 



MODERN- DIVINITY. 203 

Father in Christ, running to meet them and embrace them ; I 
would have them, with him, to talk no more of being hired 
servants, Luke xvi. 1 would have them so to wrestle against 
doubting, and so to exercise their faith as to believe, that they 
are by Christ " delivered from the hands of their enemies," 
both the law, sin, wrath, death, the devil, and hell, " that 
they may serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and right- 
eousness all the days of their lives," Luke i. 74, 75. I would 
have them so to believe God's love to them in Christ, as that 
thereby they may be constrained to obedience * 

Nom. But, sir, you know that our Saviour says, "Fear 
him that is able to destroy both soul and body in hell," 
Matt. X. 28. And the apostle says, "■ We shall receive of 
the Lord the reward of the inheritance," Col. iii. 24. And 

(4.) As it is not agreeable to the character of a father, who is not a re- 
venging judge to his own family, to threaten to kill his children, though he 
threaten to chastise them : so such a fear is no more agreeable to the spirit of 
adoption, nor becoming the state of sonship to God, than for a child to fear 
that his father, being such a one, will kill him. And therefore, " the spirit of 
bondage to fear" is opposed to " the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 
Father," Rom. viii. 15. 

" Adoption is an act of the free grace of God, whereby all those that 
are justified are received into the number of his children, have his name 
put upon them, the Spirit of his Son given to them, (receive the spirit 
of adoption, Westm. Confess, chap. 12,) are under his fatherly care and 
dispensation, admitted to all the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, 
made heirs of all the promises, and fellow-heirs with Christ in glory." Larg. 
Cat. q. 74. 

"The LIBERTY which Christ has purchased for believers under the 
gospel, consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning 
wrath of God, the curse of the moral law, as also in their free access 
to God, and their yielding obedience unto him, not out of slavish fear, 
but a child-like love and willing mind. All which were common also to be- 
lievers under the law." Westm. Confess, chap. 20, art. 1. By the guilt of 
sin here, must needs be understood obligation to eternal wrath. See p. 87, 
note 4. 

" The end of Christian liberty is, that being delivered out of the hands of 
our enemies, we might * serve the Lord without fear.' " Ibid. art. 3. 

" The one [viz : justification) doth equally free all believers from the reveng- 
ing wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into con- 
demnation." Larg. Cat. q. 77. 

" Though a soul be justified and freed from the guilt of eternal punishment, 
and so the spirit is no more to be afraid and disquieted for eternal wrath and 
hell." Rutherford's Trial and Triumph, &c. Ser. 19, p. 261. 

" The believer hath no conscience of sins ; that is, he in conscience is not to 
fear everlasting condemnation, that is most true." Ibid. p. 266. 

See more to this purpose, p. 108, note ■* ; 113, note * ; 197, note f. 

* And no marvel one would have them do so, since that is what all the 
children of God with one mouth do daily pray for, saying, ** Thy will be done 
on earth as it is in heaven." 



204 .'the marrow of 

is it not said, that "Moses had respect unto the recompense of 
reward ?" Heb. xi. 26. 

Evan. Surely the intent of our blessed Saviour, in that 
first Scripture, is to teach all believers, that when God com- 
mands one thing, and man another, they should obey God, 
and not man, rather than to exhort them to eschew evil for 
fear of hell."^ And for those other Scriptures by you al- 
leged, if you mean reward^ and the means to obtain that re- 
ward, in the Scripture sense, then it is another matter ; but 
I had thought you had meant in our common sense, and not 
in Scripture sense. 

* There is a great difference betwixt a believer's eschewing evil for fear 
of hell, and his eschewing it from the fear of God, '' as able to destroy 
both soul and body in hell." The former respects the event as to his 
eternal state, the latter not. To this purpose the variation of the phrase 
in the text is observable, — ** fear not them that kill the body :" this 
notes the event, as to temporal death by the hands of men, which our 
Lord would have his people to lay their account with ; but with respect 
to eternal death, he says not, fear him which destroys, but, " which is able 
to destroy both soul and body in hell." Moreover, the former is a 
slavish fear of God as a revenging judge ; the believer eschewing sin 
for fear he be damned : the latter is a reverential fear of God as of a 
Father with whom is awful dominion and power. The former carries in it 
a doubtfulness and uncertainty as to the event, plainly contrary to the 
remedy prescribed in this same case : Prov. xxix. 25, " The fear of man 
bringeth a snare ; but whoso putteth his trust in the Lord shall be safe." 
The latter is consistent with the most full assurance of one's being put 
beyond all hazard of hell, Heb. xii. 28, 29, "Wherefore we receiving a 
kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may 
serve God acceptably, with reverence and godly fear. For our God is a 
consuming fire." A believer, by fixing his eyes on God, as able to de- 
stroy both soul and body in hell, may be so filled with the reverential 
fear of God, his dreadful power and wrath against sin, as to be fenced 
against the slavish fear of the most cruel tyrants, tempting him to sin ; though 
in the mean time he most firmly believes that he is past that gulf, can 
never fall into it, nor be bound over untx) it. For, so he hath a lively represen- 
tation of the just deserving of sin, even of that sin in particular unto 
which he is tempted ; and so must tremble at the thought of it, as an evil 
greater than death. And as a child, when he seeth his father lashing his 
slaves, cannot but tremble, and fear to offend him, so a believer's turning 
his eyes on the n)iseries of the damned, must raise in him an awful apprehen- 
sion of the severity of his Father against sin, even in his own ; and cause 
him to say in his heart, " My flesh trembleth for fear of thee ; and I am 
afraid of thy judgments," Psalm cxix. 120. Thus also he hath a view of 
the frightful danger he has escaped ; the looking back to which must 
make one's heart shiver, and conceive a horror of sin ; as in the case 
of a pardoned criminal, looking back to a dreadful precipice from which 
he was to have been thrown headlong, had not a pardon seasonably prevented 
his ruin ; Eph. ii. 3, " We were by nature the children of wrath, even as 
others." 



MODERN DIVINITY. 205 

Nom. Why, sir, I pray you, what difference is there be- 
twixt reward, and the means to obtain the reward, in our com- 
mon sense, and in the Scripture sense ? 

Evan. Why, reward, in our common sense, is that which 
is conceived to come from God, or to be given by God ; 
which is a fancying of heaven under carnal notions, beholding 
it as a place where there is freedom from all misery, and 
fulness of all pleasures and happiness, and to be obtained by 
our own works and doings* But reward in the Scripture 
sense, is not so much that which comes from God, or is 
given by God, as that which lies in God, even the full frui- 
tion of God himself in Christ. " I am," says God to Abra- 
ham, " thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward," Gen. 
XV. 1, and " Whom have I in heaven but thee?" says David; 
"and there is none on earth that I desire besides thee," 
Psalm Ixxiii. 25 ; and " I shall be satisfied when I awake with 
thy likeness,"t Psalm xvii. 15. And the means to obtain this 
reward is, not by doing, but by believing ; even by " drawing 
near with a true heart, in the full assurance of faith," Heb. 
X. 22 ; and so indeed it is given freely .:j: And therefore you 
are not to conceive of that reward which the Scripture speaks 
of, as if it were the wages of a servant, but as it is the inherit- 



* Thus, to eschew evil and do good for hope of heaven, is to do so in 
hope of obtaining heaven by our own works. And certainly " that hope shall 
be cut off, and be a spider's web," Job viii. 14 ; for a sinner shall never ob- 
tain heaven but in the way of free grace ; " But if it be of works, then it is no 
more grace," Rom. xi. 6. But that a believer may be animated to obedience 
by eyeing the reward already obtained for him by the works of Christ, our 
author no where denies. So indeed the apostle exhorts believers to run their 
Christian race, " looking unto Jesus, who, for the joy that was set before him," 
( to be obtained by his own works, in the way of most proper merits) " endured 
the cross," Heb. xii. 1 , 2. 

" Papists," says Dr. Preston, " tell of escaping damnation, and of get- 
ting into heaven. But Scripture gives other motives [viz: to good works] : 
Thou art in Christ, and Christ is thine ; consider what he hath done for 
thee, what thou hast by him, what thou hadst been without him, and thus 
stir up thyself to do for him what he requireth." — Abridg. of his Works, 
p. 394. 

f " Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy him for ever." Short. Cat. 
— *' Believers shall be made perfectly blessed in full enjoying of God to all 
eternity." Ibid. 

J Rom. iv. 16, "Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace ; to the 
end the promise [viz: of the inheritance, verses 13, 14,] might be sure to all the 
seed." Otherwise it is not given freely ; for " to him that worketh is the re- 
ward not reckoned of grace, but of debt," verse 4. 
18 



206 THE MAEROW OF 

ance of sons * And when the Scripture seemeth to induce 
believers to obedience, by promising this reward, you are to 
conceive that the Lord speaks to believers as a father does 
to his young son, Do this or that, and then I will love thee ; 
whereas we know, that the father loveth the son first, and so 
does God ; and therefore this is the voice of believers, " We 
love him, because he first loved us," 1 John iv. 19. The 
Lord doth pay them, or at least gives them a sure earnest of 
their wages, before he bid them work;t and therefore the 
contest of a believer (according to the measure of his faith) 
is not, what will God give me? but, what shall I give God? 
" What shall I render unto the Lord for all his goodness ? For 
thy loving-kindness is before mine eyes, and I have walked in 
thy truth," Psalm cxvi. 12, and xxvi. 3. 

Nom. Then, sir, it seems that holiness of life, and good 
works, are not the cause of eternal happiness, but only the 
way thither ? 

Evan. Do you not remember that our Lord Jesus himself 
says, " I am the way, the truth, and the life ?" John xiv. 6 ; 
and doth not the apostle say to the believing Colossians, "As 
ye have received Jesus Christ the Lord, so walk in him?" 
Col. ii. 6 ; that is, as ye have received him by faith, so go 
on in your faith, and by his power walk in his command- 
ments. So that good works, as I conceive, may rather be 
called a believer's walking in the way of eternal happiness, 
than the way itself; but, however, this we may assuredly 
conclude, that the sum and substance both of the way, and 
walking in the way, consists in the receiving of Jesus Christ 



* The apostle's decision in this case seems to be pretty clear : Rom. vi. 
23, " For the wages of sin is death ; but the gift of God is eternal life :'' 
he will not have us to look upon it as the wages of a servant too. The 
joining together of both these notions of the reward was, it seems, the 
doctrine of the Pharisees ; Mark x. 17, " Good Master, what shall I do, 
that I may inherit eternal life ?" And how unacceptable it was to our 
blessed Saviour, may be learned from his answer to that question. " The 
Papists confess that life is merited by Christ, and is made ours by the 
right of inheritance : so far we go with them. Tea, touching works, they 
hold many things with us ; (1.) That no works of themselves can merit life 
everlasting. (2.) That works done before convei-sion, can merit nothing at God's 
hand. (3.)^ That there is no merit at God's hand, without his mercy, no 
exact merit as often there is amongst men. The point whereabout we dissent 
is, that with the merit of Christ and free promise, they will have the merit 
of works joined, as done by them who are adopted children." — Bayne on 
Eph. ii. 8. 

t Namely, in the way of the covenant of grace. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 207 

by faith, and in yielding obedience to liis law, according to tbe 
measure of that receiving."^ 

Sect. 8. — Neo. Sir, I am persuaded, that through my neigh- 
bour Nomista's asking you these questions, you have been in- 
terrupted in your discourse, in showing how faith enables a 
man to exercise his Christian graces, and perform his Chris- 
tian duties aright : and therefore I pray you go on. 

Evan. What should I say more ? for the time would fail 
me to tell, how that, according to the measure of any man's 
faith, is his true peace of conscience ; for, says the apostle, 
* being justified by faith, we have peace with God," Rom. v. 1. 
Yea, says the prophet Isaiah, " Thou wilt keep him in per- 



* Our author, remembering Nomista's bias towards good works, as se- 
parated from Christ, puts him in mind, that Christ is the way ; and that 
the soul's motion heaven-ward is in Christ ; that is, a man being once 
united to Christ by faith, moveth heaven-ward, making progress in be- 
lieving, and by influences derived from Jesus Christ, walking in his holy 
commandmeuts. The Scripture acknowledges no other holiness of life, 
or good works ; and concerning the necessity of these the author moves 
no debate. But as to the propriety of expression, since good works are 
the keeping" of the commandments, in the way of which we are to go, he 
conceives they may, with greater propriety, be called the walking in the 
way, than the way itself. It is certain that the Scripture speaks of 
" walking in Christ," Col. ii. 6, " walking in his commandments," 
2 Chron. xvii. 4, and " walking in good works," Eph. ii. 10 ; and that as 
these terms signify but one and the same thing, so they are all metaphor- 
ical. But one would think the calling of good works the way to be 
walked in, is further removed from the propriety of expression, than the 
calling them the walking in the way. But the author waiving this, as a 
matter of phraseology, or manner of speaking only, tells us, that assuredly 
the sum and substance, both of the way to eternal happiness, and of the 
walking in the way to it, consists in the receiving Jesus Christ by faith, 
and in yielding obedience to his law, according to the measure of that 
receiving. Herein is comprehended Christ and holiness, faith and obe- 
dience ; which are inseparable. And no narrower is the compass of the 
way and walking mentioned, Isa. xxxv. 8, 9, " It shall be called the way 
of holiness — the redeemed shall walk there." — "The way of holinevss, or 
the holy way, (according to an usual Hebraism,) as it is generally under- 
stood by interpreters, is the way leading to heaven, says Piscator ; namely, 
Christ, faith, and the doctrine of a holy life." Fererius apud Pol. Synop. 
in loc. And now that our author, though he conceives good works are 
not so properly called the way, as the walking, yet does not say, that in 
no sense they may be called the way, but does expressly assert them to b 
the soul's walking in the way of eternal happiness ; he cannot justly be charged 
here (more than any where else in his book) with teaching, that holiness is 
not necessary to salvation, unless one will, in the first place, say that though 
the way itself to eternal happiness is necessary to salvation, yet the walking 
in the way is not necessary to it ; which would be Antinoraian with a wit- 



StOB. THE MARHOW OF 

feet peace, whose mind is stayed on thee, because he trust- 
eth in thee," Isa. xxvi. 3. Here there is a sure and true 
grounded peace : " Therefore it is of faith," says the apostle, 
" That it might be by grace, and that the promise might be 
sure to all the seed," Eom. iv. 16. And answerable to a 
man's believing that he is "justified freely by God's grace, 
through that redemption that is in Jesus Christ,"* Eom. iv. 
8, 24, is his true humility of spirit. So that, although he be 
endowed with excellent gifts and graces, and though he per- 
form never so many duties, he denies himself in all ; he does 
not make them as ladders for him to ascend up into heaven 
by, but he desires to " be found in Ohrist, not having his own 
righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through 
the faith of Christ," Philip, iii. 9. He does not think himself 
to be one step nearer to heaven, for all his works and per- 
formances. And if he hear any man praise him for his gifts 
and graces, he will not conceive that he has obtained the 
same by his own industry and pains-taking, as some men have 
proudly thought ; neither will he speak it out, as some have 
done, saying ; These gifts and graces have cost me something — 
I have taken much pains to obtain them ; but he says, " By 
the grace of God I am what I am ; and not I, but the grace 
of God that was with me," 1 Cor. xv. 10. And if he behold 
an ignorant man, or a wicked liver, he will not call him 
" Carnal wretch !" " or, " Profane fellow !" nor say, " Stand by 
thyself, come not near me, for I am holier than thou," Isa. Ixv. 
5, as some have said ; but he pities such a man, and prays 
for him ; and in his heart he says concerning himself, " Who 
maketh thee to differ ? and what hast thou that thou hast 
not received ?" 1 Cor. iv. 7. 

And thus I might go on, and show you how, according to 
any man's faith, is his true joy in God, and his true thank- 
fulness to God, and his patience in all troubles and afflictions, 
and his contentedness in any condition, and his willingness to 
suffer, and his cheerfulness in suffering, and his contentedness 
to part with any earthly thing. Yea, according to any man's 
faith, is his ability to pray aright, Eom. x. 14, to receive the sac- 
rament with profit and comfort : and to do any duty either to God 
or man after a right manner, and to a right end, Heb. iv. 2. 
Yea, according to the measure of any man's faith, in his love 



. * And not for any thing wrought in himself, or done by himself. 
p. 192. note*. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 209 

to Christ, and so to man for Christ's sake ; and so, consequently, 
his readiness and willingness to forgive an injury; yea, to for- 
give an enemy, and to do good to them that hate him ; and 
the more faith any man has, the less love he has to the world 
or the things that are in the world. To conclude, the greater 
any man's faith is, the more fit he is to die, and the more wil- 
ling he is to die. 

Neo. Well, sir, now I do perceive that faith is a most excel- 
lent grace, and happy is that man who has a great measure of 
it. 

Evan. The truth is, faith is the chief grace that Christians 
are to be exhorted to get and exercise ; and therefore, when 
the people asked our Lord Christ, " what they should do to 
work the works of God," he answered and said, " This is the 
work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent," John 
vi. 29 ; speaking as if there were no other duty at all required, 
but only believing ; for, indeed, to say as the thing is, believ- 
ing includes all other duties in it, and they spring all from it; 
and therefore says one, " Preach faith, and preach all." — 
" Whilst I bid man believe," says learned Bollock, " I bid him 
do all good things ;" for, says Dr. Preston, " Truth of belief 
will bring forth truth of holiness ; if a man believe, works of 
sanctification will follow ; for faith draws after it inherent 
righteousness and sanctification. Wherefore," says he, " if a 
man will go about this great work, to change his life, to get 
victory over any sin, that it may not have dominion over him, 
to have his conscience purged from dead works and to be made 
partaker of the divine nature, let him not go about it as a mo- 
ral man ;" that is, let him not consider what commandments 
there are, what the rectitude is which the law requires, and how 
to bring his heart to it ; but "let him go about it as a Chris- 
tian, that is, let him believe the promise of pardon, in the 
blood of Christ ; and the very believing the promise will be 
able to cleanse his heart from dead works.""^ 

Neo. But I pray you, sir, whence has faith its power and 
virtue to do all this ? 

Evan. Even from our Lord Jesus Christ ; for faith doth 
ingraft a man, who is by nature a wild olive branch, intb 
Christ as into the natural olive ; and fetches sap from the root, 

* The sum thereof is, that no considerations, no endeavours whatsoever, will 
truly sanctify a man, without faith. Ilowbeit, such considerations and endea- 
vours are necessary to promote and advance the sanctification of the soul by 
faith. 

18 * 



'21t) r THE MARROW OT 

Christ, and thereby makes the tree bring forth friiit in its; 
kind ; yea, faith fetcheth a supernatural efficacy from the death 
and life of Christ; by virtue whereof it metamorphoses^ the 
heart of a believer, and creates and infuses into him new prin- 
ciples of action.f So that, what a treasure of all graces Christ 

* That is, transforms or changes. Rom. xii. 2, " Be ye transformed by the 
renewing of your mind." 

f Namely, instrumentally. It cannot be denied that our author places faith 
before the new principles of actions in this passage, and before the habits 
of grace, and yet it will not follow, that, in his opinion, there can be no gra- 
cious change in the soul before faith. What he does indeed teach, in this 
matter, is warranted by the plain testimony of the apostle, £]ph. i. 13, 
" After that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise." 
And what this sealing is, at least as to the chief part of it, may be learned 
from John i. 16, " And of his fulness have all we received, and grace 
for grace." For as sealing is the impression of the image of the seal on the 
wax, so that it thereby receives upon it point for point on the seal, so, 
believers being sealed with the Spirit of Christ, receive grace for grace in 
Christ, whereby they are made like liim, and bear his image. And as it is war- 
ranted by the word, so it is agreeable to the old Protestant doctrine, that we 
are regenerate by faith ; which is the title of the 3d chap, of the 3d book of 
Calvin's Instit. and is taught in the Old Confess, art. 3, in these words : " Re- 
generation is wrought by the power of the Holy Ghost, working in the hearts 
of the elect of God an assured faith ;" and art. 13, in these words : " So soon 
as the Spirit of the Lord Jesus (which God's elect children receive by true 
faith) takes possession in the heart of any man, so soon does he regenerate and 
renew the same man." 

Nevertheless, I am not of the mind, that, either in truth, or in the 
judgment of our reformers, or of our author, the first act of faith is an 
act of an unregenerate, that is to say, a dead soul. But to understand 
this matter aright, I conceive one must distinguish betwixt regeneration 
taken strictly, and taken largely ; and betwixt new powers and new habits 
or principles of action. Regeneration, strictly so called, is the quicken-- 
ing of the dead soul, by the Spirit of Christ passively received, and goes 
before faith, according to John i. 12, 13, " But as many as received him, 
to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that be- 
lieve on his name ; which were born not of blood, but of God." This 
is called by Amesius, the first regeneration, Medul. lib. 1, cap. 29, sect. 6 ; 
see cap. 26, sect. 19. And it belongs to, or is the same with effectual 
calling ; in the description of which, in the Shorter Catechism, one finds 
a renewing mentioned, whereby sinners are enabled to embrace Jesus 
Christ ; and, says the Larger Catechism on the same subject, " They, al- 
though in themselves dead in sin, are hereby made able to answer his call." 
Regeneration, largely taken, presupposing the former,, is the same with 
sanctitication, wrought in the soul by the Spirit of Christ, actively re- 
ceived by faith, and so follows faith. Acts xxvi. 18, " Among them which 
are sanctified by faith, that is in Me :" the subjects of which " are the 
redeemed, called, and justified." Essen. Com. cap. 16, sect. 3. And ac- 
cordingly, in the description thereof in the Shorter Catechism, mention 
is made of a second renewing, namely, " Whereby we are renewed in the 
whole man after the image of God, and are enabled more and more to die 
unto sin, and live unto righteousness." And thus I conceive regeneration 



MODEKN DIVINITT. 211: 

liath stored up in him, faith draineth, and draweth them out 
to the use of a believer ; being as a conduit-cock, that water- 
eth all the herbs of the garden. Yea, faith does apply the 
blood of Christ to a believer's heart ; and the blood of Christ 
has in it, not only a power to wash from the guilt of sin, but 
to cleanse and purge likewise from the power and stain of sin*, 
and therefore, says godly Hooker, " If you would have grace, 
you must first of all get faith, and that will bring all the rest , 
let faith go to Christ, and there is meekness, patience, humil- 
ity, and wisdom, and faith will fetch all them to the soul ; 
therefore, (says he,) you must not look for sanctification till 
you come to Christ in vocation." 

Nom. Truly, sir, I do now plainly see that I have been de- 
ceived, and have gone a wrong way to work ; for I verily 
thought that holiness of life must go before faith, and so be 
the ground of it, and produce and bring it forth ; whereas I 
do now plainly see, that faith must go before, and so produce 
and bring forth holiness of life. 

Evan. I remember a man, who was much enlightened in 



to be taken in the above passages of the Old Confession. The which is 
confirmed by the following testimonies : " Being in Christ, we must be 
new creatures, not in substance, but in qualities and disposition of our 
minds, and change of the actions of our lives, all which is impossible 
to them that have no faith." Mr. John Davidson's Catechism, page 29. 
— " So good works follow as effects of Christ in us, possessed by faith, 
who beginneth to work in us regeneration and a renewing of the whole 
parts and powers of the soul and body. Which begun sanctification and 
holiness he never ceases to accomplish. Ibid. p. 30. — " The effect [viz : 
of justification] inherent in us, as in a subject, is that new quality 
which is called inherent righteousness or regeneration." Grounds of 
Christian Keligion, by the renowned Beza and Faius, 1586, chap. 29, 
sect. 11. — " that new quality, then called inherent righteousness and regenera- 
tion, testified by good works, is a uecessarv effect of true faith." Ibid. chap. 
31, sect. 13. 

Now in regeneration taken in the former sense, new powers are put 
into the soul, whereby the sinner, who was dead in sin, is able to discern 
Christ in his glory, and to embrace him by faith. But it is in regenera- 
tion taken in the latter sense, that new habits of grace, or immediate 
principles of actions are given ; namely, upon the soul's uniting with 
Christ by faith. So Essenius, having defined regeneration to be, the put- 
ting of spiritual life in a man spiritually dead, [compare chap. 14, sect. 
11,] afterwards says, "As by regeneration new powers were put into the 
man, so by sanctification are given new spiritual habits." Theological 
Virtues, ibid. cap. 16, sect. 5. And as the Scriptures are express, in that 
men are " sanctified by faith," Acts xxvi. 18, so is the Larger Catechism in 
that it is in sanctification they are " renewed in the whole man, having the 
seeds of repentance unto life, and of all other saving graces, put into their 
hearts," quest. 75. . . 



212 THE MARROW OF 

the knowledge of the gospel,^ who says, " There may bs 
many that think, that as a man chooses to serve a prince, so 
men choose to serve God. So likewise they think that as 
those who do best service, do obtain most favour of their lord ; 
and as those that have lost it, the more they humble them- 
selves, the sooner they recover it ; even so they think tbe 
case stands between God and them ; whereas, says he, it is 
not so, but clean contrary, for he himself says, ' Ye have not 
chosen me, but I have chosen you,' John xv. 16. And not 
for that we repent and humble ourselves, and do good works, 
he gives us his grace; but we repent and humble our- 
selves, do good works, and become holy, because he gives us 
his grace." The good thief on the cross was not illumi- 
nated, because he did confess Christ ; but he did confess 
Christ, because he was illuminated. For, says Luther, on 
Galatians, p. 124, " The tree must first be, and then the fruit ; 
for the apples make not the tree, but the tree makes the apples. 
So faith first maketh the person, which afterwards brings forth 
works. Therefore to do the law without faith, is to make the 
apples of wood and earth without the tree, which is not to 
make apples, but mere fantasies." Wherefore, neighbour 
Nomista, let me entreat you, that whereas before you have 
reformed your life that you might believe, why, now believe 
that you may reform your life ; and do not any longer work to 
get an interest in Christ, but believe your interest in Christ, 
that so you may work.f And then you will not make the 



* This man, Bernardine Ochine, an infamous apostate, was at first a 
monk ; but as our author says, being much enlightened in the knowledge 
of the gospel, he not only made profession of the Protestant Keligion, 
but, together with the renowned Peter Martyr, was esteemed a most 
famous preacher of the gospel, throughout Italy. Being in danger on 
the account of religion, he left Italy by Martyr's advice ; and being much 
assisted by the Duchess of Ferrara in his escape, he went first to Geneva, 
and then to Zurich, and was admitted a minister in that city. But dis- 
covering himself there, (as Simon Magus did, after he had joined himself 
to the church of Samaria) he was banished ; and is justly reckoned 
among the forerunners of the execrable Socinus. See Hoornbeck, appar. 
ad. contr. Soc. page 47. Hence one may plainly see how there are ser- 
mons of his which might safely and to good purpose be quoted. And as 
for the character given him by the author here, if one is in hazard of reckon- 
ing it an applause, one must remember that is no greater than what the 
apostle gives to the guilty of the sin against the Holy Ghost, Heb. vi. 6, 
" Those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift," &c., 
which I make no question but our author had his eye upon, in giving this man 
this character very pertinently. 

f That is, by believing, get a saving interest in Christ ; whereas, be- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 213- 

cbange of your life the ground of your faith, as you have 
done, and as Mr. Calverwell says, many do, who being asked, 
What caused them to believe ? answer, " Because they have 
truly repented, and changed their course of life."* 

Ant. Sir, what think you of a preacher that, in my hear- 
ing, said, he durst not exhort nor persuade sinners to believe 
their sins were pardoned, before he saw their lives reformed, 
for fear they should take more liberty to sin ? 

Evan. Why, what should I say but that I think that preacher 
was ignorant of the mystery of faith ?i* 

For it:t is of the nature of sovereign waters, which so wash 
off the corruption of the ulcer, that they cool the heat, and 
stay the spreading of the infection, and so by degrees heal the 
same. Neither did he know that it is of the nature of cor- 
dials, which so comfort the heart and ease it, that they also 
expel the noxious humours, and strengthen nature against 
them.§ 

Ant. And I am acquainted with a professor, though, God 



fore, you hare set yourself, as it were, to work it. See the note on the 
Definition of Faith. 

* " Which [adds he] if it proceed not from faith, is not so much as a 
sound proof of faith, much less can it be any cause to draw them to believe." — 
" The only firm ground of saving faith is God's truth, revealed in his word ; as 
is plainly taught," Rom. x. 17. Ibid. p. 20, 21. 

t This censure, as it natively follows upon the overthrowing of that 
doctrine, viz : " That holiness of life must go before faith, and so be the 
ground of it, and produce and bring it forth ;" so it is founded on these 
two ancient Protestant principles: (1.) That the belief of the remission of 
sin is comprehended in saving, justifying faith ; of which see p. 192. note 
*, and the note on the Definition of Faith. (2.) That true repentance, 
and acceptable reformation of life, do necessarily flow from, but go not 
before saving faith ; of which we see p. 144. note *, and 146. note J, 
Hence it necessarily follows, that remission of sin must be believed, be- 
fore there can be any acceptable reformation of life ; and that the preacher's 
fear was groundless, reformation of life being so caused by the faith of 
remission of sin, that it is inseparable from it : as our author teaches in the 
following passages. Calvin's censure in this case is fully as severe : " As 
for them [says he] that think that repentance does rather go before faith, 
than flow or sprmg forth of it, as a fruit out of a tree, they never knew 
the force thereof." Instit. book 3. chap. 3. sect. 1. — " Yet when we refer 
the beginning of repentance to faith, we do not dream a certain mean space 
of time, wherein it brings it out : but we mean to show, that a man cannot 
earnestly apply himself to repentance, unless he know himself to be of God." 
Ibid. sect. 2. 

X Namely, faith. 
, ^ Even so, faith not only justifies a sinner, but sanctifies him in heart and 
life. 



214- THE MAKROW OF 

knows * a very weak one, that says, If he should believe be- 
fore his life be reformed, then he might believe, and yet walk 
on in his sins: — I pray you, sir, what would you say to such 
a man? 

Evan. Why, I could say, with Dr. Preston, let him, if he 
can, believe truly, and do this ; but it is impossible : let him 
believe, and the other will follow ; truth of belief will bring 
forth truth of holiness : for who, if he ponder it well, can fear 
a fleshly licentiousness, where the believing soul is united and 
married to Christ ?t The law, as it is the covenant of works, 
and Christ, are set in opposition, as two husbands to one wife 
successively, Kom. vii. 4 ; whilst the law was alive in the con- 
science, all the fruits were deadly, ver. 5 ; but Christ, taking 
the same spouse to himself, the law being dead, by his quick- 
ening Spirit doth make her fruitful to God, ver. 6 ; and so 
raises up seed to the former husband ; for materially these are 
the works of the law, though produced by the Spirit of Christ 
in the gospel.ij: 

Ant. And yet, sir, I am verily persuaded, that there be 
many, both preachers and professors, in this city, of the very 
same opinion, that these two are of. 

Evan. The truth is, many preachers stand upon the praise 
of some moral virtue, and do inveigh against some vice of the 
times, more than upon pressing men to believe. But, says a 
learned writer, " It will be our condemnation, if we love dark- 
ness, rather than light, and desire still to be groping in the 
twilight of morality, the precepts of moral men, than to walk 
in the true light of divinity, which is the doctrine of Jesus Christ; 
and I pity the preposterous care and unhappy travail of many 
well-affected, who study the practice of this and that virtue, ne- 

* I think this expression might very well have been spared here. 

t " Q. Does not this doctrine [viz : of justification by faith without works] 
make men secure and profane ? A. No, for it cannot be, but they who are 
ingrafted into Christ by faith, should bring forth fruits of thankfulness." 
Palat. Cat. q. 64. 

J As a woman married to a second husband, after the death of the 
first, does the same work for subsistence in the family, that was required 
of her by the first husband ; yet does it not to, nor as under the dead husband, 
but the living one ; so the good works of believers are materially, and 
but materially, the works of the law, as a covenant, the first husband, now 
dead to the believer. In this sense only the law is here treated of : and to 
make the good works of believers formally the works of the law as a 
covenant and husband, is to contradict the apostle, Eom. vii. 4 — 6, to 
"make them deadly fruits, dishonourable to Christ, the second husband, and 
unacceptable to God." 



MODERN DIVINITY. 215 

glecting this cardinal and radical virtue ; as if a man should 
water all the tree, and not the root. Fain would they shine in 
patience, meekness, and zeal, and yet are not careful to establish 
and root themselves in faith, which should maintain all the rest ; 
and therefore all their labour has been in vain and to no 
purpose." 

Nom. Indeed, sir, this which you have now said, I have 
found true by my own experience ; for I have* laboured and 
endeavoured to get victory over such corruptions as to over- 
come my dulness, and to perform duties with cheerfulness, 
and all in vain. 

Evan. And no marvel ; for to pray, to meditate, to keep a 
Sabbath cheerfully, to have your conversation in heaven, is as 
impossible for you yourself to do, as for iron to swim, or for 
stones to ascend upwards ; but yet nothing is impossible to 
faith ; it can naturalize these things unto you ; it can make a 
mole of the earth a soul of heaven. Wherefore, though you 
have tried all moral conclusions of purposing, promising, re- 
solving, vowing, fasting, watching, and self-revenge ; yet get 
you to Christ, and with the finger of faith touch but the hem 
of his garment ; and you shall feel virtue come from him, for 
the curing of all your diseases. Wherefore I beseech you, 
come out of yourself unto Jesus Christ, and apprehend him by 
faith, as, blessed be God, you see your neighbour Neophytus 
has done ; and then shall you find the like loathing of sin, 
and love to the law of Christ, as he now does ; yea, then shall 
you find your corruptions dying and decaying daily, more and 
more,* as I am confident he shall. 

Neo. Aye, but, sir, shall I not have power quite to overcome 
all my corruptions, and to yield perfect obedience to the law 
of Christ, as, the Lord knows, I much desire ? 

Evan. If you could believe perfectly, then should it be even 
according to your desire ; according to that of Luther, on the 
Galatians, p. 173, " If we could perfectly apprehend Christ, 
then should we be free from sin :" but alas ! whilst we are 
here, we know but in part, and so believe but in part, and so 
receive Christ but in part, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, and so, consequently, 
are holy but in part ; witness James the Just, including him- 
self, when he says, " In many things we sin all," James iii. 2. 
John the faithful and loving disciple, when he says, " If we 
say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth 
is not in us," 1 John i. 8. Yea, and witness Luther, when he 

* After that manner. 



216 THE MAKROW OF 

says on the Galatians, p. 144, "A Christian man hath a body, 
in whose members, as Paul says, ' sin dwelleth and warreth,^ 
Eom. vii. 15. And although he fall not into outward and 
gross sins, as murder, adultery, theft, and such like, yet is he 
not free from impatience and murmuring against God ; yea, 
(says he) I feel in myself covetousness, lust, anger, pride, and 
arrogancy, also the fear of death, heaviness, hatred, murmur- 
ings, impatience." So that you must not look to be quite 
without sin, whilst you remain in this life ; yet this I dare 
promise you, that as you grow from faith to faith, so shall you 
grow from strength to strength in all other graces. *'• Where- 
fore," says Hooker, " strengthen this grace of faith, and 
strengthen all ; nourish this, and nourish all." So that if you 
can attain to a great measure of faith, you shall be sure to 
attain to a great measure of holiness ; according to the saying 
of Dr. Preston, " He that hath the strongest faith, he that be- 
lieveth in the greatest degree the promise of pardon and re- 
mission of sins, I dare boldly say, he hath the holiest heart, 
and the holiest life. And therefore, I beseech you labour to 
grow strong in the faith of the gospel," Philip, i. 27. 

Sect. 9 — Neo. sir, I desire it with all my heart ; and 
therefore, I pray you, tell me, what you would have me to do, 
that I may grow more strong. 

Evan. Why, surely, the best advice and counsel that I can 
give you, is to exercise that faith which you have, and wrestle 
against doubtings, and be earnest with God in prayer for the 
increase of it. " Forasmuch," says Luther, " as this gift is 
in the hands of God only, who bestoweth when, and on whom, 
he pleaseth, thou must resort unto him b}^ prayer, and say 
with the apostles, ' Lord, increase our faith,' " Luke xvii. 5. 
And you must also be diligent in hearing the word preached ; 
for as "faith cometh by hearing," Eom. x. 17, so is it also in- 
creased by hearing. And you must also read the word, and 
meditate upon the free and gracious promises of God ; for the 
promise is the immortal seed, whereby the Spirit of Christ 
begets and increases faith in the hearts of all his. And lastly, 
you must frequent the sacrament of the Lord's supper, and 
receive it as often as conveniently you can. 

Ant. But by your favour, sir, if faith be the gift of God, and 
he give it when, and to whom he pleases, then I conceive that 
a man's using such means will not procure any greater measure 
of it than God is pleased to give. 

Evan. I confess it is not the means that will either beget or 



MODERN DIVINITY. 217 

increase faith ; but it is the Spirit of God in the use of means 
that doth it : so that as the means will not do it without the 
Spirit, neither will the Spirit do it without the means, where 
the means may be had. Wherefore, I pray you, do not you 
hinder him from using the means. 

Neo. Sir, for my own part, let him say what he will, I am 
resolved, by the assistance of God, to be careful and diligent 
in the u^e of these means which you have now prescribed ; 
that so, by the increasing of my faith, I may be the better 
enabled to be subject to the will of the Lord, and so walk as 
that I may please him. 

Sect. 10. — But forasmuch as heretofore he hath endea- 
voured to persuade me to believe divers points, which then I 
could not see to be true, and therefore could not assent unto 
them, methinks I do now begin to see some show of truth in 
them ; therefore, sir, if you please to give me leave, I will tell 
you what points they are, to the intent I may have your judg- 
ment and direction therein. 

Evan. Do so, I pray you. 

Neo. 1. Why, first of all, he hath endeavoured to persuade 
me that a believer is not under the law, but is altogether de- 
livered from it. 

2. That a believer does not commit sin. 

3. That the Lord can see no sin in a believer. 

4. That the Lord is not angry with a believer for his sins. 
6. That the Lord doth not chastise a believer for his sins. 

6. Lastly^ That a believer hath no cause neither to confess 
his sins, nor to crave pardon at the hands of God for them, 
neither yet to fast, nor mourn, nor humble himself before the 
Lord for them. 

Evan. These points which you have now mentioned have 
caused many needless and fruitless disputes ; and that be- 
cause men have either not understood what they have said, or 
else not declared whereof they have affirmed ; for in one sense 
they may all of them be truly affirmed, and in another sense 
they may all of them be truly denied ; whereof if we would 
clearly understand the truth, we must distinguish betwixt 
the law as it is the law of works, and as it is the law of 
Christ.* 



^ The Antiuomiaii sense of all these positions is, no doubt, erroneous 
and detestable, and is opposed and disproved by our author. The posi- 
tions themselves are paradoxes bearing a precious gospel truth, which 
be maintains against the legalist; but I doubt it is too much to call them 
19 



218 THE MARROW OP 

JS'ow, as it is the law of works, it may be truly said, that 

all Antinomian paradoxes. But to call them simply, and by the lump, An- 
tinomian errors, is shocking : one might as good say, it is a Popish or Lu- 
theran error, " That the bread in the sacrament is Christ's body ;" and that it 
is a Socinian, Arminian, or Baxterian error, " That a sinner is justified by 
faith ;" for the first four of the paradoxes are as directly scriptural as these 
are ; though the Antinomian sense of the former is anti-scriptural, as is the 
Popish, Lutheran, Socinian, Arminian, and Baxterian sense of the latter, re- 
spectively. At this rate, one might subvert the very foundations of Christian- 
ity, as might easily be instructed, if there were sufficient cause to exemplify 
it here. How few doctrines of the Bible are there that have not been 
wrested to an erroneous sense by some corrupt men or other ! yet will not 
their corrupt glosses warrant the condemning of the scriptural positions them- 
selves as erroneous. 

The first four of these paradoxes are found in the following texts of Scrip- 
ture, viz: 

1st. Rom. vi. 14, " Ye are not under the law, but under grace." — Chap. vii. 
6, " Now we are delivered from the law." 

2d. 1 John iii. 6, " Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not." — ^Yerse 9, 
" Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin, and he cannot sin." 

3d. Numb, xxiii. 21, " He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, neither hath 
he seen perverseness in Israel." — Cant. iv. 7, *' Thou art all fair, my love, there 
is no spot in thee." 

4^^. Isa. liv. 9, " So have I sworn, that I would not be wroth with thee nor 
rebuke thee." 

The case standing thus, these paradoxes must needs be sensed one way 
or other, agreeable to the analogy of faith, and so defended by all who 
own the divine authority of the holy Scripture. And as an orthodox di- 
vine would not condemn the two propositions abovementioned, brought in 
for illustration of this matter, but clear the same by giving a sound sense 
of them, and rejecting the unsound sense, as that it is true that the 
bread is Christ's body sacramentally ; false, that it is so by transubstantia- 
tion, or consubstantiation : that it is true, sinners are justified by faith as an 
instrument, apprehending and applying Christ's righteousness ; false, that they 
are justified by it as a work, fulfilling the pretended new proper gospel law : 
so our author gives a safe and sound sense of these scriptural para- 
doxes, and rejects the unsound sense put upon them by Antinomians ; 
and this he does, by applying to them the distinction of the law, as it is 
the law of works, /'. e., the covenant of works, and as it is the law of Christ, 
i. €., a rule of life, in the hand of a Mediator, to believers. Now, if this dis- 
tinction be not admitted here, neither in these nor equivalent terms, but the 
law of Christ, and law of works, must be reckoned one and the same thing ; 
then believers in Christ, whom none but Antinomians will deny to be under 
the law, as it is the law of Christ, or a rule of life, are evidently 
staked down under the covenant works still ; forasmuch as, in the sense 
of the holy Scripture, as well as in the sense of our author, the law of 
works is the covenant of works. And since it is plain from the holy 
Scripture, and from the Westminster Confession, that believers are not 
under the law as a covenant of works ; a way which, by this distinction, our 
author had blocked up, is, by rejecting of it, and confounding the law of 
works and law of Christ, opened for Antinomians to cast off the law for good 
and all. 

The two last of these paradoxes are consequently scriptural, as neces- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 219 

a believer is not under the law, but is delivered from it,* 
according to that of the apostle, Eom. vi. 14, " Ye are not 
under the law, but under grace;" and Eom. vii. 6, "But 
now we are delivered from the law." And if believers be 
not under the law, but are delivered from the law, as it is 
a law of works, then, though they sin, yet do they not 
transgress the law of works ; for " where no law is, there 
is no transgression," Eom. iv. 15. And therefore, says the 
apostle John, " Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not," 
1 John iii. 6 ; that is, as I conceive, whosoever abideth in 
Christ by faith, sinneth not against the law of works.f And 
if a believer sin not against the law of works, then can God 
see no sin in a .believer, as a transgression of that law ;:[: and 
therefore it is said, ISTumb. xxiii. 21, " He hath not be- 
held iniquity in Jacob, neither hath he seen perverseness in 
Israel ;" and again it is said, Jer. 1. 20, " At that time the 
iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none ; 
and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found :" and 
in Cant. iv. 7, Christ says concerning his spouse, " Behold 
thou art all fair, my love, and there is no spot in thee." 
And if God can see no sin in a believer, then assuredly he 
is neither angry nor doth chastise a believer for his sins, as 
a transgression of that law ;§ and hence it is, that the Lord 
says concerning his own people that were believers, Isa. xxvii. 

sarily following upon the former, being understood in the same sense as they 
are, and as our author explains them. 

* " True believers be not under the law as a covenant of works." Westm. 
Confess, chap. 19, sect. 6. — " The law of works," says our author, " is as much 
as to say, the covenant of works." 

t " As the world is altogether set upon sin, and can do nothing but sin, so 
they that are born of God sin not ; not that their sins of themselves are not 
deadly, but because their persons are so lively in Christ, that the deadliness of 
sin cannot prevail against them." Mr. John Davidson's Cat. p. 32. What 
he means by the deadliness of sin, appears from these words a little after : 
" Howbeit the condemnation of sin be removed from the faithful altogether," 
&c. The penalty which the law of works threatens, says our author to Neo- 
phytus, (page 222,) is " condemnation and eternal death ; and this you have no 
cause at all to fear." 

% Mr. James Melvil to the same purpose expresses it thus : — 
But God into his daughter dear sees nane iniquitie, 
Nor in his chosen Israel will spy enormitie : 
Not looking in hir bowk, whilk is with frentickles replete 
But ever into Christ her face, whilk pleasand is and sweet. 

Morning Vision, dedicated to James VI. p. 85. 
I Such anger is revenging wrath, and such chastisement is proper punish- 
ment inflicted for satisfying offended justice ; in which sense it is said, Isa. liii, 
5, " The chastisement of our peace was upon him," namely, on Jesus Christ ; 
and therefore it cannot be on believers themselves. 



220 THE MARROW OF 

4, " Anger is not in me :" and again, Isa. liv. 9, the Lord 
speaking comfortably to his spouse the Church, says, " As I 
have sworn that the waters of Noah shall no more go over the 
earth, so have I sworn that I will no more be wroth with thee, 
nor rebuke thee." Now, if the Lord be not angry with a be- 
liever, neither doth chastise him for his sins, as they are any 
transgression of the law of works, then hath a believer neither 
need to confess his sins unto God, nor to crave pardon for 
them, nor yet to fast, nor mourn, nor humble himself for 
them, as conceiving them to be any transgression of the law, 
as it is the law of works * Thus you see, that if you con- 
sider the law in this sense, then all these points follow : ac- 
cording as you say our friend Antinomista hath .endeavoured to 
persuade you. 

But if you consider the law, as it is the law of Christ, then 
they do not so, but quite contrary. For as the law is the law of 
Christ, it may be truly said, that a believer is under the law, 
and not delivered from it ; according to that of the apostle, 1 Cor. 
ix. 21, "Being not without law to God, but under the law to 
Christ," and according to that of the same apostle, Kom. iii. 31, 
" Do we then make void the law through faith ? God forbid ! yea, 
(by faith) we establish the law." And if a believer be under the 
law, and not delivered from it, as it is the law of Christ, then if he 

* Our author does not indeed here refute the Antinomian error, that 
the believer ought not to mourn for his sins ; he does that effectually in 
the next paragraph. But here he refutes the legalist, who will needs 
have the believer still to be under the law, as it is the covenant of works ; 
and therefore to confess and mourn, &c. for his sius, as still committed against 
the covenant of works. But it is evident as the light, that believers are 
not under the covenant of works, or, in other terms, under the law, as 
that covenant ; and that principle being once fixed, the whole chain of 
consequences, which our author has here made, does necessarily follow 
thereupon. It is strange that nothing can be allowed in believers to be 
mourning for sin, unless they mourn for it as unbelievers, as persons under 
the covenant of works, who doubtless are under the curse and condem- 
nation for their sin. Gal. iii. 10. But " as our obedience now is not the 
performance, so our sinning is not the violation of the condition of the 
old covenant. Believers' sins now, though transgressions of' the law, 
are not counted violations of the conditions of the covenant of works, 
under which they are not." Brown on Justification, chap. 15. p. 224. — "If 
sense of sin be taken for the unbelieving feeling of, and judging myself cast 
out of his sight, and condemned ; whereas yet I am in Christ, and ' it is God 
that justifies me ; who is he thai shall condemn ?' Rom. viii. 33, 34 ; we shall 
agree with Antinomians. This is indeed the hasty sense of unbelief Psalm 
xxxi. 22 ; John ii. 4. Hence let them be rebuked, who say not that Christ 
in his gospel hath taken away this sense of sin." Rutherford on the Cove- 
nant, p. 222. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 221 

sin, he doth thereby transgress the law of Christ ; and hence I 
conceive it is that the apostle John says, both concerning himself 
and other believers, 1 John i. 8, " If we say we have no sin, we 
deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us;" and so says the 
apostle James, chap. iii. 2, " In many things we offend all." 
And if a believer transgress the law of Christ, then doubtless 
he seeth it : for it is said, Prov. v. 21, " that the ways of man are 
before the eyes of the Lord, and he pondereth all his goings ;" 
and in Heb. iv. 13, it is said, " All things are naked and open 
unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do." And if the 
Lord sees the sins that a believer commits against the law, as 
it is the law of Christ, then doubtless he is angry with him ; 
for it is said, Psalm cvi. 40, that because the people " went a 
whoring after their own inventions, therefore was the wrath 
of the Lord kindled against his people, insomuch that he ab- 
horred his own inheritance ;" and in Deut. i. 37, Moses says 
concerning himself, *' The Lord was angry with me." And 
if the Lord be angry with a believer for his transgressing the 
law of Christ, then assuredly, if need be, he will chastise him 
for it : for it is said, Psalm Ixxxix. SO — 32, concerning the 
seed and children of Jesus Christ, " If they forsake my law, 
and walk not in my judgments, then will I visit their trans- 
gressions with the rod, and their iniquities with stripes." And 
in 1 Cor. xi. 30, it is said concerning believers, " For this 
cause," namely, their unworthy receiving of the sacrament, 
" many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep." 
And if the Lord be angry with believers, and do chastise them 
for their sins, as they are a transgression of the law of Christ, 
then hath a believer cause to confess his sins unto the Lord, 
and to crave pardon for them, yea and to fast, and mourn, and 
humble himself for them, as conceiving them to be a trans- 
gression of the law of Christ.^ 

Sect. 11. — And now, my loving neighbour Neophytus, I 
pray you, consider seriously of these things, and learn to dis- 
tinguish aright betwixt the law, as it is the law of works, and 
as it is the law of Christ, and that in effect and practice ; I 
mean, in heart and conscience. 

Neo. Sir, it is the unfeigned desire of my heart so to do ; 
and therefore, I pray you, give me some direction therein.f 

* Thus our author hath solidly refuted in this paragraph the Autinomian 
sense of all the six positions above mentioned. 

f Namely, how to improve these points of doctrine in ray practice. There 
lies the great difficulty : and according as unbelief or faith has the ascendant, 
19 * 



222 THE MAEROW OF 

Evan. Surely the best direction I can give you is, to labour 
truly to know, and firmly to believe, that you are not now 
Tinder the law, as it is the law of Avorks ; and that you are 
now under the law as, it is the law of Christ ; and that there- 
fore you must neither hope for what the law of works pro- 
mises, in case of your most exact obedience ; nor fear what it 
threatens, in case of your most imperfect and defective obe- 
dience : and yet you may both hope for what the law of Christ 
promises, in case of your obedience, and are to fear what it 
threatens, in case of your disobedience. 

Neo. But, sir, what are these promises and threatenings ? 
and, first, I pray you, tell me what it is that the law of works 
promises. 

Evan. The law of works, or, which is all one, as I have 
told you, the covenant of works, promises justification and 
eternal life to all that yield perfect obedience thereunto : and 
this you are not to hope for, because of your obedience. 
And indeed, to say as the thing is, you, being dead to the law 
of works, can yield no obedience at all unto it ; for how can 
a dead wife yield any obedience to her husband? And if 
you can yield no obedience at all unto it, what hope can you 
have of any reward for your obedience ? Nay, let me tell 
you more, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, hath purchased 
both justification and eternal life by his perfect obedience to 
the law of works, and hath freely given it to you, as it is 
written, Acts xiii. 39, " By him all that believe are justified 
from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law 
of Moses :" and " Yerily, verily," says our ^viour, " he that 
believeth in me hath everlasting life." John*vi. 47. 

Neo. And I pray you, sir, what does the law of works 
threaten, in case of a man's disobedience unto it ? 

Evan. Why, the penalty which the law of works, in that 
case, threatens, is condemnation and death eternal : and this 
you have no cause at all to fear, in case of your most defec- 
tive obedience ; for no man hath any cause to fear the penalty 
of that law which he lives not under. Surely a man that 
lives under the laws of England, has no cause to fear the penal- 
ties of the laws of Spain or France : even so you, that now live 
under the law of Christ, have no cause to fear the penalties of the 



so will the soul in practice carry itself ; confessing, begging pardon, fasting, 
mourning, and humbling itself either as a condemned malefactor, or as an 
offending child. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 223 

law of works.* '^^J, the law of works is dead to you ; and 
therefore you have no more cause to fear the threats thereof, 
than a living wife has to fear the threats of her dead husband, f 
nay, than a dead wife has to fear the threats of a dead husband. 
Nay, let me say yet more, Jesus Christ, by his condemnation 
and death upon the cross, has delivered you and set you free 
from condemnation and eternal death ; as it is written, Eom. 
viii. 1, '' There is therefore now no condemnation to them 
that are in Christ Jesus." And, says Christ himself, John xi. 
26, " Whosoever liveth, and believeth in me, shall never 
die." 

And thus you see your freedom and liberty from the law 
as it is the law of works. And that you may be the better 
enabled to " stand fast in this liberty, wherewith Christ has 
made you free;" beware of conceiving that the Lord now 
stands in any relation to you, or will any way deal with you 
as a man under that law. So that if the Lord shall be pleased 
hereafter to bestow upon you a great measure of faith, whereby 
you shall be enabled to yield an exact and perfect obedience 
to the mind and will of God ;:(: then beware of conceiving that 
the Lord looks upon it as obedience to the law of works, or 
will in any measure reward you for it, according to the pro- 
mises of that law. And if in case, at any time hereafter, you 
be, by reason of weakness of your faith, and strength of temp- 
tation, drawn aside, and prevailed with to swerve from the 
mind and will of the Lord, then beware of conceiving that the 
Lord sees it as any transgression of the law of works. For if 
you cannot transgress that law, then it is impossible the Lord 
should see that which is not ; and if the Lord can see no siu 
in you, as a transgression of the law of works, then it is im- 
possible that he should either be angry with you, or correct 
you for any sin, as it is a transgression of that law. No, to 



* See pages 113, note * and 117, note f , " The law, as it condemnetli and 
curseth, is to the believer a mere passive and a naked stander-by, aud 
has no activity, nor can it act in that power upon any in Christ ; as the 
law of Spain is merely passive in condemning a free-born man dwelling in Scot- 
land." Rutherford's Spirit. Antichrist, p. 87. — " The law being fully 
satisfied by Christ, it neither condemneth, nor can it condemn, to eternal 
sufferings, for that is removed from the law to all that are in Christ." 
Ibid. 

fFor, according to the Scripture, the believer is dead to the law, and 
the law is dead to the believer ; namely, as it is the law of the covenant of 
works. See page 109, note*, and pages 110, 111. 

X Exact aud perfect, comparatively, not absolutely. See pages 215, 231. 



224 THE MARROW OF 

speak witli holy reverence, as I said before, the Lord cannot, 
by virtue of the covenant of works, either require any obe- 
dience of you, or give you an angry look, or any angry word; 
much less threaten and afflict you for any disobedience to that 
covenant.^ And, therefore, whensoever your conscience shall 
tell you, that you have broken any of the ten commandments, 
do not conceive that the Lord looks upon you as an angry 
Judge, armed with justice against you; much less do you 
fear that he will execute his justice upon you, according to the 
penalty of that covenant, in unjustifying of you, or depriving 
you of your heavenly inheritance, and giving you your portion 
in hell fire. No, assure yourself that your God in Christ will 
never unson you, nor unspouse you : no, nor yet, as touching 
your justification and eternal salvation, will he love you ever 
a whit the less, though you commit ever so many or great 
sins ; for this is a certain truth, that as no good either in you, 
or done by you, did move him to justify you, and give you 
eternal life, so no evil in you, or done by you, can move him 
to take it away from you, being once given. f And, therefore, 



* See page 162, note *. 

fThe author speaks expressly of the love of God, touching believers' 
justification, and eternal salvation, which, according to the Scripture, he 
reckons to be given them already. And he asserts. That as no good in 
them, or done by them, did move him to love them, so as to justify them, 
and give them eternal life, so no evil in them or done by them, shall 
lessen that love, as to their justification and eternal salvation ; that is, as 
himself explains it, move him to take eternal life (which includes justi- 
fication) away from them, being once given. This is most firm truth ; 
howbeit, the more and the greater the sins of a believer are, he may lay 
his account with the more and the greater efiects of God's fatherly indig- 
nation against him ; and the corruption of human nature makes the add- 
ing of such a clause in such a case very necessary. What our author 
here advances, is evident from the holy Scripture, Psalm Ixxxix. 30 — 34, 
*' If his children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments, if they 
break my statutes, and keep not my commandments, then will I visit their 
transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes : nevertheless, 
my loving-kind oess will I not utterly take from him ; nor sufier my faith- 
fulness to fail ; my covenant will I not break ; nor alter the thing that is 
gone out of my lips." And to deny it, is in effect to affirm that God 
loves believers, as touching their justification and eternal salvation, for 
their holiness ; contrary to Titus iii. 5, " Not by works of righteousness 
which we have done, but according to his mercy, he saved us." — Rom. 
vi. 23, "The wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord ;" and that that love of his to them 
change th according to the variations of their frame and walk ; contrary 
to Rom. xi. 29, "The gifts and calling of God are without repentance." 
But while the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints stands, viz: That 
true believers can neither fall away totally, nor finally, neither from rela- 



MODEKN DIVINITY. 225 

believe it whilst you live, that as the Lord first loved you 
freely, so will he hereafter "heal your backslidings, and still 
love you freely," Hos. xiv. 4. Yea, " he will love you unto 
the end," John xiii. 1. And although the Lord does express 
the fruits of his anger towards you, in chastising and afflicting 
of you, yet do not imagine that your afflictions are penal, pro- 
ceeding from hatred, and vindictive justice ; and so as payments 
and satisfaction for sins ; and so as the beginning of eternal 
torments in hell ; for you being, as you have heard, freed from 
the law of works, and so consequently from sinning against it, 
must needs likewise be freed from all wrath, anger, miseries, 
calamities, afflictions, yea, and from death itself, as* fruits and 
effects of any transgression against that covenant. 

And therefore you are never to confess your sins unto the 
Lord, as though you conceived them to have been committed 

tive grace, nor from inherent grace, our author's doctrine on this point 
must stand also ; and the sins of believers, how great or many soever 
they be, can never be of that kind which is inconsistent with a state of 
grace, nor of another than that of infirmities. See p. 168, note *. And 
how low soever grace is brought in the soul of a believer at any time, 
through the prevalence of temptation, yet can he never altogether lose 
his inherent holiness, nor can he at any time " live after the flesh." For, 
according to the Scripture, that is not the spot of God's children ; but he 
who so lives, neither is, nor ever was, one of them. Rom. vi. 2, 14, "How 
shall we that are dead to sin, live any longer therein ? Sin shall not have 
dominion over you, for ye are not under the law but under grace." — 
Chap. viii. 1, "Them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the 
flesh, but after the Spirit." See verse 4 ; 1 John iii. 9, " Whosoever is 
born of God doth not commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him, aud he cannot 
sin, because he is born of God." 

" God foresaw what infirmities thou wouldst have, before he gave Christ 
this commision ; and Christ foresaw them before his acceptance of the 
charge. If their prescience could not stop God in his gift, nor cool Christ 
in his acceptance, why should it now ? While they do continue, the love 
of God to thee is not hindered by them." Charnock, vol. ii. p. 749. 

" Observe a twofold distinction : 1st. Between God's love in itself, and 
the manifestatiouj of it to us. That is perpetual and one, without change, 
increase, or lessening : but the manifestation of this love is variable, ac- 
cording to our more or less careful exercise of piety. 2d. Between God's 
love to our persons, and God's love to our qualities and actions. A dis- 
tinction which God well knows how to make. Parents, I am sure, are 
well skilled in putting this difference between the vices and persons of 
their children ; those they hate, these they love. The case is alike be- 
tween God and the elect ; his love to their persons is from everlasting the 
same. Nor doth their sinfulness lessen it, nor their sanctity increase it ; 
because God in loving their persons, never considered them otherwise 
than as most perfectly holy and unblamable in Christ," Pemble's Works, 
p. 23. 

* They are. 



22§ THE MARROW OF 

against tlie law of works : and so making you liable to God's 
everlasting wrath, and hell-fire; neither must you crave pardon 
and forgiveness for them, that thereupon you may escape that 
penalty ; neither do you either fast, or weep, or mourn, or 
humble yourself, from any belief that you shall thereby satisfy 
the justice of God, and aj)pease his wrath, either in whole or 
in part, and so escape his everlasting vengeance. For if you 
be not under the law of works, and if the Lord see no sin in 
you as a transgression of that law, and be neither angry with 
you, nor afflict you for any sin, as it is a transgression of that 
law, then consequently you have no need either to confess 
your sins, or crave pardon for them, or fast, or weep, or mourn, 
or humble yourself for your sins, as conceiving them to be any 
transgression of the law of works * 

Neo. Well, sir, you have fully satisfied me in this point ; 
and therefore, I pray you, proceed to show what is that reward 
which the law of Christ promises, which you said I might 
hope for, in case of my obedience thereunto. 

Evan. Why, the reward which I conceive the law of 
Christ promises to believers, and which they may hope for, 
answerably to their obedience to it,t is a comfortable being in 
the enjoyment of sweet communion with God and Christ, even 
in the time of this life, and a freedom from afflictions, both 
spiritual and corporeal, so far forth as they are fruits and effects 
of sin, as it is any transgression of the law of Christ. % For 
you know, that so long as a child does yield obedience to his 
father's commands, and does nothing that is displeasing to him, 
if he love his child, he will carry himself lovingly and kindly 
towards him, and suffer him to be familiar with hira, and will 
not whip nor scourge him for his disobedience. Even so, if 
you unfeignedly desire and endeavour to be obedient unto the 
will and mind of your Father in Christ ; in doing that which 
he commands, and in avoiding that which he forbids, both in 
your genera] and particular calling ; and to the end that you 
may please him ; then, answerably as you do so, your Father 
will smile upon you, when you shall draw near to him in prayer, 
or any other of his own ordinances ; and manifest his sweet pre- 



* See page 220, note *. 

t Though not for their obedience, but for Christ's obedience. 

X I read the last word of this sentence, Christ, not works, judging it 
plain, that the latter is a press error. See the last clause of Neophytus's 
speech above, and the reason here immediately following, with the first 
paragraph, page 228. 



MODERN DIVINITY, 227 

sence and loving favour towards you ; and exempt you from 
all outward calamities except in case of trial of your faith and 
patience, or the like ; as it was written, 2 Chron. xv. 2, " The 
Lord is with you, while ye are with him ; and if ye seek him, 
he will be found of you." And so the apostle James says, 
James iv. 8, " Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you." 
And " Oh," says the Lord, " that my people had hearkened unto 
me, and Israel had walked in my ways ! he should have fed 
them with the finest of the wheat, and with honey out of the 
rock should I have satisfied thee," Psalm Ixxxi. 13, 16. And 
this may sufiice to have shown you what you may hope for, 
answerably to your obedience to the law of Christ. 

Neo. Then, sir, I pray you, proceed to show what is the 
penalty which the law of Christ threatens, and which I am to 
fear, if I transgress that law. 

Evan. The penalty which the law of Christ threatens to 
you, if you transgress the law of Christ, and which you are to 
fear, is the want of near and sweet communion with God in 
Christ, even in the time of this life, and a liableness to all 
temporal afflictions, as fruits and effects of the transgressing 
of that law.* 

* An awful penalty, if rightly understood, as comprehending all man- 
ner of strokes and afflictions on the outward and inner man, called by 
our author " temporal and spiritual afflictions on the outward man ;" not 
to speak of the reproach, disgrace and contempt, successless labour and 
toil, poverty, misery, want, and the like, which the believer is liable to for 
his disobedience, as well as others. His sins lay him open to the whole 
train of maladies, pains, torments, sores, diseases, and plagues, incident 
to sinful flesh; by which he may become a burden to himself and others. 
And these may be inflicted on him, not only by the hand of God, but by 
the hand of the devil ; as appears in the case of Job. Yea, and the Lord 
may, in virtue of this penalty annexed to his law, pursue the controversy 
with the ofiending believer, even to death ; so that his natural life may go 
in the cause of his transgression, 1 Cor. xi. 30, 32. To this may be added 
the marks of God's indignation against his sin, set upon his relations; 
witness the disorders, mischiefs, and strokes on David's family, for his 
sin in the matter of Uriah, more bitter than death, 2 Sam. xii. 10 — 14 ; 
chap, xiii, and xv. In the inner man, by virtue of the same penalty, 
he is liable for his transgression, to be deprived of the comfort, sense, ex- 
ercise, and some measure of his graces ; of his sense of God's love, his 
peace, joy, actual communion with God, and access to him in duties; to 
be brought under desertion, hiding of God's face, withdrawiog the light 
of the Lord's countenance : and left to walk in darkness, to go mourning 
without the sun, and to cry and shout while the Lord shutteth out his 
prayer; to be thrown into agonies of conscience, pierced with the arrows 
of the Almighty in his spirit, compassed about and distracted with the 
terrors of God, seized with the fearful apprehensions of God's revenging 
wrath against him, and thereby brought unto the brink of absolute 



228 THE MARROW OF 

Wherefore, whensoever you shall hereafter transgress any 
of the ten commandments, you are to know that you have 
thereby transgressed the law of Christ, and that the Lord sees 
it and is angry with it, with a fatherly anger ; and, if need be, 
will chastise you, 1 Pet. i. 6, either with temporal or spiritual 
afflictions, or both. And this your heavenly Father will do in 
love to you ; either to bring your sins to remembrance, as he 
did the sins of Joseph's brethren. Gen. xlii. 21, and as the 
widow of Zarephath confesseth concerning herself, 1 Kings 
xvii. 18, or else " to purge or take away your sins," according 
to that which the Lord says, Isa. xxvii. 9, " By this therefore 
shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged, and this is all the fruit, 
even the taking away of sin." " For indeed," says Mr. Cul- 
verwell, " afflictions, through God's blessing, are made special 
means to purge out that sinful corruption which is still in the 
nature of believers ; and therefore are they, in Scripture, most 
aptly compared to medicines, for so they are indeed to all 
God's children, most sovereign medicines to cure all their 
spiritual diseases. And indeed we have all of us great need 
thereof; for as Luther, on the Galatians, p. 6Q^ truly says, 
" We are not yet perfectly righteous ; for whilst we remain 

despair. Besides all this, he is liable to the bufifettings of Satan, and horrid 
temptations ; and, for the punishment of one sin, to be suffered to fall into 
another. And all these may, in virtue of the penalty annexed to the law in the 
hand of Christ, meet in the case of the offending believer, together and at once. 
Thus, howbeit God no where threatens to cast believers in Christ into hell, yet 
he both threatens and often executes the casting of a hell into them, for their 
provocations. 

Only the revenging wrath and curse of God are no part of the penalty to be- 
lievers in Christ, according to the truth and our author. But whether or not 
this penalty, as it is without these, leaves the most holy and awful law of the 
great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, most base and despicable, the sober- 
minded reader will easily judge for himself. 

" The one, viz : justification doth equally free all believers from the 
revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life." Larger Cat. 
q. 77. — " They can never fall from the state of justification, yet they 
may, by their sins, fall under God's fatherly displeasure, and not have 
the light of his countenance restored unto them, until they humble them- 
selves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repent- 
ance." Westra. Confess, chap. xi. art. v. — " They may fall into grievous 
sins, and for a time continue therein, whereby they incur God's displeasure, 
and grieve his holy Spirit, come to be deprived of some measure of their graces 
and comforts, have their hearts hardened, and their consciences wounded ; hurt 
and scandalize others, and bring temporal judgments upon themselves." lb. 
chap. 17. art. 3. — " The threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins 
deserve ; and what afiBictions, in this life, they may expect for them, although 
freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law." lb. chap. 19. art. 6. See 
page 200, note f. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 229 

in this life, sin dwells still in the flesh, and this remnant of sin 
God purgeth." — "Wherefore," says the same Luther in 
another place,^ " When God hath remitted sins, and received 
a man into the bosom of grace, then doth he lay on him all 
kind of afflictions, and doth scour and renew him from day to 
day." And to the same purpose, Tindal truly says, " If we 
look on the flesh, and into the law, there is no man so perfect 
that is not found a sinner ; nor no man so pure, that hath not 
need to be purged. And thus doth the Lord chastise believers 
to heal their natures, by purging out the corruption that re- 
mains therein." 

And therefore, whensoever you shall hereafter feel the 
Lord's chastening hand upon you, let it move you to take the 
prophet Jeremiah's counsel, that is, to " search and try your 
ways, and turn unto the Lord," Lam. iii. 40, and confess your 
sins unto him, saying, with the prodigal, Luke xv. 21, " Fa- 
ther, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am 
no more worthy to be called thy son ;" and beg pardon and 
forgiveness at his hands, as you are taught in the fifth petition 
of the Lord's prayer, Matt. vi. 12. Yet do not you crave 
pardon and forgiveness at the hands of the Lord, as a male- 
factor doth at the hands of a judge, that feareth condemna- 
tion and death, as though j^ou had sinned against the law of 
works, and therefore feared hell and damnation ; but do you 
beg pardon and forgiveness as a child doth at the hands of 
his loving father ; as feeling the fruits of his fatherly anger, 
in his chastising hand upon you ; and as fearing the continu- 
ance and augmentation of the same, if your sin be not both 
pardoned and subdued if and therefore do you also beseech 
your loving Father to subdue your iniquities, according to his 
promise, Micah vii. 19. And if you find not that the Lord 
hath heard your prayers, by your feeling your iniquities sub- 
dued,:]: then join with your prayers, fasting and weeping, if 
you can ; that so you may be the more seriously humbled 
before the Lord, and more fervent in prayer. And this, I 
hope, may be sufficient to have showed you what is the penalty 
which the law of Christ threatens. 



* Chos. Sermons, Serm. Of the Kingdom of God, page 120. 

f Mat. vi. 9, 12, " After this manner therefore pray ye : Our Father which 
art in heaven ; forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors." 

J The subduing of sin is the mark of God's hearing prayer (or the pardon of 
it ; if one feels not his iniquity subdued, he cannot find that God hath heard his 
prayers for pardon. 

20 



230 -THE MAEROW OF 

Neo. 0, but, sir, I should think myself a happy man, if T 
could be so obedient to the law of Christ, that he might hav© 
no need to inflict this penalty upon me. 

Evan. You say very well ; but yet, whilst you carry this 
body of sin about you, do the best you can, there will be need 
that the Lord should, now and then, give you some fatherly 
corrections : but yet, this let me tell you, the more perfect 
your obedience is, the fewer lashes you shall have ; " for the 
Lord doth not afflict willingly, nor grieve the children of men," 
Lam. iii. 33. And therefore, according to my former exhor- 
tation, and your resolution, be careful to exercise your faith, 
and use all means to increase it ; that so it may become effec- 
tual^ working by love. 1 Thess. i. 3 ; Gal. v. 6. For, ac- 
cording to the measure of your faith, will be your true love to 
Christ and to his commandments ; and according to your love 
to them, will be your delight in them, and your aptness and 
readiness to do them. And hence it is that Christ himself 
says, John xiv. 15, "If ye love me, keep my command- 
ments :" and " this is the love of God," says that loving disci- 
ple, " that we keep his commandments, and his commandments, 
are not grievous," 1 John v. 3. Nay, the truth is, if you have 
this love in your hearts, it will be grievous unto you, that you 
cannot keep them as you would. Oh, if this love do abound 
in your heart, it will cause you to say with godly Joseph, in 
case you be tempted as he was, " How can I do this great 
wickedness, and so sin against God?" How can I do that 
which I know will displease so gracious a Father, and so mer- 
ciful a Saviour ? Ko, I will not do it ; no, I cannot do it : no,, 
you will rather say with the Psalmist, " I delight to do thy 
will, my God! yea, thy law is within my heart," Psalm xl. 8. 

Nay, let me tell you more, if this love of God in Christ be 
truly, and in any good measure, rooted in your heart ; then, 
though the chastising hand of the Lord be not upon you, nay, 
though the Lord do no way express any anger towards you, 
yet if you but consider the Lord's ways towards you, and your 
ways towards him, you will mourn with a gospel-mourning, rea- 
soning with yourself after this manner : Was I under the law 
of works by nature, and so, for every transgression against any 
of the ten commandments, made liable to everlasting damna- 
tion ? and am I now, through the free mercy and love of God 



* To the producing of holy obedience, acccording to the measure and degree 
of it. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 231 

iti Cbrist, brought under the law of Christ, and so subject to 
no other penalty for my transgressions, but fatherly and loving 
chastisements, which tend to the purging out of that sinfal 
corruption that is in me ? Oh what a loving Father is this ! Oh 
what a gracious Saviour is this ! Oh what a wretched man am 
I, to transgress the laws of such a good God, as he hath been 
to me I Oh the due consideration of this will even, as it were, 
melt your heart, and cause your eyes to drop with the tears of 
godly sorrow ! yea, the due consideration of these things will 
cause you to " loathe yourself in your own sight for your trans- 
gressions, Ezek. xxxvi. 31, yea, not only to loathe yourself for 
them, but also to leave them, saying with Ephraim, " What 
have I to do any more with idols?" Hos. xiv. 8. and to "cast 
them away as a menstruous cloth, saying unto them, Get ye 
hence," Isa. xxx. 22. And truly you will desire nothing 
more, than that you might so live, as that you might never sin 
against the Lord any more. And this is that " goodness of 
God which," as the apostle says, "leadeth to repentance;" 
yea, this is that goodness of God which will lead you to a free 
obedience. So that if you do but apply the goodness of God 
in Christ to your soul, in any good measure, then will you an- 
swerably yield obedience to the law of Christ, not only with- 
out having respect either to what the law of works either pro- 
miseth or threateneth ; but also without having respect to what 
the law of Christ either promiseth or threateneth ; you will do 
that which the Lord commandeth, only because he com- 
mandeth it, and to the end that you may please him ; and you 
will forbear when he forbids, only because he forbids it to the 
end that you may not displease him."* And this obedience is 

* The author doth here no otherwise exhort the believer to yield free 
obedience, without respect to what either the law of works, or the law of 
Christ, promises or threatens, than he exhorts hira to perfection of obe- 
dience, which, in the beginning of this answer, he told him not to be 
attainable in this life. And the truth is, neither the one nor the other is 
the design of these words. But he had exhorted him before, to use all 
means to increase his faith ; and for his encouragement, he tells him here, 
that if he by faith applied the goodness of God in Christ to his own soul, 
in any good measure, then he would, answerably, yield obedience, with- 
out respect to what either the law of works, or the law of Christ promises 
or threatens, and only because God commands or forbids. The freeness 
of obedience is of very different degrees ; and believers' obedience is never 
absolutely free, till it be absolutely perfect in heaven ; but the freeness 
of their obedience will always bear proportion to the measure of their 
faith, which is never perfect in this life ; thus, the more faith, the more 
freeness of obedience, and the less faith, the less of that freeness. See page 79, 
note*. 



282 THE MARROW OF 

like unto that whicli our Saviour exhorts his disciples unto, 
Matt. X. 8, saying, "Freely ye have received, freely give." 
And this is to " serve the Lord without fear " of any penalty, 
which either the law of works or the law of Christ threateneth, 
"in holiness and righteousness all the days of your life," ac- 
cording to that saying of Zacharias,-'^ Luke i. 74, 75. And 
this is to " pass the time of your sojourning here, in fear" of 
offending the Lord, by sinning against him ; as the apostle Peter 
exhorts, 1 Peter i. 17. Yea, and this is to " serve God ac- 
ceptably, with reverence and godly fear :" as the author to 

" The believer obeys with an angel-like obedience ; then the Spirit 
seems to exhaust all the commanding awsomness of the law, and supplies 
the law's imperious power, with the strength and power of love." Kuther- 
ford's Spirit. Antichrist, p. 318. — "The more of the Spirit, because the 
Spirit is essentially free, Psalm li. 12 ; 2 Cor. iii. 17, the more freeness ; 
and the more freeness, the more renewed will in the obedience ; and^ the 
more renewed will, the less constraint, because freeness exhausteth constraint." 
Ibid. 

"When Christ's blood is seen by faith to quiet justice, then the con- 
science becomes quiet also, and will not suffer the heart to entertain the 
love of sin, but sets the man on work to fear God for his mercy, and 
obey all his commandments, out of love to God, for his free gift of justi- 
fication, by grace bestowed upon him ; for ' this is the end of the law ' 
indeed, whereby it obtaineth of a man more obedience than any other 
way." Piact. Use of Sav. Knowledge, tit. The Third Thing Requisite, &c. 
fig. 7. 

Promises and threatenings are not, by this doctrine, annexed to_ the 
holy law in vain, even with respect to believers ; for the law of God is, in 
his infinite wisdom, suited to the state of the creature, to whom it is given : 
and therefore, howbeit the believer's eternal happiness is unalterably secured 
from the moment of his union with Christ by faith ; yet, since sin dwells 
in him still while in this world, the promises of fatherly smiles, and 
threatenings of fatherly chastisements, are still necessary. But it is 
evident that this necessity is entirely founded on the believer's imperfection ; 
as in case of a child under age. And, therefore, although his being influenced 
to obedience by the promises and threatenings of the law of Christ, is 
not indeed slavish, yet it is plainly childish, not agreeing to the state of 
a perfect man, of one come unto the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ. And, in the state of perfection, he shall yield such free obe- 
dience as the angels do in heaven, without being moved thereto by any 
promises or threatenings at all : and the nearer he comes in his progress to that 
state of perfection, the more will his obedience be of that nature. So 
by the doctrine here advanced, the author doth no more disown the necessity 
of promises to influence and encourage the believer's obedience, nor say 
that he ought not to have regard to promises and threatenings, than one is to 
be reckoned to say, that a lame man has no need of, and should not have 
regard unto the crutches provided for him : when he only says. That the 
stronger his limbs grow, he will have less need of them, and will lean the less 
on them. 

* See the preceding note. 



WDDERF DIVINITY. 23^ 

•the Hebrews exhorts, Heb. xii. 28. And thus, my dear friend, 
Neophytus, I have endeavoured, according to your desire, to 
give you my judgment and direction in these points. 

Neo. And truly, sir, you have done it very effectually ; the 
Lord enable me to practise according to your direction ! 

Sect. 12. — Nom. Sir, in this your answer to his question, 
you have also answered me, and given me full satisfaction in 
divers points, about which my friend Antinomista and I have 
had many a wrangling fit. For I used to affirm with tooth 
and nail, (as men use to say,) that believers are under the 
law, and not delivered from it ; and that they do sin, and that 
God sees it, and is angry with them, and doth afflict them for 
it, and that, therefore, they ought to humble themselves, and 
mourn for their sins, and confess them, and crave pardon for 
them ; and yet truly I must confess, 1 did not understand 
what I said, nor whereof I affirmed ; and the reason was, be- 
cause I did not know the difference betwixt the law, as it is 
the law of works, and as it is the law of Christ. 

Ant. And believe me, sir, I used to affirm, as earnestly as 
he, that believers are delivered from the law, and, therefore, 
do not sin ; and, therefore, God can see no sin in them ; and, 
therefore, is neither angry with them, nor does afflict them for 
sin ; and, therefore, they have no need either to humble them- 
selves, or mourn, or confess their sins, or beg pardon for them ; 
the which I believing to be true, could not conceive how the 
contrary could be true also. But now I plainly see that by 
means of your distinguishing betwixt the law, as it is the law 
of works, and as it is the law of Christ, there is a truth in 
both. And, therefore, friend Nomista, whensoever either you, 
or any man else, shall hereafter affirm, that believers are under 
the law and do sin ; and God sees it, and is angry with them, 
and does chastise them for it ; and that they ought to humble 
themselves, mourn, weep, and confess their sins, and beg par- 
don for them : if you mean only, as they are under the law of- 
Christ, I will agree with you, and never contradict you again. 

Nom. And truly, friend Antinomista, if either you, or any 
man else, shall hereafter affirm, that believers are delivered 
from the law, and do not sin, and God sees no sin in them, 
nor is angry with them, nor afflicts them for their sins, and 
that they have no need either to humble themselves, mourn, 
confess, or crave pardon for their sins ; if you mean it only as 
they are not under the law of works, I will agree with you, and 
never contradict you again. 
20 * 



284 THE MARROW OF 

Evan. I rejoice to hear you speak these words eacli to other : 
and truly, now I am in hope that you two will come back from 
both your extremes, and meet my neighbour Neophytus in the 
golden mean ; having, as the apostle says, " the same love, be- 
ing of one accord, and of one mind." 

Nom. Sir, for my own part, I thank the Lord I do now 
plainly see, that I have erred exceedingly, in seeking to be jus- 
tified, " as it were, by the works of the law."* And yet could 
I never be persuaded to it before this day ; and indeed yhould 
not have been persuaded to it now, had not you so plainly and 
fully handled this threefold law. And truly, sir, I do now 
nnfeignedly desire to renounce myself, and all that ever I have 
done, and by faith to adhere only to Jesus Christ ; for now I 
see that he is all in all. Oh, that the Lord would enable me so 
to do! And I beseech you, sir, pray for me. 

Ant. And truly, sir, I must needs confess, that I have erred 
as much on the other hand ; for I have been so far from seek- 
ing to be justified by the works of the law, that I have neither 
regarded law nor works. But now I see mine error ; I purpose, 
God willing, to reform it. 

Evan. The Lord grant that you may. 

Sect. 13. — But how do you, neighbour Neophytus ; for 
methinks you look very heavily. 

Neo. Truly, sir, I was thinking of that place of Scripture, 
where the apostle exhorts us "to examine ourselves whether 
we be in the faith or no," 2 Cor. xiii. 5 ; whereby it seems to 
me, that a man may think he is in the faith, when he is not. 
Therefore, sir. I would gladly hear how I may be sure that I 
am in the faith. 

Evan. I would not have you to make any question of it, since 
you have grounded your faith upon such a firm foundation as 
will never fail you ; for the promise of God in Christ is of a 
tried truth, and never yet failed any man, nor ever will.f 

*This Scriptural phrase is here aptly used, to intimate how men de- 
ceive themselves, thinking they are far from seeking to be justified by the 
works of the law, because they are convinced they cannot do good works 
in the perfection which the law requires : meanwhile, since God is mer- 
ciful, and Christ hath died, they look for the pardon of their sins, and 
acceptance with God, upon the account of their own works, though attended 
with some imperfections : that is, " as it were, by the works of the law," Rom. 
ix. 32. 

t This answer proceeds upon taking Neophytus to speak, not of the 
grace but of the doctrine of faith ; namely, the foundation of faith, or 
ground of believing ; as if he had desired to know whether the founda- 
tion of his faith was the true foundation of faith, or not. This is plain 



MODERN DIVINITY. 235 

Therefore I would have you to close with Christ iu the pro- 
mise, without making any question whether you are in the 
faith or no ; for there is an assurance which rises from the ex- 
ercise of faith by a direct act, and that is, when a man, by 
faith, directly lays hold upon Christ, and concludes assurance 
from thence."^ 

Neo. Sir, I know that the foundation whereon I am to 
ground my faith remains sure ; and I think I have already 
built thereon ; but yet, because I conceive a man may think 
he has done so when he has not, therefore, would I fain know 
how I may be assured that I have so done ?t 

Evan. Well, now I understand you what you mean ; it 
seems you do not want a ground for your believing, but for 
your believing that you have believed.^ 

Neo. Yea, indeed, that is the thing I want. 

from the two following paragraphs. And upon the supposition that he had 
grounded his faith on the promise of the gospel, the tried foundation 
of faith, the author tella him, he would not have him make a question of 
that, having handled that question already at great length, and answered 
all his and Nomista's objections on the head, p. 117 — 119, where Neo- 
phytus declared himself satisfied. And there is no inconsistency betwixt 
the author's advice in this case given to Neophytus, and the advice given 
in the text last cited unto the Corinthians, unreasonably and peevishly 
demanding a proof of Christ speaking iu the apostle. Whether, with 
several judicious critics and commentators, we understand that text con- 
cerning the doctrine of faith, as if the apostle put them to try whether 
they retained the true doctrine or not ; or, which is the common, and, I 
think, the true understanding of it, concerning the grace of faith ; I see 
nothing here determining our author's opinion, as to the sense of it ; but 
whether he seems here to be against self-examination, especially after he had 
urged that duty on Antinomista, and answered his objections against it, let the 
candid reader judge. 

^ See the note on the Definition of Faith. 

*' The assurance of Christ's righteousness is a direct act of faith, appre- 
hending imputed righteousness : the evidence of our justification we now 
speak of, is the reflex light, not by which we are justified, but by which 
we know that we are justified." Rutherford's Christ Dying and Drawing, 
p. 111. — "We had never a question with Antinomians touching the first 
assurance of justification, such as is proper to the light of faith. He 
might have spared all his arguments to prove, that we are first assured of 
our justification by faith, not by good works, for we grant the arguments of 
one sort of assurance, which is proper to faith ; and they prove nothing against 
another sort of assurance, by signs and effects, which is also divine." Ibid. 
p. 110. 

f A good reason why this assurance, in or by the direct act of faith, is to be 
tried by marks and signs. There is certainly a persuasion that " cometh not 
of him that called us ;" which obliges men to examine their persuasion, 
whether it be of the right sort or not. 

X This is called assurance by a reflex act. 



23^ /the mabrow of ' 

Evan. Why, the next way to find out and know this is to 
look back and reflect upon your own heart, and consider what 
actions have passed through there; for indeed this is the be- 
nefit that a reasonable soul has, that it is able to return upon 
itself, to see what it has done ; which the soul of a beast can- 
not do. Consider, then, I pray you, that you have been con- 
vinced in your spirit that you are a sinful man, and, therefore, 
have feared the Lord's wrath and eternal damnation in hell ; 
and you have been convinced that there is no help for you at 
all in yourself, by anything that you can do ; and you'^heard 
it plainly proved, that " Jesus Christ alone is an all-sufficient 
help ; and the free and full promise of God in Christ has been 
made so plain and clear to you, that you had nothing to object 
why Christ did not belong to you in particular ;* and you 
have perceived a willingness in Christ to receive you, and to 
embrace you as his beloved spouse ; and you have thereupon 
consented and resolved to take Christ, and to give yourself 
unto him, whatsoever betides you ; and I am persuaded you 
have thereupon felt a secret persuasion in your heart, that God 
in Christ doth bear a love to you ;t and answerably your 
heart hath been inflamed towards him in love again, manifest- 
ing itself in an unfeigned desire to be obedient and subject to 
his will in all things, and never to displease him in anything. 
Now tell me, I pray you, and truly, whether you have not 
found these things in you, as I have said? 

Neo. Yea, indeed, I hope I have in some measure. 

Evan. Then I tell you truly, you have a sure ground to lay 
your believing that you have believed upon ; and, as the apos- 
tle John says, " Hereby you may know that you are of the 
truth, and may assure your heart thereof before God," 1 John 
iii. 19. 

Neo. Surely, sir, this I can truly say, that heretofore, when 
I have thought upon ray sins, I have conceived of God and 
Christ, as of a wrathful judge that would condemn all unright- 
eous men to eternal death : and, therefore, when I have thought 
upon the day of judgment, and hell torments, I have even 
trembled for fear, and have, as it were, even hated God. And 
though I have laboured to become righteous, that I might 
escape his wrath, yet all that I did, I did it unwillingly. But 
since I have heard you make it so plain, that a sinner that sees 

■^ In viHue of the deed of gift and grant. See the note on the Definition of 
Faith, fig. 1. 
f See page 144, note f. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 237 

and feels his sins is to conceive of God, as of a merciful, 
loving, and forgiving Father in Christ, that hath commit- 
ted all judgment to his Son, who came not to condemn 
men but to save them; methinks I do not now fear his 
wrath, but do rather apprehend his love towards me ; where- 
upon my heart is inflamed towards him with such love, 
that, methinks, I would willingly do or suffer anything that 
I knew would please him ; and would rather choose to suffer 
any misery than I would do anything that I knew were dis- 
pleasing to him. 

Evan. We read in the seventh chapter of Luke's gospel, 
that when that sinful yet believing woman did manifest her 
faith in Christ by her love to him, in " washing his feet with 
her tears, and wiping them with the hairs of her head,'' verse 
38, he said unto Simon the Pharisee, verse 47, " I say unto thee, 
her sins, which are many, are forgiven her, for she loved 
much;" even so I may say unto you, Nomista, in the same 
words concerning our neighbour Neophytus. And to you 
yourself, ISTeophytus, I say, as Christ said unto the woman, 
verses 48 — 50, " Thy sins are forgiven thee, thy faith hath 
saved thee, go in peace." 

Ant. But I pray you, sir, is not this his reflecting upon 
himself to find out a ground to lay his believing that he hath 
believed upon, a turning back from the covenant of grace to 
the covenant of works, and from Christ to himself? 

Evan. Indeed, if he should look upon these things in him- 
self, and thereon conclude, that because he has done this, God 
had accepted of him. and justified him, and will save him, and 
so make them the ground of his believing ; this were to 
turn back from the covenant of grace to the covenant of 
works, and from Christ to himself But if he look upon these 
things in himself, and thereupon conclude, that because 
these things are in his heart, Christ dwells there by faith, 
and therefore he is accepted of God, and justified, and shall 
certainly be saved, and so make them an evidence of his 
believing, or the ground of his believing that he has believed; 
this is neither to turn back from the covenant of grace to 
the covenant of works, nor from Christ to himself. So 
that these things in his heart being the daughters of faith, and 
the offspring of Christ, though they cannot at first produce, 
or bring forth their mother, yet may they in time of need 
nourish her. 

Sect. 14. — Nom. But, I pray you, sir, are there not other 
things besides these, that he says he finds in himself, that a 



238 'THE ItAilROW OF 

man may looTr upon as evidences of his believing, or, as yon 
call them, as grounds to believe that he has believed ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, there are divers other effects of faith, 
which if a man have in him truly, he may look upon them 
as evidences that he hath truly believed ; and I will name three 
of them unto you : 

Whereof the first is, when a man truly loves the word of God, 
and makes a right use of it ; and this a man does, 1st. when 
he hungers and thirsts after the word, as after the food of his 
soul, desiring it at all times, even as he does his " appointed * 
food," Job xxiii. 12. Secondly, when he desires and delights 
to exercise himself therein day and night, that is, constantly, 
Psalm i. 2. Thirdly, when he receives the word of God 
as the word of God, and not as the word of man, 1 Thess. ii. 
13 ; setting his heart, in the time of hearing or reading it, 
as in God's presence : and being affected with it, as if the Lord 
himself should speak unto him being most affected with that 
ministry, or that portion of God's word, which shows him his 
sins, and searches out his most secret corruptions ; denying 
his own reason and affections : yea, and his profits and plea- 
sures, in anything when the Lord shall require it of him. 
Fourthly, This a man does, when he makes the word of God 
to be his chief comfort in the time of his afflictions ; finding 
it, at that time, to be the main stay and solace of his heart, 
Psalm cxix. 49, 50. 

The second evidence is, when a man truly loves the children 
of God, 1 John v. 1 ; that is, all godly and religious persons, 
above all other sorts of men ; and that is, when he loves them 
not for carnal respects, but for the graces of God which he 
sees in them, 2 John i. 2 ; 3 John 1. And when he delights 
in their society and company, and makes them his only com- 
panions, Psalm cxix. 63, and when his well-doing (to his pow- 
er) extends itself to them. Psalm xvi. 3. In being pitiful and 
tender-hearted towards them, and in gladly receiving of them, 
and communicating to their necessities with a ready mind, 
Philem. 7 ; 1 John iii. 17. And when he has not the glo- 
rious faith of Christ in " respect of persons," James ii. 1, 2, 
but can make himself equal to them of the lower sort, Eom. 
xii. 16 ; and when he loves them at all times, even when they 
are in adversity, as poverty, disgrace, sickness, or otherwise in 
misery. 



* So. the Margin reads it. 



MODERN" DIVINITY. .23^9 

The third evidence is, when a man can truly love his ene- 
mies, Matt. vi. 14. And that he does, when he can pray 
heartily for them, and forgive them their particular tres- 
passes against him ; being more grieved for that they have 
sinned against God than for that they have wronged him ; 
and when he can forbear them, and yet could be revenged of 
them, either by bringing shame and misery upon them, 
1 Pet. iii. 9 ; Kom. xii. 14 ; and when he strives to overcome 
their evil with goodness, being willing to help them, and 
relieve them in their misery, and do them any good in soul 
or body ; and, lastly, when he can freely and willingly ac- 
knowledge his enemy's just praise, even as if he were his dear- 
est friend. 

Sect. 15. — Neo. But, sir, I pray you, let me ask you one ques- 
tion more touching this point ; and that is, suppose that here- 
after I should see no outward evidences, and question whether 
I had ever any true inward evidences, and so whether ever I 
did truly believe or no, what must I do then? 

Evan. Indeed it is possible you may come to such a con- 
dition ; and therefore you do well to provide beforehand 
for it. Now then, if ever it shall please the Lord to give 
you over to such a condition, first, let me warn you to take 
heed of forcing and constraining yourself to yield obedience 
to God's commandments, to the end you may so get an evi- 
dence of faith again, or a ground to lay your believing, that 
you have believed, upon ; and so forcibly to hasten your as- 
surance before the time :* for although this be not to turn 
quite back to the covenant of works, (for that you shall never 
do,) yet it is to turn aside towards that covenant, as Abra- 
ham did, who, after that he had long waited for the pro- 
mised seed, though he was before justified by believing the 
free promise, yet, for the more speedy satisfying of his faith, 
he turned aside to go in to Hagar, who was, as you have heard, 
a type of the covenant of works. So that you see, this is not 



* This forcing one's self to yield obedience, which the author warns 
Christians against, when they have lost sight of their evidences, and would 
fain recover them, is by pressing to yield obedience, without believing, till 
once by their obedience they have recovered the evidence of their having 
faith. To advise a Christian to beware of taking this course, in this case, is 
not to favour laxness, but to guard him against beginning his work at the 
wrong end, and so labouring in vain ; for obeying, indeed, must still spring 
from believing, since " without faith it is impossible to please God," Heb. xi. 6. 
And " whatsoever is not of faith, is sin," Rom. xiv. 23. The following advice 
sets the matter in full light. 



240 THE MARROW OF 

tlie riglit way ; but the right way for you, in this case, to get 
your assurance again, is, when all other things fail, to look 
to Christ ; that is, go to the word and promise, and leave off 
and cease awhile to reason about the truth of your faith ; and 
set your heart on work to believe, as if you had never yet done 
it ; saying in your heart, Well, Satan, suppose my faith has 
not been true hitherto, yet now will I begin to endeavour 
after true faith ; and therefore, O Lord, here I cast myself 
upon thy mercy afresh, for in thee the fatherless find mercy, 
Hos. xiv. 3. Thus, I say, hold to the word ; go not away, 
but keep you here, and you shall bring forth fruit with pa- 
tience,* Luke viii. 15. 

Sect. 16. — Neo. Well, sir, you have fully satisfied me con- 
cerning that point : but as I remember, it follows in the same 
verse, " Know ye not your own selves, how that Christ is in 
you, except ye be reprobates ?" 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Wherefore, I 
desire to hear how a man may know that Jesus Christ is in 
him. 

Evan. Why, if Christ be in a man, he lives in him : as says 
the apostle, " I live not but Christ liveth in me." 

Neo. But how, then, shall a man know, that Christ lives in 
him ? 

Evan. Why, in what man soever Christ lives according to 
the measure of his faith, he executes his threefold ofiice in him, 
viz : his prophetical, priestly, and kingly office. 

Neo. I desire to hear more of this threefold office of 
Christ ; and therefore, I pray you, sir, tell me, first, how a 
man may know that Christ executes his prophetical office in 
him? 

Evan. Why, so far forth as any man hears and knows that 
there was a covenant made betwixt God and all mankind in 
Adam ; and that it was an equal covenant,t and that God's 
justice must needs enter,:}: upon the breach of it ; and that all 
mankind, for that cause, were liable to eternal death and 
damnation ; so that if God had condemned all mankind, yet 
had it but been the sentence of an equal and just judge, seek- 
ing rather the execution of his justice, than man's ruin and 
destruction ; and thereupon takes it home, and applies it 
particularly to himself. Job v. 27, and so is convinced that he 
is a miserable, lost, and helpless man ; I say, so far forth as 

* Namely, obedience, whereby you shall recover your evidence. 
t See page 12, note *. 
X Demanding satisfaction. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 241 

a man does this, Christ executes his prophetical office in him, 
in teaching him, and revealing unto him the covenant of 
works. And so far forth as any man hears and knows that 
God made a covenant with Abraham, and all his believing 
seed in Jesus Christ, offering him freely to all to whom the 
sound of the gospel comes, and giving him freely to all that 
receive him by faith ; and so justifies them, and saves them 
eternally ; and thereupon has his heart opened to receive this 
truth, not as a man takes an object or a theological point into 
his head, whereby he is only made able to discourse : but as 
an habitual and practical point, receiving it into his "heart by 
the faith of the gospel," Philip, i. 27, and applying it to him- 
self, and laying his eternal state upon it ; and so setting to his 
seal, that God is true : I say, so far forth as a man does this, 
Christ executes his prophetical office in him, in teaching him 
and revealing to him the covenant of grace. And so far forth as 
any man hears and knows, that " this is the will of God, even 
his sanctification," 1 Thess. iv. 3, and thereupon concludes, 
that it is his duty to endeavour after it ; I say, so far forth as 
a man does this, Christ executes his prophetical office in him, 
in teaching and revealing his law to him. And this I hope is 
sufficient for answer to your first question. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, in the second place, tell me, how a man 
may know that Christ executes his priestly office in him ? 

Evan. Why, so far forth as any man hears and knows that 
Christ has given himself, as that only absolute and perfect 
sacrifice for the sins of believers, Heb. ix. 26, and joined them 
unto himself by faith, and himself unto them by his Spirit, 
and so made them one with him ; and is now " entered into 
heaven itself, to appear in the presence of God for them," Heb. 
ix. 24 ; and hereupon is emboldened to go immediately to^ 
God in prayer, as to a father, and meet him in Christ, and 
present him with Christ himself, as with a sacrifice without 
spot or blemish ; I say, so far forth as any man does this, 
Christ executes his priestly office in him. 

Neo. But sir, would you have a believer to go imme- 
diately unto God? How then does Christ make interces- 
sion for us at God's right hand, as the apostle says he does ? 
Eom. viii. 34. 

Evan. It is true indeed, Christ, as a public person, repre- 
senting all believers, appears before God his Father ; and 



* That is, even unto. 
21 



242 THE HAKROW OF 

willetli according to bofh his natures, and desires as he is a 
man, that God would, for his satisfaction's sake, grant unto 
them whatsoever " they ask acccording to his will." But yet 
you must go immediately to God in prayer for all that * 

You must not pitch your prayers upon Christ, and termi- 
nate them there, as if he were to take them, and present them 
to his Father ; but the very presenting place of your prayers 
must be God himself in Christ. Neither must you conceive, 
as though Christ the Son were more willing to grant your re- 
quest than God the Father, for whatsoever Christ willeth, the 
same also the Father, being well pleased with him, willeth. In 
Christ, therefore, I say, and no where else, must you expect 
to have your petitions granted ; and as in Christ and no place 
else, so for Christ's sake, and nothing else. And therefore I 
beseech you to beware you forget not Christ when you go unto 
the Father to beg anything you desire, either for yourself or 
others ; especially when you desire to have any pardon for sin, 
you are not to think, that when you join with your prayers, 
fasting, weeping, and afflicting of yourself, that for so doing 
you shall prevail with God to hear you, and grant your peti- 
tions ; no, no, you must meet God in Christ, and present him 
with his sufferings ; your eye, your mind, and all your confi- 
dence, must be therein ; and in that be as confident as possible 
you can ; yea, expostulate the matter, as it were, with God the 
Father, and say, " Lo ; here is the person that has well deserved 
it ; here is the person that wills and desires it ; in whom thou 
hast said thou art well pleased ; yea, here is the person that 
has paid the debt, and discharged the bond for all my sins ; 
and, therefore, O Lord ! now it stands with thy justice to for- 
give me." And thus, if you do, why, then you may be as- 
sured that Christ executes his priestly office in you. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, in the third place, show me how a man 
may know that Christ executes his kingly office in him ? 

Evan. Why, so far forth as any man hears and knows " that 
all power is given unto Christ, both in heaven and on earth,'^ 
Matt, sxviii. 18 ; both to vanquish and tt) overcome all the 
lusts and corruptions of believers, and to write his law in 
their hearts ; and hereupon takes occasions to go unto Christ 
for the doing of both in him ; I say, so far forth as he does 
this, why Christ executes his kingly office in him. 



* But you yourself were not to come near unto him, nay, we must " come 
unto God by Christ," Heb. ml 25. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 243 

Neo. Why then, sir, it seems that the place where Christ ex- 
ecutes his kingly office, is in the hearts of believers ? 

Evan. It is true indeed; for Christ's kingdom is not tem- 
poral or secular over the natural lives or civil negotiations of 
men ; but his kingdom is spiritual and heavenly, over the souls 
of men, to awe and over-rule the hearts, to captivate the affec- 
tions, to bring into obedience the thoughts, and to subdue and 
pull down strong holds. For when our father Adam trans- 
gressed, he and we, all of us, forsook God, and chose the devil 
for our lord and king ; so that everj^ mother's child of us is, 
by nature, under the government of Satan ; and he rules over 
us, till Christ come into our hearts, and dispossess him ; ac- 
cording to the saying of Christ himself, Luke xi. 21, 22, 
" When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are 
in peace :" that is, says Calvin, Satan holds them that are in 
subjection to him in such bonds and quiet possession, that he 
rules over them without resistance ; but when Christ comes to 
dwell in any man's heart by faith ; according to the measure 
of faith, he dispossesses him, and seats himself in the heart, 
and roots out, and pulls down all that withstands his govern- 
ment there; and, as a valiant captain, he stands upon his 
guard, and enables the soul to gather together all its forces 
and powers, to resist and withstand all its and his enemies, and 
so set itself in good earnest against them, when they at any 
time offer to return again ; and he doth especially enable the 
soul to resist, and set itself against the principal enemy, even 
that which does most oppose Christ in his government ; so that 
whatsoever lust or corruption is in a believer's heart or soul 
as most predominant, Christ enables him to take that into his 
mind, and to have most revengeful thoughts against it, and to 
make complaints to him against it, and to desire power and 
strength from him against it, and all because it most with- 
stands the government of Christ, and is the rankest traitor to 
Christ ; so that he uses all the means he can to bring it before 
the judgment-seat of Christ, and there he calls for justice 
against it. saying, " Lord Jesus Christ, here is a rebel and a 
traitor, that does withstand thy government in me, wherefore, 
I pray thee, come and execute thy kingly office in me, and sub- 
due it ; yea, vanquish and overcome it." Whereupon Christ 
gives the same answer that he gave to the centurion, " Go thy 
way, and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee,"* 
Matt. viii. 13. 

* Namely, believed the promise of sauctification, Ezek. xxxvi. 27 ; Micab 



§44 THE MAKKOW OF 

And as Christ doth thus suppress all other governors but 
himself in the heart of a believer, so doth he raze out and de- 
face all other laws, and writes his own there, according to 
his promise, Jer. xxxi. 83, and makes them pliable and willing 
to do and suffer his will ; and that because it is his will. So 
that the mind and will of Christ, laid down in his word, and 
manifested in his works, is not only the rule of a believer^s 
obedience, but also the reason of it, as I once heard a godly 
minister say in the pulpit ; so that he does not only do that 
which is Christ's will, but he does it because it is his will. 

Oh that man, which hath the law of Christ written in his 
heart ! according to the measure of it, he reads, he hears, he 
prays, he receives the sacrament, he keeps the Lord's day holy, 
he exhorts, he instructs, he confers, and does all the duties 
that belong to him in his general calling, because he knows it 
is the mind and will of Christ he should do so ! yea, he pa- 
tiently suffers, and willingly undergoes afflictions for the cause 
of Christ, because he knows it is the will of Christ ; yea, such 
a man does not only yield obedience, and perform the duties 
of the first table of the law, by virtue of Christ's command, but 
of the second also. Oh that husband, parent, master, or ma- 
gistrate, that has the law of Christ written in his heart 1 he 
does his duty to his wife, child, servant, or subject, willingly 
and uprightly, because Christ requires it and commands it. 
And so that wife, child, servant, or subject, that has the law of 
Christ written in his or her heart, they do their duties to hus- 
band, parent, master, or governor, freely and cheerfully, be- 
cause their Lord Christ commands it. Now, then, if you find 
these things in your heart, you may conclude that Christ rules 
and reigns there, as Lord and King. 



CHAPTER IV. 

OF THE heart's HAPPINESS, OR SOUL^S REST. 

Sect. 1. No rest for the soul till it come to God. — 2. How the soul is kept 
from rest in God. — 3. God in Christ the only true rest for the soul. 

Sect. 1. — Neo. Sir, be pleased to give me leave to tell you 
some part of my mind, and then I will cease to trouble you 

vii. 19, which belief brings always along with it the use of the means, that are 
of divine institution, for that end. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 245 

any more -at this time. The truth is, I have, ever since I 
could remember, felt a kind of restless discontentedness in my 
spirit, and for many years together, I fed myself with hopes 
of finding rest and content in persons and things here below, 
scarce thinking of the state and condition of my soul, or of any 
condition beyond this life, until, as I told you before, the Lord 
was pleased to visit me with a fit of sickness ; and then I began 
to bethink myself of death, judgment, hell, and heaven, and to 
take care and seek rest for my soul, as well as for my body ; 
but, alas ! I could never find rest for it before this day ; be- 
cause, indeed, I sought it not by faith, but, as it were, by the 
works of the law; or, in plain terms, because I sought it not in 
Christ but in myself. But now, I bless God, I see that Christ 
is all in all ; and therefore, by the grace of God, I am resolved 
no longer to seek rest and content, neither in any earthly 
thing, nor in mine own righteousness, but only in the free 
love and favour of God, as he is in his Son Jesus Christ ; 
and, God willing, there shall be my soul's rest. And I be- 
seech you, sir, pray for me, that it may be so ; and I have 
done. 

Evan. This point, concerning the heart's happiness, or 
soul's rest, is a point very needful for us to know ; and indeed, 
it is a point that I have formerly thought upon ; and therefore, 
though my occasions do now begin to call me away from you, 
yet, nevertheless, since you have begun to speak of it, I shall, 
if you please, proceed on, if 3^ou shall, or any of you, give 
occasion, and as the Lord shall enable me. 

J.n^. With a very good will, sir; for indeed it is a point 
that I much desire to hear of. 

Evan. First, then, I would entreat you to consider with 
me, that when God at first gave man an elementish body,"^ he 
did also infuse into him an immortal soul of a spiritual sub- 
stance ; and though he gave his soul a local being in his body, 
yet he gave it a spiritual well-being in himself; so that the 
soul was in the body by location and at rest in God by union 
and communication ; and this being of the soul in God at first 
was man's true being, and his true happiness. Now man 
falling from God, God in his justice left man, so that the actual 
union and communion that the soul of man had with God at 
first is broken off; God and man's soul are parted; and it is 



^ That is an elementary body, made up, as it were, of the four elements, as 
they are called, namely, fire, air, earth, and water. 
21* 



246 THE MARROW OF 

in a restless condition. Howbeit, the Lord having seated in 
man's soul a certain character of himself, the soul is thereby 
made to re-aspire towards that summum honum^ that chief 
good, even God himself, and can find rest no where, till it 
come to him."^ 

Nom. But stay, sir, I pray you ; how can it be said that 
man's soul doth re-aspire towards God the Creator, when it is 
evident that every man's soul naturally is bent towards the 
creature, to seek a rest there ? 

Eva7i. For answer hereunto I pray you consider, that na- 
turally man's understanding is dark and blind ; and therefore 
is ignorant what his own soul does desire and strongly aspire 
unto. It knoweth, indeed, that there is a want in the soul ; 
but till it be enlightened, it knoweth not what it is which the 
soul wanteth. For, indeed, the case standeth with the soul as 
with a child new born, which child, by natural instinct, doth 
gape and cry for nutriment ; yea, for such nutriment as may 
agree with its tender condition; and if the nurse, through ne- 
gligence or ignorance, either give it no meat at all, or else such 
as it is not capable of receiving, the child refuses it, and still 
cries, in strength of desire, after the breast ; yet does not the 
child, in this estate, know by any intellectual power and un- 
derstanding what itself desires. Even so man's poor soul doth 
cry to God as for its proper nourishment ;f but his under- 

* The soul of man has a natural desire of happiness : nothing can make 
it happy but what is commensurable to its desires, or capable of affording 
it a full satisfaction. Nothing less than an infinite good is such : and 
God himself only is an infinite good, in the enjoyment of which the soul 
can rest, as fully satisfied, desiring no more. Now, since by reason of 
the vast capacity of the soul, nothing but God himself can indeed satisfy 
this its desire of happiness, the which is so woven into the very nature 
of the soul, that nothing but the destruction of the very being of the soul 
can remove it ; it is evident, that it is impossible the soul of man can 
ever find true rest, until it return to God, and take up its rest with him ; 
but must still be in quest of, or desiring its chief good and happiness, 
wherein it may rest, and this in reality is God himself only; though the 
practical understanding being blinded, knows not that, and the per- 
verse will and affections carry away the soul from him, seeking the de- 
sired good and happiness in other things. This is what the author calls 
the soul's re-aspiring towards the chief good, even God himself; and it 
is so consistent with the total depravation of man's nature, that it will 
remain for ever in the damned in hell ; a chief part of whose misery will 
lie in that this desire shall ever be rampant in them, but never in the 
least satisfied ; they shall never be freed from this scorching thirst there, nor 
yet get a drop of water to cool the tongue. 

t Man's poor soul, before it is enlightened, naturally cries to God, as 
the" young ravens cry to him," Job xxxviii. 41, not knowins: to whom: 



MODERN DIVINITY. 247 

standing, like a blind, ignorant nurse, not knowing what it cries 
for, offers to the heart a creature instead of a Creator ; thus, 
by reason of the blindness of the understanding, together with 
the corruption of the will, and disorder of the affections, man's 
soul is kept by violence"^ from its proper centre, even God 
himself 

Sect. 2. — Oh, how many souls are there in the world that 
are hindered, if not quite kept, from rest in God, by reason 
that their blind understanding presents unto their sensual ap- 
petites varieties of sensual objects I 

Is there not many a luxurious person's soul hindered, if not 
quite kept, from true rest in God, by that beauty which nature 
hath placed in feminine faces,t especially when Satan secretly 
suggests into such feminine hearts a desire of an artificial 
dressing, from the head to the foot ; yea, and sometimes paint- 
ing the face, like their mother Jezebel ? 

And is there not many a voluptuous epicure's soul hin- 
dered, if not quite kept, from rest in God, by beholding the 
colour, and tasting the sweetness of dainty delicate dishes, his 
wine red in the cup and his beer of amber colour in the glass? 
In the Scripture we read of a "certain man that fared deli- 
ciously every day," as if there had been no more than one so 
ill disposed ; but in our times, there are certain hundreds, both 
of men and women, that do not only fare deliciously, but vo- 
luptuously, twice every day, if not more. 

And is there not many a proud person's soul hindered, if 
not quite kept, from rest in God, by the harmonious sound of 
popular praise which, like a loadstone, draws the vain-glorious 
heart to hunt so much the more eagerly, to augment the echo 
of such vain windy reputation ? 

And is there not many a covetous person's soul hindered, if 
not quite kept, from rest in God, by the cry of great abund- 
ance, the words of wealth, and the glory of gain ? 

And is there not many a musical mind hindered, if not 



and it cries for him as its proper nourishment, as the new-born infant for tlie 
breast, not knowing for what. Only it feels a want, desires supply proper for 
filling- it up, and can never get kindly rest till it be supplied accordingly, that 
is, till it come to the enjoyment of God : then it rests, as the infant set to the 
full breast. Isa. Ixvi. 11, " That ye may suck, and be satisfied with the breasts 
of her consolations." 

^ Namely, violence done to its natural make and constitution (if I may so 
express it) by the blindness, corruption, and disorder, that have seized its 
faculties. 

f That is, women's faces. 



248 THE MARROW OF 

quite kept, from sweet comfort in God, by the harmony of 
artificial concord upon musical instruments ? 

And how many perfumed fools are there in the world, who, 
by smelling their sweet apparel, and their sweet nosegays, are 
kept from soul sweetness in Christ? And thus does Satan, 
like a cunning fisher, bait his hook with a sensual object, to 
catch men with : and having gotten it into their jaws, he 
draws them up and down in sensual contentments, till he has 
so drowned them therein, that the peace and rest of their souls 
in God is almost forgotten. And hence it is that the greatest 
part of man's life, and in many their whole life, is spent in 
seeking satisfaction to the sensual appetite. 

Nora. Indeed, sir, this which you have said, we may see 
truly verified in many men, who spend their days about these 
vanities, and will afford no time for religious exercises ; no, not 
upon the Lord's-day, by their good will. 

Evan. You say the truth ; and yet let me tell you withal, 
that a man by the power of natural conscience, may be forced 
to confess that his hopes of happiness are in God alone, and 
not in these things ; yea, and to forsake profits and pleasures, 
and all sensual objects, as unable to give his soul any true con- 
tentment, and fall to the performance of religious exercises, 
and yet rest there, and never come to God for rest. And if 
we consider it, either in the rude multitude of sensual livers, 
or in the more seemingly religious, we shall perceive that the 
religious exercises of men do strongly deceive, and strangely 
delude many men of their heart's happiness in God. 

For the first sort,"^ though they be such as make their belly 
their best god, and do no sacrifice but to Bacchus, Apollo, or 
Yenus \\ though their conscience do accuse them that these 
things are naught, yet in that they have the name of Chris- 
tians put upon them in their baptism, and forasmuch as they 
do often repeat the Lord's prayer, the apostles' creed, and the 
ten commandments, and in that, it may be, they have lately 
accustomed themselves to go to church, to hear divine service, 
and a preaching now and then, and in that they have divers 
times received the sacrament ; they will not be persuaded but 
that God is well pleased with them ; and a man may as well 
persuade them that they are not men and women, as that they 
are not in a good condition. 

* Namely, sensual livers, who yet perform religious exercises. 

fThat is, give up themselves to drunkenness, music, and lascivious- 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 24^ 

And for the second sort * that ordinarily have more human 
wisdom and human learning than the former sort, and seem to 
be more holy and devout than the former sort of sensual igno- 
rant people ; yet how many are there of this sort, that never 
pass further than the outward court of bodily performances : 
feeding and feasting themselves, as men in a dream ; supposing 
themselves to have all things, and yet indeed have nothing but 
only a bladderfull, or rather a brain full, of wind and worldly 
conceptions ? 

Are there not some who give themselves to more special 
searching and seeking out for knowledge in Scripture learned- 
ness and clerk-like skill, in this art, and that language, till 
they come to be able to repeat all the historical places in the 
Bible ; yea, and all those texts of Scripture that they conceive 
do make for some private opinion of theirs concerning cere- 
monies, church-government, or other such circumstantial points 
of religion, touching which points they are very able to reason 
and dispute, and to put forth such curious questions as are not 
easily answered ? 

Are not some of these menf called sect-makers, and be- 
getters or devisers of new opinions in religion ; especially in 
the matter of worshipping God, as they use to call it, wherein 
they find a beginning, but hardly an end ? For this religious 
knowledge is so variable, through the multiplicity of curious 
wits and contentious spirits, that the life of man may seem too 
short to take a full view of this variety ; for though all sects 
say they will be guided by the word of truth, and all seem to 
bring Scripture, which, indeed, is but one, as God is but one ; 
yet, by reason of their several constructions and interpretations 
of Scripture, and conceits of their own human wisdom, they 
are many. 

And are there not others of this sort of men that are ready 
to embrace any new way of worship, especially if it come under 
the cloak of Scripture learning, and have a show of truth, 
founded upon the letter of the Bible, and seem to be more 
zealous and devout than the former way? especially if the 
teacher of that new way can but frame a sad and demure coun- 
tenance, and with a grace lift up his head and his eyes towards 
heaven, with some strong groan, in declaring of his newly 



* Namely, the more seemingly religious. 

f Namely, of those spoken of in the paragraph immediately preceding, whom 
he begins to distribute here into three classes or sorts ; all belonging to the 
second sort, viz : the more seemingly religious. 



250 THE MARROW OF 

conceived opinion ; and that lie frequently use this phrase of — 
the glory of God! Oh, then, these men are, by-and-by, of 
another opinion ! supposing to themselves that God has made 
known some further truth to them ; for by reason of the blind- 
ness of their understanding, they are not able to reach any 
supernatural truth, although they do, by literal learning, and 
clerk-like cunning, dive ever so deep into the Scriptures ; and 
therefore they are ready to entertain any form of religious ex- 
ercises, as shall be suggested unto them. 

And are there not a third sort, much like to these men, 
that are excessive and mutable in the performance of religious 
exercises ? Surely St. Paul perceived that this was the very 
God of some men in his time, and therefore he willeth Timothy 
to instruct others, that "bodily exercise profiteth little," or, 
as some read it, " nothing at all ;" and doth oppose thereunto 
"godliness," as being another thing than "bodily exercise," 
and says that it " is profitable," &c. 

And do not you think that there are some men at this day 
that know none other good than bodily exercise, and can 
hardly distinguish betwixt it and godliness ? Now these bodily 
exercises are mutable and variable, according to their conceits 
and opinions ; for all sects have their several services, as they 
call them, yet all bodily, and for the most part, only bodily ; 
the which they perform to establish a rest to their souls, be- 
cause they want rest in God. And hence it is that their peace 
and rest are up and down, according to their working better or 
worse. So many chapters must be read, and so many ser- 
mons must be heard, and so many times they must pray in one 
day, and so many days in the week, or in the year, they 
must fast, &c., or else their souls can have no rest. But mis- 
take me not, I pray, in imagining that I speak against the 
doing of these things, for I do them all myself, but against 
resting in the doing of them, the which I desire not to do. 

And thus you see that men's blind understanding doth not 
only present unto the sensual appetite sensual objects, but also 
to the rational appetite rational objects ; so that man's poor 
soul is not only kept from rest in God by means of sensuality, 
but also by means of formality. If Satan cannot keep us from 
rest in God by feeding our senses with our mother Eve's apple, 
then he attempts to do it by blinding our eyes, and so hinder- 
ing us from seeing the paths of the gospel. If he cannot keep 
us in Egypt by the flesh-pots of sensuality, then will he make 
US wander in the wilderness of religious and rational formality : 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 251 

SO that if he cannot hinder us more grossly, then he attempts 
to do it more closely. 

Norn. But sir, I am persuaded that there be many men that 
are so religiously exercised, and do perform such duties as you 
have mentioned, and yet rest not in them but in God. 

Evan. Questionless there be some Christians that look upon 
such exercises as means ordained of God both to beget and 
increase faith, and all other graces of his Spirit, in the hearts 
of his people ; and therefore, to the intent that their faith, and 
love, and other graces, may increase, they are careful to wait 
upon God, in taking all convenient opportunities to exercise 
themselves therein, and yet have their soul's rest in God, and 
not in such exercises. 

But, alas ! I fear the number of such men is very few, 
in comparison of them that do otherwise. For do not the 
most part of men that are so religiously exercised, rather con- 
ceive, that as they have offended and displeased God by their 
former disobedience, so they must pacify and appease him by 
their future obedience ? And therefore they are careful to 
exercise themselves in this way of duty, and that way of wor- 
ship, and all to that end ; yea, and they conceiving that they 
have corrupted and defiled, and polluted themselves, by their 
falling into sin, they must also purge, cleanse, and purify them- 
selves, by rising out of sin, and walking in new obedience :* 
and so all the good they do, and all the evil they eschew, is to 
pacify God, and appease their own consciences. And if they 
seek rest to their souls this way, why, it is the way of the co- 
venant of works, where they shall never be able to reach God ; 
nay, it is the way to come to God out of Christ, where they 
shall never be able to come near him, he being a " consuming 
fire." 

Nom. But, sir, I pray you, would you not have our senses 
to be any longer exercised about any of their objects ? would 
you have us no longer to take comfort in the good things of 
this life ? 

Evan. I pray you, do not mistake me ; I do not speak as 
though I would have you stoically to refuse the lawful use of 
any of the Lord's good creatures, which he shall be pleased to 



* Neglecting to wash, by faith, in the blood of Christ, the " Fountain opened 
for sin, and for uncleanness," Zech. xiii. 1. — " The blood of Jesus Christ, his 
Sou, cleanseth us from all sin," 1 John i. 17. — " How much more shall the 
blood of Christ purge your conscience from dead works ?" Heb. ix. 14. — 
" Purifying their hearts by faith," Acts xv. 9. 



252 THE MARROW OF 

afford jou, neitlier do T prohibit you from all comfort therein ; 
but this is it wbicb I do desire, namely, that you would endea- 
vour to attain to such a peace, rest, and content in God, as he 
is in Christ, that the violent cry of your heart may be re- 
strained, and that your appetites may not be so forcible, nor so 
unruly as they are naturally, but that the unruliness thereof may 
be brought into a very comely decorum and order : so that your 
sensual appetites may, with much more easiness and content- 
edness, be denied the objects of their desires, yea, and con- 
tented (if occasion be) with that which is most repugnant to 
them, as with hunger, cold, nakedness, yea, and with death it- 
self. For such is the wonderful working of the heart's quiet and 
rest in God, that although a man's senses be still exercised in 
and upon their proper objects, yet may it be truly said, that 
such a man's life is not sensual. For indeed his heart taketh 
little contentment in any such exercises, it being for the most 
part exercised in a more transcendent communion with God, as 
he is in Christ. So that indeed the man that has this peace and 
rest in God may be truly said to " use this world as though he 
used it not," in that he receives no cordial contentment from 
any sensual exercise whatsoever, and that because his heart is 
withdrawn from them. Which withdrawing of the heart is not 
unaptly pointed at, in the speech of the spouse. Cant. v. 2, " I 
sleep," says she, " but my heart waketh." Even so may it be 
said, that such a man is sleeping, looking, hearing, tasting, 
smelling, eating, drinking, feasting, &c., but his heart is with- 
drawn from the creature, and rejoicing in God his Saviour, 
and his soul is magnifying his Lord ; so that in the midst of 
all sensual delights, his heart secretly says. Aye, but my happi- 
ness is not here. 

Nom, But, sir, I pray you, why do you call rational and re- 
ligious exercises a wilderness ? 

Evan. For two reasons ; jirst^ Because that as the children 
of Israel, when they were got out of Egypt, did yet wander 
many years in the wilderness, before they came into the land 
of Canaan ; even so do many men wander long in rational and 
religious exercises, after they have left a sensual life, before 
they come to rest in God, whereof the land of Canaan was a 
type.^ 



* Such a wanderer our author himself had been for a dozen of years. See 
his Preface, and compare that heavy word, Eccl. x. 15, " The labour of the 
foolish wearieth every one of them, because he knoweth not how to go to the 
city." 



MODERN DIVINITY. 253 

Secondly^ Because, as in a wilderness men often lose them- 
selves, and can"* find no way out, but supposing, after loDg 
travel, that they are nearer the place whither they would go, 
are in truth, farther off; even so fareth it with many, yea, with 
all such as walk in the way of reason ;* they lose themselves 
in the woods and bushes of their works and doings ; so that 
the longer they travel, the farther they are from God, and 
true rest in him. 

Nom. But, sir, you know that the Lord hath endowed us 
with reasonable souls ; would you not then have us to make 
use of our reason ? 

Evan. I pray you, do not mistake me : I do not contemn 
nor despise the use of reason ; only I would not have you to 
establish it tof the chief good ; but I would have you to keep 
it under ; so that, if with Hagar, it attempt to bear rule, and 
lord it over your faith, then would I have you, in the wisdom 
of God, like Sarah, to cast it out from having dominion. 
In few words, I would have you more strong in desire than 
curious in speculation, and to long more to feel communion 
with God than to be able to dispute of the genus or species of 
any question, either human or divine ; and press hard to know 
God by powerful experience. And though your knowledge 
be great, and your obedience surpassing many, yet would I 
have you to be truly nullified, annihilated, and made nothing, 
and become fools in all fleshly wisdom ; and glory in nothing, 
but only in the Lord4 And I would have you, with the eye 
of faith, sweetly to behold all things extracted out of one 
thing ; and in one to see alL§ In a word, I would have in 
you a most profound silence, contemning all curious questions 
and discourses ; and to ponder much in your heart, but prate 
little with your tongue. " Be swift to hear," but " slow to 
speak," and " slow to wrath," as the apostle James advises 
you, James i. 19 ; and by this means will your reason be sub- 
dued, and become one with your faith, for then is reason one 

* Namely, of reason, as the judge and rule in religion. The holy Scrip 
ture is the rule, and the Spirit of God therein speaking is the judge ; it ia 
the business of our reason to discern what they teach, and to submit thereto 
without reserve. 

t That is, for, or to be. . 

% 2 Cor. xii. 11, "Though I be nothing."—! Cor. iii. 18, "Let him be- 
come a fool, that he may be wise."— Chap. i. 31, " He that glorieth, let him 
glory in the Lord." , 

§ According to that saying of our Lord, Matt. xix. 17, " There is none good 
but oixe, that is God." 
22 



254 THE MABEOW OF 

witli faith, wlien it is subjugated unto faith ; and tnen will 
reason keep its true lists and limits, and you will become ten 
times more reasonable than you were before. So that I hope 
you now see that the heart's farewell from the sensual and ra- 
tional life is not to be considered absolutely, but respectively ; 
it does not consist in a going out of either, but in a right use 
of both. 

Sect. 3. — Nom. Then, sir, it seems to me, that God in 
Christ, apprehended by faith, is the only true rest for man's 
soul. 

Evan. There is the true rest indeed ; there is the rest which 
David invites his soul unto, when he says, " Keturn unto thy 
rest, my soul ! for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with 
thee," Psalm cxvi. 7. — '' For we which have believed," says 
the author to the Hebrews, " have entered into his rest,"* 
Heb. iv. 3. — And " Come unto me," says Christ, " all ye that 
labour, and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest,"t Matt. 

* " Do enter into rest," or that rest, viz : " his rest." He means, that we 
even now enter into that rest by faith. Compare verse 10. 

f This is one of the most solemn gospel offers to be found in all the 
New Testament; and our author seems here to point at what I conceive 
to be the true and genuine sense of it. The words " labour and heavy 
laden," do not restrict the invitation and offer to such as are sensible 
of their sins, and longing to be rid of them, though indeed none but such 
will really accept; but they denote the restlessness of the sinful soul of 
man ; a qualification (if it is so called) to be found in all that are out of 
Christ, whether they have, or have not, any notable law work on their 
consciences. 

I say notable, to distinguish it from that which is common to all men, 
even to heathens, Rom. xi. 15. Our father Adam led his whole family 
away out of their rest in God ; and so left them with a conscience full of 
guilt, and a heart full of unsatisfied desires. Hence his children soon 
find themselves like the horse-leech, having " two daughters, crying. Give, 
give ;" namely, a restless conscience, and a restless heart ; and to each of 
these the poor soul must needs say, as Naomi said to Ruth, " My daughter, 
shall I not seek rest for thee ?" so the blinded soul falls a labouring for 
rest to them. And it labours in the barren region of the fiery law for a 
rest to the conscience, and in the empty creation, for a rest to the heart : 
but, after all, the conscience is still heavy laden with guilt, whether it 
has any lively feeling thereof, or not ; and the heart is still under a load 
of unsatisfied desires ; so neither the one nor the other can find rest indeed. 
This is the natural case of all men. And to souls thus labouring, and 
laden, Jesus Christ here calls, that they may " come to him, and he will 
give them rest ;" namely, a rest for their consciences, under the covert 
of his blood ; and a rest to their hearts, in the enjoyment of God through 
him. 

This is most agreeable to the Scripture phraseology, Eccl. x. 15, " The 
labour of the foolish wearieth every one of them, because he knows not 



MODERN DIVINITY. 255 

xi. 28. And truiy, my neighbours and friends, believe it, we 
shall never find a heart's happiness, and true soul's rest, until 
we find it here. For howsoever a man may think, if he had 
this man's wit, and that man's wealth, this man's honour and 
that man's pleasure, this wife, or that husband, such children, 
and such servants, his heart would be satisfied, and his soul 
would be contented ; yet which of us hath not, by our own 
experience, found the contrary? For, not long after that we 
have obtained the thing we did so much desire, and wherein 
we promised ourselves so much happiness, rest, and content, 
we have found nothing but vanity and emptiness in it. Let a 
man but deal plainly with his own heart, and he shall find, 
that, notwithstanding he hath many things, yet there is ever 
one thing wanting : for indeed man's soul cannot be satisfied 
with any creature, no, not with a world of creatures. And 
the reason is, because the desires of man's soul are infinite, 
according to that infinite goodness which it once lost in losing 
God. Yea, and man's soul is a spirit ; and therefore cannot 
communicate with any corporal thing ; so that all creatures, 
not being that infinite and spiritual fulness which our hearts 
have lost, and towards the which they do still re-aspire ; they 
cannot give it full contentment. 

ISTay, let me say more ; howsoever a man may, in the midst 
of his sensual fulness, be convinced in his conscience that he 
is at enmity with God, and therefore in danger of his wrath 
and eternal damnation ; and be thereupon moved to reform 
his life and amend his ways, and endeavour to seek peace and 
rest to his soul ; yet this being in the way of works, it is im- 
possible that he should find it ; for his conscience will ever be 
accusing him, that this good duty he ought to have done, and 
has not done it ; and this evil he ought to have forborne, and 
yet he has done it ; and in the performance of this duty he 
was remiss, and in that duty very defective ; and many such 
ways will his soul be disquieted. 

But when a man once comes to believe, that all his sins 



how to go to the city," — Hab. ii. 13, "The people shall labour in the very 
fire, and the people shall weary themselves for very vanity." — Isa. Iv. 2, 
" Wherefore do ye spend your labour for that which satisfieth not ?"' See page 
143, note *. The prophet laments over a people more insensible than the ox or 
the ass, saying, " Ah, sinful nation! a people laden with iniquity," Isa. i. 3,4. 
And the apostle speaks of " silly women laden with sins, led away with divers 
lusts, ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth," 2 
Tim. iii. 6, 7. 



256 THE MARROW OF 

both past, present, and to come, are freely and fully pardoned * 
and God in Christ graciously reconciled nnto him, the Lord 
doth thereupon so reveal his fatherly face unto him in Christ, 
and so make known that incredible union betwixt him and the 
believing soul, that his heart becomes quietly contented in 
God, who is the proper element of its being; for hereupon 
there comes into the soul such peace, flowing from the God of 
peace, that it fills the emptiness of his soul with true fulness, 
in the fulness of God, so that now the heart ceases to molest 
the understanding and reason, in seeking either variety of ob- 
jects, or augmentation of degrees, in any comprehensible 
thing ; and that because the restless longing of the mind which 
did before cause unquietness and disorder, both in the variety 
of mental projects, and also in the sensual and beastly exercises 
of the corporal and external members, is satisfied and truly 
quieted. For when a man's heart is at peace in God, and 
is become truly full in that peace and joy passing understand- 
ing, then the devil hath not that hope to prevail against his 
soul as he had before ; he knows right well that it is in vain 
to bait his hook with profits, pleasures, honour, or any other 
such like seeming good, to catch such a soul that is thus at 
quiet in God ; for he hath all fulness in God, and what can 
be added to fulness but it runneth over ? Indeed, empty 
hearts, like empty hogsheads, are fit to receive any matter 
which shall be put into them ; but the heart of the believer 
being filled with joy and peace in believing, doth abhor all such 
base allurements ; for that it hath no room in itself to receive 
any such seeming contentments. So that, to speak as the 
truth is, there is nothing that doth truly and unfeignedly root 
wickedness out of the heart of man, but only the true tran- 
quillity of the mind, or the rest of the soul in God. And, to 
say as the thing is, this is such a peace, and such a rest to the 
creature in the Creator, that, according to the measure of its 
establishment by faith, no created comprehensible thing can 
either add to it, or detract from it ; the increase of a kingdom 
cannot augment it, the greatest losses and crosses in worldly 
things cannot diminish it; a believer's good works do all flow 
from it, and ought not to return to it ;t neither ought human 



* Namely, in respect of the guilt of eternal wrath. See page 104, note *. 

f Namely, to be any part of the fountain of it, for the time to come : as the 
rivers return unto the sea, whence they came, making a part of the store for 
their own fresh supply ; nay, it is the Lord alone that gives and maintains it, as 
our author afterwards expresses it. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 257 

frailties to molest it * However, this is most certain, neither 
sin nor Satan, law nor conscience, hell nor grave, can quite 
extinguish it ; for it is the Lord alone that gives and maintains 
it. " Whom have I in heaven but thee ?" says David, " and 
there is none upon eai-th that I desire besides thee." Psalm 
Ixxiii. 25. It is the pleasant face of God in Christ that puts 
gladness into his heart. Psalm iv. 7. And when that face is 
hid, then he is troubled. Psalm xxx. 7. But, to speak more 
plainly, though the peace and joy of true believers may be 
extenuated or diminished, yet doth the testimony of their 
being in nature f remain so strong, that they could skill to say, 
yea, even when they have felt God to be withdrawing himself 
from them, — " My God ! my God 1 why hast thou forsaken me?" 
Psalm xxii. 1 ; yea, and in the night of God's absence to re- 
main confident, that though sorrow be over night, yet joy will 
come in the morning, Psalm xxx. 5; nay, though the Lord 
should seem to kill them with nnkindness, " yet they will put 
their trust in him," Job xiii. 15 ; knowing that for all this 
" their Redeemer liveth," Job xix. 25 ; so strong is " the joy of 
their Lord," Nehem. viii. 10. These are the people that are 
kept in perfect peace, because their minds are stayed in the 
Lord, Isa. xxvi. 3. 

Wherefore, my dear friends and loving neighbours, I be- 
seech you to take heed of deeming any estate happy, until you 
come to find this true peace and rest to your souls in God. Oh, 
beware, lest any of you do content yourselves with a peace 
rather of speculation than of power ! Oh, be not satisfied with 
such a peace as consists either in the act of oblivion or neglect 
of examination ! nor yet in any brain-sick supposition of 
knowledge, theological or divine ; and so frame rational con- 
clusions, to protract time and still the cries of an accusing con- 
science. But let your hearts take their last farewell of false 
felicities, wherewith they have been, all of them, more or less, 
detained and kept from their true rest. Oh, be strong in reso- 
lution I and bid them all farewell ; for what have your souls 
to do any longer among these gross, thick, and bodily things 

* For these we are never free from in this life. And true repentance, and 
gospel mourning for sin, are so consistent with it, that they flow from it, accord- 
ing to the measure thereof. Psalm Ixv. 3, " Iniquities prevail against me ; 
as for our transgressions, thou shalt purge them away." — Zcch. xii. 
10, "They shall look upon me, whom they have pierced, and they shall 
mourn." 

t That is, the evidence, that they (viz : the peace and joy of believers) are 
still in being {in reram naturo) and not quite extinct. 
22* 



258 THE MARROW OP 

here below, that you should set your love upon tbem, or see 
happiness in them ? your souls are of a higher and purer na- 
ture ; and therefore their well-being must be sought in some- 
thing that is higher and purer than they, even in God him- 
self. 

True it is, that we are all of us, indeed, too unclean to 
touch God in immediate unity ; but yet there is a pure coun- 
terpart of onr natures,"^ and that pure humanity is immediately 
knit to the purest Deity ; and by that immediate union you 
may come to a mediate union ; for the Deity and that human- 
ity being united, make one Saviour, head, and husband 
of souls. And so you being married to him, that is, God in 
him, you come also to be one with God : he one by a personal 
union, and you one by a mystical. Clear up then your eye, 
and fix it on him, as on the fairest of men, the perfection of a 
spiritual beauty, the treasure of heavenly joy, the true object 
of most fervent love. Let your spirits look, and long, and seek 
after this Lord : let your souls cleave to him, let them hang 
about him, and never leave him, till he be brought into the 
chambers of your souls ; yea, tell him resolutely, you will not 
leave him, till you hear his voice in your souls, saying, 
" My well-beloved is mine, and I am his ;" yea, and tell him, 
you are " sick of love." Let your souls go, as it were, out 
of your bodies and out of the world, by heavenly contem- 
- plations ; and treading upon the earth with the bottom of your 
feet, stretch your souls up, to look over the world, into that 
upper world, where her treasure is,t and where her beloved 
dwelleth. 

And when any of your souls shall thus forget her own 
people, and her father's house, Christ her King shall so desire 
her beauty. Psalm xlv. 10, 11, and be so much in love with 
her, that, like a loadstone, this love of his shall draw the soul 
in pure desire to him again ; and then, " as the hart panteth 
after the rivers of waters, so will your soul pant after God," 
Psalm xlii. 1. 

And then, according to the measure of your faith, your souls 
shall come to have a real rest in God, and be filled with joy 
unspeakable and glorious. 

Wherefore, I beseech you, set your mouths to this fountain 
Christ, and so shall your souls be filled with the water of life, 
with the oil of gladness, and with the new wine of the king- 

* Namely, the pure and spotless human nature of Christ, 
f Your souls. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 259 

dom of God ; from him you shall have weighty joys, sweet 
embracements, and ravishing consolations. And how can it 
be otherwise, when your souls shall really communicate with 
God, and by faith have a true taste, and by the spirit have a 
sure earnest of all heavenly preferments ; having, as it were, 
one foot in heaven, whilst you live upon earth ? Oh then, what 
an eucharistical love* will arise from your thankful hearts, 
extending itself first towards God, and then towards man for 
God's sake ! and then, according to the measure of your faith, 
will be your willing obedience to God, and also to man for 
God's sake ; for obedience being the kindly fruit of love, a 
loving soul bringeth forth this fruit as kindly as a good tree 
bringeth forth her fruit ; for the soul, having tasted Christ in 
a heavenly communion, so loves him, that to please him is a 
pleasure and delight to herself: and the more Christ Jesus 
comes into the soul by his Spirit, the more spiritual he makes 
her ; and turns her will into his will, making her of one heart, 
mind, and will, with him. 

So that, for a conclusion, this I say, that if the everlasting 
love of God in Jesus Christ be truly made known to your 
souls, according to the measure thereof, you shall have no 
need to frame and force yourselves to love and do good works, 
for your souls will ever stand boundf to love God, and to keep 
his commandments, and it will be your meat and drink to do 
his will. And truly this love of God will cut down self-love 
and love of the world, for the sweetness of Christ's Spirit will 
turn the sweetness of the flesh into bitterness, and the sweet- 
ness of the world into contempt. And if you can behold 
Christ with open face, you shall see and feel things unutterable, 
and be changed from beauty to beauty, from glory to glory, by 
the Spirit of this Lord, and so be happy in this life, in your 
union with happiness, and happy hereafter in the full fruition 
of happiness ::[: whither the Lord Jesus Christ bring us all in 
his due time. Amen. 

* A love of thanksgiving, bearing thankfnlness in its nature. 
f Or constrained by the force of that love. 
X That is, of God himself in Christ. 



260 THE MARROW OP 



CONCLUSION. 

" And now, brethren, I commend you to God and to the 
word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give 
you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified, 
Acts XX. 32. 

Neo. Well, sir, at this time I will say no more, but that it 
was a happy hour wherein I came to you, and a happy con- 
ference that we have had together. Surely, sir, I never knew 
Christ before this day. Oh, what cause have I to thank the 
Lord for my coming hither, and my two friends as a means of 
it ! and, sir, for the pains that you have taken with me, I pray 
the Lord to requite you ; and so beseeching you to pray the 
Lord to increase my faith, and to help my unbelief, I humbly 
take my leave of you, praying, " the God of love and peace to 
be with you." 

Nom. And truly, sir, I do believe that I have cause to speak 
as much in that case as he has ; for though I have outstript 
him in knowledge, and it may be also in strict walking, yet do 
I now see, that my actions were neither from a right principle, 
nor to a right end ; and, therefore, have I been in no better a 
condition than he. And truly, sir, I must needs confess, I 
never heard so much of Christ and the covenant of grace, as 
I have done this day.* The Lord make it profitable to me ; 
and I beseech you, sir, pray for me. 

Ant. And truly, sir, I am now fully convinced that I have 
gone out of the right way, in that I have not had regard to 
the law, and the works thereof, as I should ; but, God willing, 
I shall hereafter (if the Lord prolong my days) be more care- 
ful how I lead my life, seeing the ten commandments are the 
law of Christ ; and I beseech you, sir, remember me in your 
prayers. And so, with many thanks to you for your pains, I 
take my leave of you, beseeching the " grace of our Lord Jesus 
Christ to be with your spirit." Amen. 

Evan. " Now, the very God of peace that brought again 
from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the 
sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make 

* This is here fitly put into the mouth of Nomista, the prevailing of legal 
principles and practices among professors being much owing to legal preaching ; 
the success whereof is not to be wondered at, since it is rowing with the stream 
of nature. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 261 

you perfect in every good work, to do bis will, working in 
you that which is well-pleasing in his sight, through Jesus 
Christ ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Ameny Hob. 
xiii. 20, 21. — John viii. 36, "If the Son make you free, you 
shall be free indeed." — Gal. v. 1, 13, " Stand fast therefore in 
the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free. Only use 
not your liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve 
one another." — Chap. vi. 16, "And as many as walk according 
to this rule, peace be upon them, and mercy, and upon the 
Israel of God."— Matt. xi. 25, " I thank thee, O Father, Lord 
of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from 
the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to babes." — 
1 Cor. XV. 10, " I laboured more abundantly than they all, yet 
not I, but the grace of God that was with me." — Psalm xxxvi. 
11, "Let not the foot of pride come against me." 



THE 

MARROW 

OF 

MODERN DIVINITY. 

PART SECOND. 

" We know that the law ia good, if a man use it lawfully, " 1 Tim, i. 8. 

(263) 



TO 
THE EIGHT HON. JOHN WARNEK, 

LORD MAYOR OF THE MOST RENOWNED CITY OF LONDON. 

E. F. wisheth a most plentiful increase of spiritual wisdom, and all 
necessary graces for the discharge of his duty, to the glory of 
God, and the good of his people. 

Right Honourable, 

The rod of God's judgments hath been now long upon us, 
which we by our manifold sins have procured, according as it is said concern- 
ing Jerusalem, Jer. iv. 18, " Thy way and thy doings have procured these 
things unto thee." And have wo any just ground to hope, that till the cause 
be taken away, the effect will cease ? Can we expect that the Lord will turn 
away his judgments, till we turn away from our sins ? And can we turn away 
from our sins before we know them ? And can we come to know our sins any 
otherwise than by the law ? Doth not one apostle say, that " sin is the trans- 
gression of the law?" 1 John iii. 4. And doth not another apostle therefore 
say, that " by the law is the knowledge of sin ?" Rom. iii. 20. Surely, then, 
a treatise, wherein is shown what is required, and what is forbidden, in every 
commandment of the law, and so consequently what is sin, must needs be for 
this cause, and at this time, very seasonable. But yet, alas ! that although 
there be ever so many treatises written, or ever so many sermons preached 
upon this subject, yet do they either remain wilfully ignorant of their sins, or 
else, though they know them, they will not forego them, but rather choose wil- 
fully to w^allow on in the mire of iniquity, so sweet and dear are their sins unto 
them. But what, then, must they be suffered to go on without restraint ? No ; 
God forbid. Such persons as the law and love of God will not constrain, such 
must the execution of justice restrain ; upon such must the penalty of the laws 
of the land, being grounded upon God's laws, be by the civil magistrate in- 
flicted. And for this cause it is that the king is required, " when he sitteth 
upon the throne of his kingdom, to write him a copy of the law of God in a book," 
Deut. xvii. 18. And for this cause it is that the civil magistrate is called " the 
keeper of both tables ;" for says Luther, on Galatians, p. 151, " God hath or- 
dained magistrates, and other superiors, and appointed laws, bounds, and all 
civil ordinances, that if they can do no more, yet at least they may bind the 
devil's hands, that he rage not in his bond slaves after his own lusts." And 
hence it is that the apostle, speaking of the civil magistrate, says, " If thou do 
that which is evil, be afraid, for he beareth not the sword in vain," Rom. xiii. 
23 (265) 



266 DEDICATION. 

4. Wherefore, Right Honourable, God having called you to wield the sword of 
authority in the most famous city of this kingdom, I, a poor inhabitant thereof, 
the author of the ensuing Dialogue, have, through the advice and persuasion 
of some godly ministers, and through the consideration of the suitableness of 
the subject with our place, been moved to take the boldness to offer this work 
to your worthy name and patronage ; not that I do conceive your Honour is 
ignorant of your duty, nor yet that I see you to neglect your duty, for your 
Christian integrity in your place, and your zealous forwardness to reform things 
amiss, by punishing of evil doers, doth to me witness the contrary ; but rather 
to encourage your Honour to continue your godly course in the ways of well- 
doing, and to advance forward in paths of piety, being more swift in your 
motion now towards the end of your race — your year I mean, that so your 
Master, Christ, may have cause to say concerning you, as he once did concerning 
the church of Thyatira, " I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, 
and thy patience, and thy works ; and the last to be more than the first," Rev. ii. 
19. Yea, and that it also may be said concerning you, " Well done, thou good 
and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee 
ruler over many things, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord," Matt. xxv. 21. 

And so most huxably begging of your Honour tliat these my poor labours 
may be accepted, and that under your Honour's name, they may go forth into 
the world, and praying the Lord of power, and the God of all grace, to mul- 
tiply his Spirit upon your Honour, with all the blessed fruits of the same, I 
take my leave, and rest your Honour's most humble servant to be commanded, 

E. F. 



THE AUTHOR TO THE WELL-AFFECTED READER. 

Good Reader : 

I DO confess there are so many godly and learned expositions upon 
the ten commandments already extant, that it may seem needless to add any 
more unto that number. Nevertheless, I pray thee, do not think it impossible 
but that God may, by such a weak instrument as I myself am, show his power 
in doing something more, touching this subject, than hath yet been done. I do 
confess, I have had good helps from the labours of others, and have made much 
use thereof, especially for matter, yet have I not confined my discourse within 
the compass of what I have found in other books, but have, from the warrant 
of the word of God, taken the boldness to enlarge it, both as touching the 
matter and manner, and especially touching the application, wherein I have en- 
deavoured to give both believers and unbelievers their distinct proportion, by 
distinguishing betwixt the ten commandments, as they are the law of works, 
having the promise of eternal life, and the threatening of eternal death annexed 
to them, and so applying them to the unbeliever ; and as they are the law of 
Christ, having the promise of eternal life, and the threatening of eternal death 
separated from them, and so applying them to the believer. I have not denied, 
but acknowledged, yea, and proved, that the law of the ten commandments, 
truly expounded, is to be a perpetual rule of life to all mankind, yea, to be- 
lievers themselves ; for though the Spirit of Jesus Christ do, according to his 
promise, write this law in their hearts, as their inward rule, yet, in regard that 
whilst they live in this world, it is done but in part, they have need of the ten 
commandments to be unto them as an outward rule : for though the Spirit have 
begotten in them a love to this law, and wrought in them a willing disposition 
to yield obedience thereunto, yet have they need of the law to be unto them as 
a glass, wherein they may see what the will of God is, and as a rule to direct 
them how to actuate their love and willingness, so that, as a precious godly 
minister of Jesus Christ truly says, the Spirit within, and the law without, " is 
a lamp unto their feet, and a light unto their path," Psalm cxix. 105. 

But yet I do conceive, that expositors on the commandments should not only 
endeavour to drive on their designs to that end, and there terminate their en- 
deavours, as if there were no further use to be made of the law, neither in be- 
lievers nor in unbelievers ; but they should aim at a further end — an end beyond 
this, especially in unbelievers, and that is to discover to them how far short they 
come of doing that which the law requireth, that so they may not take up their 
rest in themselves, but hasten out of themselves to Jesus Christ ; and that be- 
lievers, by beholding their own imperfections, should take occasion to humble 
themselves, and cleave the more close unto him by faith. 

(267) 



268 THE AUTHOR TO THE READER. 

For when, by way of exposition, it is only declared what is required, and 
what is forbidden in every commandment, with exhortations, motives, and means 
to do thereafter, it has been observed that divers both profane and mere civil 
honest people, upon the hearing or reading of the same, have concluded with them- 
selves, that they must either alter their course of life, and strive and endeavour to 
do more than they have done, and better than they have done, or else they shall 
never be saved ; and hereupon they have taken up a form of godliness, in hear- 
ing, reading, and praying, and the like, and so have become formal professors, 
and therein have rested, coming far short of Jesus Christ, yea, and believers 
themselves have sometimes taken occasion thereby, to conceive that they must 
do something towards their own justification and salvation. 

Wherefore I, yet not I by any power of my own, but by the grace of God 
that is with me, have endeavoured not only to show what is required, and what 
is forbidden in every commandment, but also that it is impossible for any man, 
whether he be an unbeliever or a believer, to keep any one commandment per- 
fectly, yea, or to do any one action or duty perfectly, that so by the working 
of God's Spirit in the reading of the same, men may be moved ; not only to 
turn from being profane, or mere civil honest men, to be formal professors, but that 
they may be driven out of all their own works and performances unto Jesus 
Christ, and so become Christians indeed, and that those who are Christiana 
indeed, may thereby be moved to prize Jesus Christ the more ; and if the Lord 
shall but be pleased to enable either myself or any other man or woman, to 
make this use of this ensuing Dialogue, then shall not my labour be in vain : 
but my heart's desire and prayer to God shall be, that many may receive as 
much good by the " Marrow" which is contained in this second bone, as they 
say they have done by that which is contained in the first ; that so God may 
be glorified and their souls edified, and then have I my reward. Only let me 
beg ot thee, that for what good thou receivest thereby, thou wilt beg at the 
throne of grace for me, that my faith may be increased, and so my love inflamed 
towards God, and towards man for God's sake, and then I am sure I shall 
keep the law more perfectly than I have yet done. The which that we may all 
do, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with all our spirits. Amen. 

Thine in the Lord Jesus Christ, 

" September 21, 1648. E. F. 



PART SECOND. 



EvANGELisTA, a Minister of the Gospel. 
NoMOLOGisTA, a Prattler of the Law. 
Neopuytus, a Young Christian. 

Neo. Sir, here is our neighbour Nomologista, who, as I sup- 
pose, is much mistaken, as touching a point that he and I have 
had some conference about; and because I found you so ready 
and willing to inform and instruct me, when I came to you 
with my neighbours Nomista and Antinomista, I have pre- 
sumed to entreat him to come along with me to you : assuring 
both myself and him, that we shall be welcome to you, and 
that you will make it appear he is deceived. 

Evan. You are both of you very kindly welcome to me, 
and as I have been willing to give you the best instruction, 
when you were formerly with me, even so, God willing, shall 
I be now ; wherefore, I pray you, let me understand what the 
point is, wherein you do conceive he is mistaken. 

Neo. Why, sir, this is the thing : he tells me he is persuaded 
that he goes very near the perfect fulfilling of the law of God ; 
but I cannot be persuaded to it. 

Evan. What say you, neighbour Nomologista, are you so 
persuaded ? 

Nom. I. Yea, indeed sir, I am so persuaded ; for whereas 
you know the first commandment is, "I am the Lord thy God, 
thou shalt have none other God before my face," I am confi- 
dent I have the only true God for my God, and none other. 

II. And whereas, the second commandment is, " Thou shalt 
not make to thyself any graven image," &c. I tell you truly, I 
do defy all graven images, and do count it a great folly in any 
man, either to make them, or worship them. 

III. And whereas, the third commandment is, " Thou shalt 
not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain," it is well 
known that I am no swearer, neither can I abide to hear others 
swear by the name of God. 

lY. And whereas, the fourth commandment is, " Eemember 
23 * ( -^^ ) 



270 THE MARROW OF 

that thou keep holy the Sabbath-day," I am sure I do very 
seldom either work or travel on that day ; but do go to the 
church both forenoon and afternoon ; and do both read, and 
hear the word of God read, when I come home. 

Y. And whereas, the fifth commandment is, " Honour thy 
father and mother," &c., I thank God I was very careful to do 
my duty to my parents when I was a child. 

YI. And whereas, the sixth commandment is, " Thou shalt 
not kill," 1 thank God, I never yet murdered either man, 
woman or child ; and I hope I never shall. 

YII. And whereas, the seventh commandment is, "Thou 
shalt not commit adultery," I thank God I was never given 
to women, God has hitherto kept me from committing that 
sin, and so I hope he will do whilst I live. 

YIII. And whereas, the eighth commandment is, " Thou 
shalt not steal," I do not remember that ever I took the worth 
of twelve pence of any man's goods in all my life. 

IX. And whereas, the ninth commandment is, " Thou shalt 
not bear false witness against thy neighbour," I thank God, I 
do abhor that sin, and was never guilty of it in all my life. 

X. And whereas, the tenth commandment is, " Thou shalt 
not covet," I thank God, I never coveted anything but what 
was mine own, in all my life. 

Evan. Alas ! neighbour Nomologista, the commandments 
of God have a larger extent than it seems you are aware of; 
for it seems you do imagine that the whole moral law is con- 
fined within the compass of what you have now repeated ; as 
though there were no more required or forbidden, than what 
is expressed in the words of the ten commandments ; as though 
God required no more but the bare external, or actual per- 
formance of a duty : and as though he forbid no more than 
the bare abstinence and gross acting of sin. The very same 
conceit of the law of God, the Scribes and Pharisees had; and, 
therefore it is no marvel though you imagine you keep all the 
commandments even as they did. 

Nom. Well, sir, if I have been deceived, you may do well 
to instruct me better. 

Evan. I shall endeavour to do it with all my heart, as the 
Lord shall be pleased to enable me. And because I begin to 
fear that it is not your case alone to be thus ignorant of the 
large extent, and the true sense and meaning of the law of 
God, I also begin to blame myself for that I have not taken 
occasion to expound the commandments in my public ministry, 
since I came amongst you ; and, therefore, do I now resolve, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 271 

by the help of God, very speedily to fall about that work ; and 
I hope I shall then make it appear unto you that the ten com- 
mandments are but an epitome or an abridgment of the law of 
God, and that the full exposition thereof is to be found in tlie 
books of the prophets and apostles, called the Old and New 
Testament. 

Neo. Indeed, sir, I have told him that we must not stick 
upon the bars words of any of the ten commandments, nor rest 
satisfied with the bare literal sense, but labour to find out the 
full exposition and true spiritual meaning of every one of them, 
according to other places of Scripture. 

Evan. If you told him so, you told him that which is most 
true ; for he that would truly understand and expound the 
commandments must do it according to these six rules. 

First^ He must consider that every commandment has both 
a negative and affirmative part contained in it ; that is to say, 
where any evil is forbidden, the contrary good is commanded ; 
and where any good is commanded, the contrary evil is for- 
biden ; for, says Ursinus's Catechism, page 329, " The lawgiver 
does in an affirmative commandment comprehend the negative ; 
and contrariwise, in a negative he comprehends the affirma- 
tive." 

Secondly^ He must consider that under one good action 
commanded, or one evil action forbidden, all of the same kind 
or nature are comprehended, yea, all occasions and means 
leading thereunto; according to the saying of judicious Virel, 
"The Lord minding to forbid divers evils of the same kind, 
he comprehendeth them under the name of the greatest." 

Thirdly^ He must consider that the law of God is spiritual, 
reaching to the very heart or soul, and all the powers thereof, 
for it charges the understanding to know the will of God ; it 
charges the memory to retain, and the will to choose the better, 
and to leave the worse ; it charges the affections to love the 
things that are to be loved, and to hate the things that are to 
be hated, and so binds all the powers of the soul to obedience, 
as well as the words, thoughts, and gestures. 

Fourthly^ He must consider, that the law of God must not 
only be the rule of our obedience, but it must also be the rea- 
son of it ; we must not only do that which is there commanded, 
and avoid that which is there forbidden, but we must also do 
the good, because the Lord requires it, and avoid the evil, be- 
cause the Lord forbids it; yea, and we must do all that is deli- 
vered and prescribed in the law, for the love we bear to God, 



272 THE MARROW OF 

the love of God must be the fountain, the impulsive, and 
efi&cient cause of all our obedience to the law. 

Fifthly^ He must consider, that as our obedience to the law 
must arise from a right fountain, so must it be directed to a 
right end, and that is, that God alone may be glorified by us ; 
for otherwise it is not the worship of God, but hypocrisy, says 
Ursinus's Catechism ; so that according to the saying of 
another godly writer, the final cause or end of all our obe- 
dience must be, God's glory, 1 Cor. x. 13 ; or, which is all 
one, that we may please him, for in seeking to please God, 
we glorify him, and these two things are always co-incident. 

Sixthly^ He must consider, that the Lord does not only 
take notice of what we do in obedience to this law, but also 
after what manner we do it ; and therefore we must be careful 
to do all our actions after a right manner, viz : humbly, rever- 
ently, willingly, and zealously. 

Neo. I beseech you, sir, if you can spare so much time, 
let us have some brief exposition of some, if not all the ten 
commandments before we go hence, according to these rules. 

Evan. What say you, neighbour Nomologista, do you desire 
the same ? 

Nom. Yea, sir, with all my heart, if you please. 

Evan. Well, then, although my occasions at this time might 
justly plead excuse for me ; yet, seeing that you do both of 
you desire it, I will for the present dispense with all my other 
business, and endeavour to accomplish your desires, according 
as the Lord shall be pleased to enable me : and therefore, I 
pray you understand and consider. That in the first command- 
ment there is a negative part expressed in these words : " Thou 
shalt have none other gods before my face." And an affirma- 
tive part included in these words: "But thou shalt have me 
only for thy God ;" for if we must have none other for our 
God, it implies strongly, that we must have the Lord for our 
God. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, begin with the affirmative part, and 
first tell us what the Lord requireth of us in this command- 
ment. 

COMMANDMENT I. 

Evan. In this first commandment, " The Lord requireth 
the duty of our hearts or souls," Prov. xxiii. 26 ; that is to 
say, of our understandings, wills, and affections, and the effects 
of them. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 273 

Neo. And what is the duty of our understandings ? 

Evan. The duty of our understandings is to know God, 2 
Chron. xxviii. 9. Now the end of knowledge is but the ful- 
ness of persuasion, even a settled belief, which is called faith, 
so that the duty of our understandings is, so to know God, as 
to believe him to be according as he has revealed himself to 
us in his word and works, Heb. xi. 6. 

Neo. And how has the Lord revealed himself to us in his 
word? 

Evan. Why, he has revealed himself to be " most wise," 
Eom. xvi. 27 ; " most mighty," Deut. vii. 21 ; " most true," 
Deut. xxxii. 4 ; " most just," Neh. ix. 33 ; and " most merci- 
ful," Psalm cxlv. 8. 

Neo. And how has he revealed himself to us in his works ? 

Evan. He has revealed himself in his works to be " the 
Creator of all things," Exod. xx. 11 ; and " the Preserver of 
all things," Psalm xxvi. 6 ; and " the Governor of all things," 
Psalm cxxxv. 6 ; and " the Giver of every good gift, James 
i. 17. 

Neo. And how must our knowledge of God, and our belief 
in him, be expressed by their effects ? 

Evan. We must express, that we know and believe God to 
be according as he has revealed himself in his word and works, 
by our remembering and acknowledging him whensoever there 
is occasion for us so to do. 

As, for example ; when we read or hear those judgments 
that the Lord in his word has threatened to bring upon us for 
our sins, Deut. xxviii. 16, we are to express that we do re- 
member and acknowledge him to be most mighty, true, and 
just, by our fearing and trembling thereat. Psalm cxix. 120 ; 
Hab. iii. 16. And when we read or hear of blessings, that 
the Lord in his word has promised to bestow upon us for our 
obedience, Deut. xxviii. 2, then we are to express, that we do 
remember and acknowledge him to be most true, and merciful, 
by our obedience unto him, and by our trusting in him, and 
relying upon him. Gen. xxxii. 9. And when we behold the 
excellent frame of heaven and earth, and the creatures con- 
tained therein, then we are to express, that we do remember 
and acknowledge the Lord to be the Creator and Maker of 
them all, by our praising and magnifying his name, Psalm cvi. 
5, and cxxxix. 14. And when the Lord does actually inflict 
any judgment upon us, then we are to express that we do re- 
member and acknowledge him to be the Governor of all 



274: THE MARROW OF 

things, and most mighty, wise, and just, by humbling ourselves 
under his mighty hand, 1 Pet. v. 6. And by judging our- 
selves worthy to be destroyed, for our iniquities, Ezek. xxxvi. 
31. And by bearing the punishment thereof. Lev. xxvi. 41, 
with willing, patient, contented submission to his will and 
pleasure. Psalm xxxix. 9. And when the Lord does actually 
bestow any blessing upon us, then we are to express, that we 
do remember, and acknowledge him to be the most merciful 
Giver of every good gift, by our humble acknowledging that 
we are unworthy of the least of his mercies. Gen. xxxii. 10 ; 
and " in giving him thanks for all things," 1 Thess. v. 18. 
And thus have I showed unto you what is the duty of our un- 
derstandings. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, let us, in the next place, hear what is 
the duty of our wills. 

Evan. The duty of our wills is to choose the Lord alone for 
our portion. Psalm xvi. 5, and cxix. 57. 

Neo. And how must we express that we have chosen the 
Lord for our portion ? 

Evan. " By our loving him with all our hearts, with all our 
souls, and with all our might," Deut. v. 6. 

Neo. And how must we express that we do thus love the 
Lord? 

Evan. We must express that we do thus love the Lord by 
the acting of our other affections, as by our desire of most 
near communion with him, Philip, i. 23, and by our delight- 
ing most in him, Psalm xxxvii. 4; and by our rejoicing 
most in him, Philip, iv. 4 ; and by our fearing most to offend 
him. Matt. x. 28 ; and by our sorrowing most for offending 
him, Luke xxii. 62 ; and by being most zealous against sin, 
and for the glory of God, Rev. iii. 19. And thus have I showed 
you what the Lord requires in the affirmative part of this com- 
mandment. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the negative part, and show 
us what the Lord forbids in this commandment. 

Evan. In this first commandment is forbidden, " ignorance 
of God," Jer. iv. 22 ; so also is unbelief, or doubting of the 
truth of God's word, Isa. vii. 9. And so also is the want of 
fearing the threatenings of God, Deut. xxviii. 58, and the 
fearing the threatenings of men, either more, or as much as the 
threatenings of God, Isa. li. 12, 13 ; and so also is the want of 
trusting unto or relying upon the promises of God, Luke xii. 
29, and the trusting or relying upon ourselves, men's promises, 
or any other thing, either more, or as much as we do upon 



MODERN DIVINITY. 275 

God, Jer. xvii. 5 ; Luke xii. 20. And so also is the want of 
acknowledging the hand of God, in the time of affliction, Isa. 
xxvi. 11 ; and acknowledging that the rod can smite without 
the hand of God, Job xix. 11 ; and so also is the want of 
humbling ourselves before the Lord, Daniel v. 22 ; and pride 
of heart. Pro v. xvi. 5. And so also is impatience and dis- 
contentedness under the chastising hand of God, Exod. xvii. 
2 ; and not returning unto him that smiteth us, Isa. ix. 13 ; 
and so also is our forgetfalness of God in not acknowledg- 
ing his merciful and bountiful hand in reaching forth all 
good things unto us in the time of prosperity, Psalm Ixxviii. 
11 ; Deut. xxxii. 18 ; and so also is our sacrificing to our 
own nets, Hab. i. 16, in ascribing the coming in of our riches 
to our own care, pains, and diligence in our callings, Deut. 
viii. 17 ; and so also is unthankfulness to the Lord for his 
mercies, Pom. i. 21 ; and so also is our want of love to God, 
1 Cor. xvi. 22 ; and our loving any creature either more than 
God, or equal with God, Matt. x. 87 ; and so also is our want 
of desiring his presence. Job xxi. 14 ; and our desiring the 
presence of any creature either more or so much as God, 
Prov. vi. 25 ; and so also is our want of rejoicing in God, 
Deut. xxviii. 47 ; and our rejoicing either more, or as much 
in anything as in God, Luke x. 20 ; and so also is our want 
of fearing to offend God, Jer. v. 22 ; and our fearing to offend 
any mortal man, either more or as much as to off'end God, 
Prov. xxix. 25 ; and so also is our want of sorrow and grief 
for offending God, 1 Cor. v. 2 ; and our sorrowing more, or 
as much, for any worldly loss or cross, as for our sinning 
against God, 1 Thess. iv. 15 ; and so also is our want of zeal, 
or our lukewarmness in the cause of God and his truth, Eev. 
iii. 16 ; and our corrupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal, Luke ix. 
55. And thus have I showed unto you what the Lord re- 
quires, and what he forbids in this commandment. And now, 
neighbor Nomologista, I pray you, tell me whether you think 
you keep it perfectly or no. 

Nom. Sir, before I tell you that, I pray you tell me how 
you prove that the Lord in this commandment requires all 
these duties, and forbids all these sins. 

Uvan. Firstj I know that the Lord in this commandment 
requires all these duties, because no man can truly have the 
Lord for his God, except he have chosen him for his portion ; 
and no man can truly choose the Lord for his portion, before 
he truly know him ; and he that does truly know God, does 
truly believe both his threatenings and his promises ; and he 



276 THE MARROW OF 

that does truly believe tlie Lord's threatenings, must needs 
fear and tremble at them ; and he that does believe the Lord's 
promises, must needs truly love him, for faith always produces 
and brings forth love ; and whosoever does truly love God, 
must needs desire near communion with him ; yea, and re- 
joice in communion with him ; yea, and fear to oftend him ; 
yea, and sorrow for offending him ; yea, and be zealous for 
his glory. 

Secondly^ I know that all these sins are forbidden in this 
commandment, because that whatsoever the mind, will, and 
affections of a man are set upon, or carried after, either more 
or as much as after God, that is another god unto him ; and 
therefore, if a man stand in fear of any creature, or fear the 
loss of any creature, either more than God, or equal with God, 
he makes that creature his god : and if he trust unto, and put 
confidence in any creature, either more than God, or equal 
with God, that creature is his god ; and hence it is that the 
covetous man is called an idolater, Eph. v. 5 ; for that he 
makes his gold his hope, and says to the fine gold, " Thou art 
my confidence," Job xxxi. 24. And if any man be proud of 
any good thing he has, and do not acknowledge God to be 
the free giver and bestower of the same, or if he be impatient 
and discontented under the Lord's correcting hand, he makes 
himself a god ; and if a man so love any creature as that he 
desires it being absent, or delights in it being present, either 
more than God, or equal with God, that creature is another 
god unto him. And hence it is, that voluptuous men are said 
to make their belly their god, Phil. iii. 19. In a word, what- 
soever the mind of man is carried after, or his heart and affec- 
tions set upon, either more, or as much as upon God, tbat he 
makes his god. And therefore we may undoubtedly conclude, 
that ail the sins before mentioned, are forbidden in this com- 
mandment. 

Nom. Then believe me, sir, I must confess that I come far 
short of keeping this commandment perfectly. 

Evan. Yea, and so we do all of us, I am confident ; for 
has not every one of us sometimes questioned in our hearts, 
whether there be a God or no ? And as touching the know- 
ledge of God, may we not all three of us truly say with the 
apostle, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, "We know in part?" And which of 
us has so feared and trembled at the threatenings of God, and 
at the shaking of his rod, as we ought ? Nay, have we not 
feared the frowns, threats, and power of some mortal man, 



MODERN DIVINITY. 277 

more than the frowns, threats, and power of God ? It is well 
if it have not appeared by our choosing to obey man rather 
than God : and which of us has so trusted unto, and relied 
upon the promises of God in time of need, as he ought ? nay, 
have we not rather trusted unto and relied upon men and 
means, than upon God? Has it not been manifested by our 
fearing of poverty, and want of outward things, when friends, 
trading, and means begin to fail us ; though God has said, " I 
will not fail thee, nor forsake thee ?" Heb. xiii. 5. And which 
of us has so humbled ourselves under the chastening and cor- 
recting hand of God as we ought : nay, have we not rather 
expressed abundance of pride, by our impatience and discon- 
tentedness, and want of submitting to the will of God ; and by 
our quarrelling and contending with his rod? And which of 
us has so acknowledged God in the time of prosperity, and 
been so thankful unto him for his blessings, as we ought ? 
Nay, have we not rather at such times forgotten God, and 
sacrificed to our own nets, saying in our hearts, if not also 
with our mouths, " I may thank mine own diligence, care, and 
pains-taking, or else it had not been with me as it is ?" And 
which of us hath so manifested our love to God, by our de- 
sire of near communion with him in his ordinances, and by our 
desire to be dissolved and to be with him, as we ought ? Nay, 
have we not rather expressed our great want of love to him, 
by our backwardness to prayer, reading, and hearing his word, 
and receiving the sacrament, and by our little delight therein, 
and by our unwillingness to die ? Nay, have we not manifested 
our greater love to the world, by our greater desires after the 
profits, pleasures, and honours of the world, and by our greater 
delight therein than in God? Or which of us have so mani- 
fested our love to God, by our sorrow and grief for offending 
him, as we ought? Nay, have we not rather manifested our 
greater love to the world, by our sorrowing and grieving more 
for some worldly loss or cross, than for offending God by our 
sins ? Or which of us have so manifested our love to God, by 
being so zealous for his glory as we ought ? Nay, have we not 
rather expressed greater love to ourselves, in being more hot 
and fiery in our own cause than in God's cause? And thus 
have I endeavoured to satisfy your desires concerning the first 
commandment. 

Neo, I beseech you, sir, proceed to do the like concerning 
the second commandment, and first tell us how the first and 
second commandments differ the one from the other. 
24 



278 THE MARROW OF 



COMMANDMENT II. 

Evan. Why, as the first commandment teaches us to have 
the true God for our God, and none other ; so the second com- 
mandment requireth that we worship this true God alone, 
with true worship : and in this commandment likewise, there 
is a negative part expressed in these words, " Thou shalt 
not make to thyself any graven image," &c. And an affirma- 
tive part included in these words, "But thou shalt worship me 
only and purely, according to my will, revealed in my word." 

Neo. I pray you then, sir, begin with the affirmative part, 
and tell us what be the means of God's worship, prescribed in 
his word. 

Evan. If we look into the word of God, we shall find that 
the ordinary means and parts of God's worship, are invoca- 
tions upon the name of God, ministry and hearing of the word 
of God, administration and receiving the sacraments, with all 
helps and furtherances to the right performance of the same. 

But to declare this more particularly. First of all, prayer 
both public and private is required in God's word, as you may 
see, 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; Acts ii. 21, 22 ; Daniel vi. 10. Secondly^ 
Eeading the word, or hearing it read, both publicly and pri- 
vately, is required in God's word, as you may see. Rev. i. 8 ; 
Deut. V. 6. Thirdly^ Preaching, and hearing of the word 
preached, is required in the word of God, as you may see, 
2 Kings iv. 2 ; 1 Thess. ii. 13. Fourthly^ The administration 
and receiving the sacrament is required in the word of God, 
as you may see, Matt. iii. 6, and xxvi. 26 ; 1 Cor. x. 16. 
Fifthly^ Praising of God, in singing of psalms, both publicly 
and privately, is required in the word of God, as you may see, 
Col. iii. 16 ; James v. 13. Sixthly^ Meditation on the word 
of God is required in the word of God, as you may see, 
Psalm i. 2 ; Acts xvii. 11. Seventhly^ Conference about the 
word of God is required in the word of God, as you may see, 
Mai. iii. 16. And, Lastly^ For the better fitting and stirring 
us up to the right performance of these duties, religious fast- 
ing, both in public and in private, is required in the word of 
God, as you may see, Joel i. 14, and ii. 15. And so also is a 
religious vow or free promise made to God, to perform some 
outward work, or bodily exercise for some end, as you mav 
see, Eccl. v. 3, 4. And thus have I shown you what be the 
means of God's worship which he has prescribed in his word. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 279 

Neo. I pray you, sir, then proceed to the negative part, 
and tell us what the Lord forbiddeth in this commandment. 

Evan. Well then, I pray you understand, that in this com- 
mandment is forbidden, neglecting of prayer, as you may see, 
Psalm xiv. 4. And so also is absenting ourselves from the 
hearing of the word preached, or any other ordinance of God, 
when the Lord calls us thereunto, as you may see, Luke xiv. 
18 — 20. And so also is our rejecting the sacrament of bap- 
tism, as you may see, Luke vii. 30. And so also is our slight- 
ing the sacrament of the Lord s Supper, as you may see, 2 
Chron. xxx. 10. And so also is the slighting and omitting any 
of the other forenamed duties, as you may see. Psalm x. 4 ; 
John iii. 31 ; Isa. xxii. 12 — 14. And so also is praying to 
saints and angels, as you may see, Isa. Ixiii. 16 ; Eev. kix. 10. 
And so also is the making of images for religious uses, as you 
may see. Lev. xix. 4. And so also is the representing God by 
an image, as you may see, Exod. xxxii. 8. 9. And so also are 
all carnal imaginations of God in his worship, as you may see, 
Acts xvii. 29. And so also is all will worship, or the worship- 
ping of God according to our own fancy, as you may see, 1 
Sam. ix. 10, 13 ; Col. ii. 23. And thus have I shown unto 
you both what the Lord requireth, and what he forbiddeth in 
this commandment, and now, neighbour Nomologista, I pray 
you, tell me whether you keep it perfectly or no. 

Nom. Yea, sir, I am persuaded that I go very near it. But, 
I pray you, sir, tell me how you prove that all these duties are 
required, and all these sins forbidden in this command- 
ment? 

Evan. For the proof of this, I pray you consider, that the 
worshipping of false gods is flatly forbidden in the negative 
part of this commandment, in these words, " Thou shalt not 
bow down thyself to them, nor serve, nor worship them," 
Exod. XX. 5. And the worshipping of the true God is im- 
plied and expressed in these words. Matt. iv. 10, "Thou 
shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou 
serve." 

Nom. But sir, how do you prove that these duties which you 
have named are parts of God's worship ? 

Evan. For answer hereunto, I pray you consider, that to 
worship God, is to tender up that homage and respect that is 
due from a creature to a Creator; now, in prayer we are said 
to tender up this homage unto him, and to manifest our pro- 
fession of dependence upon him for all the good we have, and 
acknowledge him to be the Autlior of all good ; and indeed 



280 THE MARROW OF 

prayer is such a great part of God's worship, that sometimes, 
in Scripture, it is put for the whole worship of Grod. " He 
that calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved," Eom. x. 
13 ; that is, he that worships God aright : Jer. x. 25, " Pour 
out thy wrath upon the heathen that know thee not, and on 
the families that call not upon thy name," that do not pray, 
that do not worship God. 

And that hearing the word is a part of God's worship is 
manifest; because that in hearing we do manifest our depend- 
ence upon God, for knowing his mind, and the way to eternal 
life, every time we come to hear the word of God, if we know 
what we do, we do thus much, we profess that we depend upon 
the Lord God for the knowing of his mind, and the way and 
rule to eternal life ; and besides, herein we also come to wait 
upon God in the way of ordinance, to have that good conveyed 
unto us by way of an ordinance, beyond what the thing itself 
is able to do, and therefore this is worship. And that the re- 
ceiving the sacrament is a part of God's worship, is manifest, 
in that when we come to receive these holy signs and seals, we 
come to present ourselves before God, and come to God for a 
blessing, in communicating unto us some higher good than 
possibly those creatures that we have to deal with, are able of 
themselves to convey to us ; we come to God to have commu- 
nion with him, and that we might have the blessing of the cove- 
nant of grace conveyed unto us through these things : and 
therefore when we come to be exercised in them, we come to 
worship God. The like we might say of the rest of the duties 
before mentioned, but I hope this may suffice to satisfy you 
that they are parts of God's worship. 

N@m. But, sir, you know that in this commandment there is 
nothing expressly forbidden but the making and worshipping 
of images, and therefore I question whether all those other 
sins that you have named be likewise forbidden. 

Evan. But you must know, that when the Lord condemneth 
the chief, or greatest and most evident kind of false worship, 
namely, the worship of God at, or by images, it is manifest 
that he forbids also the other kinds of false worship, see- 
ing this is the head and fountain of all the rest; where- 
fore, whatsoever worships are instituted by men or do any way 
hinder God's true worship, they are contrary to this command- 
ment. 

Nom. Well, sir, though that these things be so, yet for 
all that, I am persuaded I go very near the keeping of this 



MODERN DIVINITY. 281 

commandment ; for I do constantly perform tlie most of these 
duties, and am not guilty of doing the contrary. 

Evan. But thou must know, that for the worshipping of 
God aright, it is not only required that we do the good which 
he commands, and avoid the evil which he forbids, but 
also, that we do it in obedience to God, to show that we ac- 
knowledge him alone to be the true God, who has willed 
this worship to be thus done unto him ; so that, as I told 
you before, the word of God must not only be the rule of our 
actions, but also the reason of them : we must do all things 
which are delivered and prescribed in the ten commandments, 
even for the love we bear to God, and for the desire we have 
to worship him : for except we so do them, we do them 
not according to the sentence and prescript of the law, neither 
do we please God therein. Wherefore though you have 
prayed and heard the word of God, and received the sa- 
crament, and done all the rest of the forenamed duties, yea, 
and though you have not done the contrary, yet if all this 
has been either because the laws of the kingdom require 
it, or in mere obedience to any superior, or to gain the 
praise and esteem of men, or if you have any way made 
yourself your highest end, you have not obeyed nor worship- 
ped God therein; for, says a judicious writer, "If any man 
shall observe these things in mere obedience to the king's 
laws, or thereby to please holy men, and not through an 
immediate reverence of that heavenly Majesty who has com- 
manded them, that man's obedience is non-obedience ; his 
keeping these laws is no keeping them ;" because the main 
thing here intended is neglected, which is the setting up 
God in his heart; and that which is most of all abhorred 
is practised, viz: the "fear of God taught by the precepts 
of men," Isa. xxix. 13. And to this purpose that worthy 
man of God has this saying, "Take heed, says he, that the 
praises of men be not the highest end that thou aimest at ; 
for if it be, thou worshippest men, thou dost make the praise 
of men to be thy god; for whatsoever thou dost lift up in the 
highest place, that is thy god, whatsoever it be ; wherefore, 
if thou liftest up the praise of men, and makest that thy end, 
thou makest that thy god, and so thou art a worshipper of 
men, but not a worshipper of God." (Mayer's Catechism.) 

Again, says he, " Take heed of making self thy end. That 
is, take heed of aiming at thine own peace, and satisfying 
thine own conscience in the performance of duties." It Ib 
24* 



282 THE MARROW OF 

true, says he, when we perform duties of God's worship, we 
may be encouraged thereunto by the expectations of good 
to ourselves, yet we must look higher, we must look at the 
honour and praise of God ; it is not enough to do it merely 
to satisfy conscience ; thy main end must be, that thou niayest, 
by the performance of the duty, be fitted to honour the name 
of God, otherwise we do them not for God but for ourselves, 
which the Lord condemns, Zech. vii. 5, 6. And now, neigh- 
bour Nomologista, I pray you, let me ask you once again, 
whether you think you keep this commandment perfectly 
or no. 

Nom. Ko, believe me, sir, I do now begin to fear I do 
not. 

Evan. If you make any question of it, I would entreat you 
to consider with yourself, whether you have not gone to the 
church on the Lord's day to hear the word of God, and to 
receive the sacrament, and do other duties, because the laws 
of the kingdom require it, or because your parents or masters 
have required it, or because it is a custom to do so, or, be- 
cause you conceive it to be a credit for you to do so. And 
I pray you also to consider, whether you have not abstained 
from worshipping of images, and other such idolatrous and 
superstitious actions which the Papists use, merely because 
the laws of the land wherein you live do condemn such 
things. And I pray you also consider whether you have not 
been sometimes zealous in prayer in the presence and com- 
pany of others, to gain their praise and approbation ; have 
you not desired that they should think you to be a man of 
good gifts and parts? And have you not in that regard 
endeavoured to enlarge yourself? And have you not some- 
times performed duties merely because otherwise conscience 
would not let you be quiet ? And have you not sometimes 
fasted and prayed, and humbled yourself, merely or chiefly 
in hopes that the Lord would, for your so doing, prevent or 
remove some judgment from you, or grant you some good 
thing which you desire? Now, I beseech you, answer me 
truly and plainly, whether you do not think you have done 
so. 

Nom. Yea, believe me, sir, I think I have. 

Evan. Then have you in all these things honoured and 
worshipped your parents, your masters, your magistrates, your 
neighbours, your friends, and yourself, as so many false 
gods, instead of the true God ; and therein have been guilty 
of a breach of the second commandment. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 283 

iVeo. I pray you, sir, proceed to speak of the third com- 
mandment, as you have done of the first and second ; and first, 
tell us how the second and third commandments difier. 



COMMANDMENT III. 

Evan. Why, as the Lord in the second commandment 
doth require that we worship him alone by true means, so 
does he in the third commandment require that we use the 
means of his worship after a right manner, that so they may 
not be used in vain. Matt. xv. 9. And in this commandment 
likewise, there is a negative part expressed in these words, 
"Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain." 
And that is, thou shalt not profane it, by using my titles, 
attributes, ordinances, works, ignorantly*^ irreverently, or 
after a formal, superstitious manner. And an affirmative 
part, included in these words, " But thou shalt sanctify my 
name," Isa. viii. 13 ; by using my titles, attributes, ordinances, 
works, and religion, with knowledge, reverence, and after a 
spiritual manner, John iv. 24. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, begin with the affirmative part, and 
first tell us what the Lord requires in this commandment. 

Evan. The Lord in this commandment doth require, that 
we sanctify his name in our hearts, with our tongues, and in 
our lives, by thinking, conceiving, speaking, writing, and 
walking, so as becomes the excellency of his titles, attributes, 
ordinances, works, and religion. 

Neo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord in 
regard to his titles ? 

Evan. By thinking, conceiving, speaking, and writing holily, 
reverently, and spiritually of his titles. Lord and God, 
Deut. xxviii. 58. And this we do when we meditate on them, 
and use them in our speeches and writings with an inward 
spiritual fear and trembling, to the glory of God and good of 
men, Jer. v. 22. 

Neo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord, in 
regard of his attributes? 

Evan.J^y thinking, conceiving, speaking, and writing holily, 
reverently, and spiritually of his power, wisdom, justice, mer- 
cy, and patience, Psalm civ. 1, and ciii. 6, 8. And this we do 
when we think, speak, and write of them after a careful, re- 
verent, and spiritual manner, and apply them to such good uses 
for which the Lord has made them known, Psalm xxxvii. 30. 



284 THE MARROW OF 

Neo. And in which of God's ordinances are we to sanctify 
his name ? 

Evan. In every one of his ordinances, and especially in the 
three great ordinances, prayer, preaching, and hearing the 
word, and administering and receiving the sacraments. 

Neo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord in 
prayer ? 

Evan. In prayer we are to sanctify the name of the Lord 
in our hearts, and with our tongues, in calling upon his name 
after a holy, reverent, and spiritual manner ; and this we do 
when our prayers are the speech of our souls, and not of our 
mouths only ; and thai is, when in prayer we lift up our 
hearts unto God, Psalm xxv. 1 ; and pour them out unto him, 
Psalm Ixii. 8 ; and when we pray with spirit, and with un- 
derstanding also, 1 Cor, xiv. 15 ; and with humility. Gen. xviii. 
2T, and xxxii. 10 ; Luke xviii. 13 ; and with fervency of 
spirit, James v. 16; and out of a sense of our own wants, 
James i. 5; and with a special faith in the promises of God, 
Matt. xxi. 22. 

Neo. And how are you ministers to sanctify the name of 
the Lord in preaching his word ? 

Evan. We are to sanctify the name of the Lord in our 
hearts, and with our tongues, in preaching after a holy, re- 
verent, and spiritual manner ; and this we do when the word 
is preached, not only outwardly, by the body, but also 
inwardly with the heart and soul : when the heart and soul 
preaches, then is the ministry of the word, on the minister's 
part, used after an holy and spiritual manner, and that is, 
when we preach in demonstration of the Spirit, 1 Cor. ii. 4; 
and in sincerity, 2 Cor. ii. 17 ; and faithfully without respect 
of persons, Deut. xxxiii. 9 ; and with judgment and discre- 
tion, Matt. xxiv. 49 ; and with authority and power, Matt. 
vii. 29 ; and with zeal to God's glory, John vii. 18 ; and with 
a desire of the people's salvation, 2 Cor. xi. 2. 

Neo. And how are we hearers to sanctify the name of the 
Lord in hearing his word? 

Evan. In hearing it after an holy, reverent, and spiritual 
manner; and this you do when your heart and soul hears the 
word of God ; and that is when you set yourselves in the 
presence of God. Acts x. 33 ; and when you look upon the 
minister as God's messenger or ambassador, 2 Cor. v. 20, 
and so hear the word as the word of God, and not as the 
word of man, 1 Thess. ii. 13 ; with reverence and fear, 



MODERN" DIVINITY. 285 

Isa. Ixvi. 2 ; and with a ready desire to learn, Acts xvii. 11 • 
and with attention, Acts viii. 6 ; and with alacrity, without 
wearisomeness or sleepiness, Acts xx. 9. 

Neo. And how are you ministers to sanctify the name of 
the Lord in administering the sacraments ? 

Evan. By administering them after an holy, reverent, and 
spiritual manner ; and that is, when we administer them with 
our hearts or souls, according to Christ's institution, Matt, 
xxvi. 26 ; to the faithful in profession at least, 1 Cor. x. 
16 ; and with a hearty desire that may become profitable to 
the receivers. 

iVeo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord in 
receiving the sacraments? 

Evan. This we do when we rightly and seriously examine 
ourselves aforehand, 1 Cor. xi ; and rightly and seriously 
mind and consider of the sacramental union of the sign, and 
the thing signified, and do in our hearts perform those inward 
actions which are signified by the outward actions. Acts viii. 
87, 38 ; 1 Cor. x. 6. 

Neo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord in 
regard of his works ? 

Evan. In thinking and speaking of them after a wise, re- 
verent, and spiritual manner ; and this we do when we medi- 
tate and make mention, in our speeches and writings, of the 
inward works of God's eternal election and reprobation, 
with wonderful admiration of the unsearchable depths thereof, 
Rom. xi. 33, 34 ; and when we meditate in our hearts of the 
works of God's creation and administration, and make men- 
tion of them in our words and writings, so as that we acknow- 
ledge therein his wisdom, power, and goodness, Rom. i. 19, 
20; Psalm xix. 1 ; and acknowledging the workmanship of 
God therein, do speak honourably of the same, Psalm cxxxix. 
14 ; Gen. i. 31. 

Neo. And how are we to sanctify the name of the Lord in 
regard of his religion ? 

Evan. By holy profession of his true religion, and a con- 
versation answerable thereunto, to the glory of God, the good 
of ourselves and others. Matt. v. 16 ; 1 Pet. ii. 12. 

Neo. And, sir, are we not also to sanctify the name of God 
by swearing thereby ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, that was well remembered; we are to 
sanctify the name of the Lord in our hearts, and with our 
tongues in swearing thereby, after a holy, religious, and spi- 



286 THE MAEROW OF 

ritual manner ; and this we do when the magistrate requires 
an oath of us by the order of justice, that is, not against piety 
or charity, Gen. xliii. 3 ; 1 Sam. xxiv. 21, 22 ; and when we 
swear in truth, Jer. iv. 2 ; that is, when we are persuaded in 
our conscience the thing we swear is truth, and swear simply 
and plainly, without fraud or deceit, Psalm xv. 4, and xxiv. 4 ; 
and when we swear in judgment, that is, when we swear with 
deliberation, well considering both the nature and greatness 
of an oath, viz : that God is thereby called to witness the 
truth, and judge and punish us if we swear falsely. Gal. i. 20 ; 
2 Cor. i. 23 ; and when we swear in righteousness, that is, 
when the thing we swear is lawful and just, and when our 
swearing is, that God may be glorified, Joshua vii. 19 ; our 
neighbour satisfied, controversies ended, Heb. vi. 16 ; our own 
innocency cleared, Exod. xxii. 11 ; and our duty discharged, 1 
Kings viii. 31. 

Neo. Well, sir, now I pray you, proceed to the negative 
part, and tell us what the Lord forbiddeth in this command- 
ment. 

Evan. As the Lord in the affirmative part of this com- 
mandment doth require that we sanctify his name in our 
hearts, with our tongues, and in our lives, by thinking, con- 
ceiving, speaking, writing, and walking, so as becomes the 
excellency of his titles, attributes, ordinances, and religion ; 
so doth he in the negative part thereof forbid the profanation 
of his name, by doing the contrary. 

Neo. AVell then, sir, I pray you first tell us how the titles 
of God are profanely abused. 

Evan. They are profanely abused divers ways ; as first, by 
thinking irreverently of them, or using them in our common 
talk, or in our writings, after a rash, careless and irreverent 
manner. Psalm 1. 22 ; Eom. i. 21 ; as when in foolish admira- 
tion we say, Good God ! Good Lord ! Lord have mercy on us, 
what a thing is this? and the like; or when by the way of 
idle wishes or imprecations we say, " The Lord be my 
judge !" Gen. xvi. 5 ; or, I pray God I may never stir, if 
such a thing be not so, and the like ; or when by way of 
vain swearing, we mingle our speeches, and fill up our sen- 
tences with needless oaths, as. Not so, by my faith ! and 
the like. Matt. v. 34 ; James v. 12 ; or when by way of 
jesting, or after a formal manner we say, God be thanked, 
God speed, God's name be praised, and the like, 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 21. 



MODERlSr DIVINITY. 287 

Neo. And I pray you, sir, how are the attributes of God pro- 
fanely abused ? 

Evan. The attribute of God's power is profanely abused, 
either by calling it into question, 2 Kings vii. 2, or by thinkin"-, 
speaking, or writing of it carnally, carelessly, or contemptu- 
ously. Psalm xii. 4; Exod. v. 2. And the attribute of God's 
providence is abused either by murmuring thereat in our 
hearts, Deut. xv. 9, or by speaking grudgingly against it under 
the name of fortune or chance, in saying. What a misfortune 
was this ! What a mischance was that ! and the like. Deut. 
i. 27 ; 1 Sam. vi. 9. And the attribute of God's justice is pro- 
fanely abused, either by thinking or saying, that God likes sin 
or wicked sinners. Psalm 1. 21; Mai. iii. 15. And the attri- 
bute of God's mercy is profanely abused, either in presuming 
to sin, upon hopes that God will be merciful, or by speaking 
basely and contemptuously thereof, as when we say, speaking 
of some trifling thing. It is not worth God-a-mercy. And 
the attribute of God's patience is profanely abused by thinking 
or saying upon occasion of his forbearance to punish for a 
time, that he will neither call us to an account, nor punish us 
for our sins. Eora. ii. 4. 

Neo. Now, sir, I pray you proceed to show how God's name 
is profanely abused in his ordinances ; and first of all begin 
with prayer. 

Evayi. God's name is profanely abused in prayer, either by 
praying ignorantly, without the true knowledge of God and 
his will. Acts xvii. 23 ; Matt. xx. 22; or when we pray with 
the mouth only, and not with the desires of our hearts agree- 
ing with our words, Hos. iii. 14 ; Psalm Ixxviii. 36 ; and when 
we pray drowsily and heavily without fervency of spirit. Matt, 
xxvi. 41 ; and when we pray with wandering worldly thoughts, 
Rom. xii. 12 ; and when we pray with any conceit of our own 
worthiness, Luke xviii. 9, 11 ; and when we pray without faith 
in the promises of God, James i. 6. 

Neo. And how is God's name profanely abused in hearing or 
reading his word ? 

Evan. God's name is hereby abused, when we hear it or 
read it, and do not understand it. Acts viii. 30 ; and when we 
hear it only with the outward ears of our bodies, and not also 
with the inward ears of our heart and soul; and this we do 
when we read it or hear it with our hearts full of wandering 
thoughts, Ezek. xxxiii. 30 ; and we read it, or hear it with 
dull, drowsy, and sleepy spirits ; and when in hearing of it we 



288 THE MAEEOW OF 

rather conceive it to be the word of a mortal man that deli- 
vers it, than the word of the great God of heaven and earth, 
1 Thess. ii. 13 ; and when we do not with our hearts believe 
every part and portion of that word which we read or hear, 
Heb. iv. 2 ; and when we do not humbly and heartily subject 
ourselves to what we read or hear, 2 Kings xxii. 19 ; Isa. Ixii. 
2. 

Neo. And how is the Lord's name profanely abused in re- 
ceiving the sacrament of the Lord's supper ? 

Evan. This we do when we either through want of know- 
ledge cannot examine ourselves, or through our own negligence 
do not examine ourselves, before we eat of that bread, and 
drink of that cup, 1 Cor. xi. 28 ; and when we, in the act of re- 
ceiving, do not mind the spiritual signification of the sacra- 
ment, but do either terminate our thoughts in the elements 
themselves, or else suffer them to rove and run out to some 
other object, Luke xxii. 19 ; and when, after receiving, we do 
not examine ourselves what communion we have had with 
Christ in that ordinance, nor what virtue we have found flow- 
ing out from Christ into our own souls, by means of that ordi- 
nance, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 

Neo. And how is the name of the Lord profanely abused in 
taking of an oath ? 

Evan. This we do, when we call the Lord to be a witness 
of vain and frivolous things, by our usual swearing in our 
common talk, Hos. iv. 2 ; Jer. xxiii. 10 ; and when we call God 
to be a witness of our furious anger and wicked purpose, as 
when we swear we will be revenged on such a man, and the 
like, 1 Sam. xiv. 39, and xxv. 34 ; and when we call God to 
be a witness to our swearing falsely, Lev. xix. 12 ; Zech. v. 4; 
and when we swear by the mass, or by our faith, or troth, or 
by the rood, or by anything else that is not God, Jer. v. 7 ; 
Matt. V. 34—37. 

Neo. And how is the name of God profanely abused as 
touching his works ? 

Evan. When we either take no notice of his works at all, 
or when we think and speak otherwise of them than we have 
warrant from his word to do ; as when we do not speak of the 
inward works of God's election and reprobation, and are called 
thereunto, and when we murmur and cavil thereat, Eom. ix. 
20 ; and when we either do not at all mind the works of 
his creation and administration, or do not take occasion 
thereby to glorify the name of God, Psalm xix. 1 ; Eom. 
i. 21. 



^ MODERN DIVINITY. 289 

Neo. And how is tlie name of God profanely abused in re- 
spect of his religion? 

Evan. When our conversation is not agreeable to our pro- 
fession, 2 Tim. iii. 5 ; and that either when in respect of 
God it is but hypocrisy, or in respect of men we walk offen- 
.sively ; for if we live scandalously in the profession of religion, 
we cause the name of God to be profaned by them that are 
without, Rom. ii. 24, and become stumbling blocks to our 
weak brethren, Rom. xiv. 13. 

And now, neighbour Nomologista, I pray you, tell me 
whether you think you keep this commandment perfectly or 
no. 

Nom. Sir, to tell you the truth, I had not thought that the 
name of God had signified any more than his titles. Lord and 
God. 

Evan. Aye, but you are to know that the name of God in 
Scripture signifies all those things that are affirmed of God, or 
any thing whatsoever it is, whereby the Lord makes himself 
known to men. 

Nom. Then believe me, sir, I have come far short of keep- 
ing this commandment perfectly, and so does every man else, 
I am persuaded. 

Evan. I am of your mind, for where is the man that hath 
and doth so meditate on God's titles, and use them in his 
speeches and writings, with such reverence, fear and trem- 
bling, as he ought? Or what man is he that can truly say, 
he never in all his life thought on them, or used them in his 
common talk, either rashly, carelessly, or irreverently ? I am 
sure, for my own part, I cannot say so ; for, alas ! in the time 
of mine ignorance, I used many times to say, by way of foolish 
admiration. Good Lord ! Good God ! Lord have mercy on me, 
what a thing is this ? Yea, and I also many times used to say, 
I pray God I may never stir if such a thing be not so! Yea, 
and I have divers times said. The Lord be with you, and speed 
you ! and, The Lord's name be praised ! after a formal cursory 
manner, my thoughts being exercised about something else all 
the while. 

And where is the man that has always thought, conceived, 
spoken, and written so holily, reverently, and spiritually, of 
the Lord's power, wisdom, justice, mercy, and patience, as he 
ought ? Nay, what man is he that can truly say, he never in 
all his life called the attribute of the Lord's power into ques- 
tion, nor ever murmured at any act or passage of God's pro- 
25 



290 THE MARKOW OF 

vidence, nor ever presumed to sin, upon hopes that God would 
be merciful unto him ? 1 am sure I cannot truly say so. 

And where can we find the man that can truly say, he has 
always read and heard the word of God after a holy, reverent, 
and spiritual manner ? Nay, where is the man that has not 
sometimes both heard it and read it after a formal, cursory, 
and unprofitable manner ? Is there any man that can truly 
say he has always perfectly understood whatsoever he has read 
and heard — and that has not sometimes heard more with the 
outward ears of his body, than with the inward ears of his 
heart and soul — and that was never dull and drowsy, if not 
sleepy, in the time of hearing and reading — and that had never 
a worldly, nor wandering thought to come in at that time — and 
that never had the least doubting or questioning the truth of 
what he had read or heard ? I am sure, for my own part, I 
have been faulty many of these ways. 

And is it possible to find a man that can truly say, he has 
always called upon the name of the Lord after a holy, re- 
verent, and spiritual manner, or has not rather many times 
prayed after a carnal, unholy, or sinful manner ? Where 
is the man that has always had a perfect knowledge of God 
and of his will in prayer, and whose heart has always gone 
along with his words in prayer, and that never was drowsy 
nor heavy, never had wandering thoughts in prayer, and 
that never had the least conceit that God would grant him 
anything for his prayer's sake, and that never had the 
least doubting or questioning in his heart, whether God 
would grant him the thing he asked in prayer. I am sure, 
for my own part, I can scarce clear myself from any of 
these. 

And can any man truly say he has always received the sa- 
crament after a holy, reverent, and spiritual manner? Nay, 
has not every man rather cause to acknowledge the contrary ? 
Is there a man to be found that has always seriously and 
rightly examined himself beforehand, and that has always, 
rightly, with his heart, performed all those inward actions that 
are signified by the outward; or has not every man and 
woman rather cause to confess, that either for want of know- 
ledge, or through their own negligence, they have not so ex- 
amined themselves as they ought, nor so actuated their faith, 
nor minded the spiritual signification of the outward elements, 
in the time of receiving the sacrament as they ought, nor so 
examined themselves, after receiving, what benefit they have 



MODERN DIVINITY. 291 

got to their soul thereby ? I am sure I have cause to confess 
all this. 

And where shall we find a man that has always sanctified 
the name of the Lord in his heart, and with his tongue, by 
swearing after a holy, religious, and spiritual manner; or 
rather, have not most men that have been called to take an 
oath, profaned the name of the Lord, either by swearing igno- 
rantly, falsely, maliciously, or from some base and wicked 
end? And 1 think it is somewhat hard to find a man that 
never in all his life did swear, either by his faith, or by his 
troth, by the mass, or by the rood. I am sure I am not the 
man ; and he is a rare man that can truly say, he has always 
sanctified the name of God in his heart, and with his tongue, 
by admiring and acknowledging the wisdom, power, and 
goodness of God manifested in his works, for it is to be feared 
that most men do either take no notice at all of the works of 
God, or else do think and speak of them otherwise than the 
word of God warrants them to do. I am sure I am one of 
these most. 

And he is a precious man that has always so sanctified the 
name of the Lord, by a holy and unblamable conversation as 
he ought ; for, alas ! many professors of religion, by their 
fruitless and offensive walking, do either cause the enemies of 
God to speak evil of the ways of God, or else do thereby cause 
their weak brother to stumble: it is well if I never did so; 
and thus have I also endeavoured to satisfy your desires con- 
cerning the third commandment. 

Neo. 1 beseech you, sir, proceed to speak of the fourth com- 
mandment as you have done of the other three. 

COMMANDMENT IV. 
Evan. Well, then, I pray you consider, that as the Lord in 
the third commandment doth prescribe the right manner how 
he will be worshipped, so doth he in the fourth commandment, 
set down the time when he will be most solemnly worshipped, 
after the right manner ; and in this commandment there is an 
affirmative part, expressed in these words, "Remember the 
Sabbath day to keep it holy," &c. : that is, remember that 
the seventh day in QYQTy week be set apart from worldly things 
and business, and be consecrated to God by holy and hea- 
venly employments ; and a negative part, expressed also in 
these words, " In it thou shalt not do any work," &c. That 
is, thou shalt not on that day do any such thing or work as 
doth any way hinder tliee from keeping an holy rest unto God, 



I 

292 THE MARROW OF 

Neo. I pray you, sir, begin with the affirmative part, and 
first tell us what the Lord requires of us in this command- 
ment. 

Evan. In this fourth commandment the Lord requires that 
we finish all our works in the space of six days, Dent. v. 13, 
and think on the seventh day before it come, and prepare for 
it, Luke xxiii. 54, and rise early on that day in the morning, 
Psalm xcii. 2 ; Mark i. 35, 38, 39. Yea, and the Lord re- 
quires that we fit ourselves for the public exercises by prayer, 
reading, and meditation, Eccl. v. 1 ; Isa. vii. 10 ; and that we 
join with the minister and people publicly assembled, with as- 
sent of mind, and fervency of affection in prayer. Acts ii. 42 ; 
in hearing the word read and preached, Acts xiii. 14, 15, 44 ; 
in singing of Psalms, 1 Cor. xiv. 15, 16; Col. iii. 16; in the 
sacrament of baptism, Luke i. 58, 59 ; and in the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, so often as it shall be administered in 
that congregation whereof we are members, 1 Cor. xi. 26. 

Then afterwards, when we come home, the Lord requires 
that we seriously meditate on that portion of the word of 
which we have heard. Acts xvii. 11, and repeat it to our fam- 
ilies, Deut. vi. 7, and confer of it with others, if there be oc- 
casion, Luke xxiv. 14, 17 ; and that we crave his blessing when 
we have done all this, John xvii. 17. 

Neo. And is this all that the Lord requires us to do on that 
day? 

Evan. No ; the Lord also requires that we do works of 
mercy on that day, as to visit the sick, and do them what good 
we can, Neh. viii. 12 ; Mark iii. 3 — 5, and relieve the poor and 
needy, and such as be in prison, Luke xiii. 16, and labour to 
reconcile those that be at variance and discord. Matt. v. 9. 

And the Lord doth permit us to do works of instant neces- 
sity on that day, as to travel to places of God's worship, 2 
Kings iv. 23 ; to heal the diseased, Hos. vi. 6 ; Matt. xii. 7, 
12 ; to dress food for the necessary preservation of our tem- 
poral lives, Exod. i. 1 ; to tend and feed cattle, Matt. xii. 11 ; 
and such like. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the negative part, and tell 
us what the Lord forbiddeth in this commandment. 

Evan. In this commandment the Lord forbiddeth idleness 
or sleeping more on the Lord's day in the morning, than is of 
necessity. Matt. xx. 6 ; and he also forbiddeth us to labour in 
our particular callings, Exod. xvi. 28 — 30 ; and he also for- 
biddeth us to talk about our worldly affairs and business on 
that day, Amos viii. 5 ; Isa. Iviii. 13 ; and he also forbiddeth 



MODERN DIVINITY. 293 

US to travel any journey about our worldly business on that 
day, Matt. xxiv. 20 ; or keep any fairs or markets on that day, 
Neh. xiii. 16, 17 ; or to labour in seed time and harvest on 
that day. In a word, the Lord on that day forbiddeth all 
worldly works and labours, except works of mercy and instant 
necessity, which were mentioned before. And thus have I also 
declared, both what the Lord requires and what he forbids in 
the fourth commandment. And now, neighbour Nomologista, 
I pray you tell me, whether you think you keep it perfectly or 
no. 

Nom. Indeed, sir, I must confess, there is more both required 
and forbidden in this commandment than I was aware of; 
but yet I hope I go very near the observing and doing of all. 

Neo. But, sir, is the bare observing and doing of 
these things sufficient for keeping of this commandment per- 
fectly ? 

Evan. Oh no ! the first commandment must be understood 
in all the rest, that is, the obedience to the first commandment 
must be the motive and final cause of our obedience to the rest 
of the commandments, otherwise it is not the worship of God, 
but hypocrisy, as I touched before ; wherefore, neighbour No- 
mologista, though you have done all the duties the Lord re- 
quires in this commandment, and avoided all the sins which 
he forbids, yet, if all this has been from such grounds, and to 
such ends, as I told you of in the conclusion of the second com- 
mandment, and not for the love you bear to God, and the de- 
sire you have to please him, you come short of keeping this 
commandment perfectly. 

Neo. Sir, whatsoever he does, I am sure I come far short 
not only in this point, but in divers others ; for though it is 
true, indeed, I am careful to finish all my worldly business in 
the space of six days, yet, alas 1 I do not so seriously think on 
and prepare for the seventh day as I ought ; neither do I 
many times rise so early on that day as I ought ; neither do I 
so thoroughly fit and prepare myself by prayer and other ex- 
ercises beforehand as I ought ; neither do I so heartily join with 
the minister and people, when I come to the assembly, as I 
ought, but am subject to many wandering worldly thouglits 
and cares even at that time. And when I come home, if I do 
either meditate, repeat, pray, or confer, yet, alas 1 I do none of 
these with such delight or comfort as I ought ; neither have I 
been so mindful nor careful to visit the sick, and relieve the 
poor, as I ought : neither can I clear myself from being guilty 
25* 



294 THE MAKROW OF 

of doing more worldly works or labours on that day, than the 
works of mercy and instant necessity. The Lord be merciful 
unto me ! I pray you, sir, proceed to speak of the fifth com- 
mandment, as you have done of the rest. But first of all, I 
pray you, tell us what is meant by father and mother. 

COMMANDMENT V. 

Evan. By father and mother is meant, not only natural 
parents, but others also that are our superiors, either in 
age, in place, or in gifts, 2 Kings v. 13 ; and vi. 21 ; and xiii. 
14. 

Neo. And why did the Lord use the name of father and mo- 
ther to signify and comprehend all other superiors ? 

Evan. Because the government of fathers is the first and 
most ancient of all others ; and because the society of father and 
mother is that from whom all other societies do come. 

Neo. And are the duties of inferiors towards their superiors 
only here intended? 

Evan. No, but also of superiors towards their inferiors, and 
of equals amongst themselves; so that the general duty re- 
quired in the affirmative part of this fifth commandment, 
" Honour thy father and thy mother," &c., is, that every man, 
woman, and child, be careful to carry themselves as becomes 
them in regard to that order God hath appointed amongst men, 
and that relation they have to others, either as inferior, supe- 
rior, or equal. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the particular handling of 
these things ; and first tell us what is the duty of children to- 
wards their parents. 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that children do reverence their parents, by thinking and es- 
teeming highly of them. Gen. xxxi. 35 ; and by loving them 
dearly. Gen. xlvi. 29 ; and by fearing them in regard of their 
authority over them, Lev. xix. 3. And this inward reverent 
esteem of them is to be expressed by their outward reverent 
behaviour towards them. Gen. xlviii. 12. And this outward 
reverent behaviour is to be expressed in giving them reverent 
titles. Gen. xxxi. 35, and by bowing their bodies before them, 
1 Kings ii. 19, and by embracing their instructions, Prov. i. 8, 
and by submitting patiently to their corrections, Heb. xii. 9, 
and by their succouring and relieving of them in case of want 
and necessity. Gen. xlvii. 12, and by making their prayers unto 
God for them, 1 Tim. ii. 12. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 295 

Neo. And, sir, what be the duties of parents towards their 
children ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment does require, 
that parents be careful to bring their children, with all conve- 
nient speed, in due order, to be admitted into the visible church 
of God by baptism, Luke i. 59 ; and that they, according to 
their ability, do yield and give unto their children such com- 
petent food, clothing, and other necessaries, as are fit for them, 
Matt. vii. 9, 12 ; 1 Tim. v. 8. 

And that they train them up in learning, instruct them in 
religion, and endeavour to sow the seeds of godliness in their 
hearts, so soon as they be able to speak, and have the use of 
reason and understanding, Deut. iv. 10; and vi. 7, 20, 2L 
And that they be careful to check and rebuke them when they 
do amiss. Pro v. xxxi. 2 ; and that they be careful seasonably 
to correct their faults, Prov. xiii. 24 ; and xix. 18 ; and that 
they be careful in time to train them in some honest calling, 
Gen. iv. 2 ; and that they be careful to bestow them in mar- 
riage in due time, Jer. xxix. 6; 1 Cor. vii. 36, 88; and that 
they be careful to lay up something for them, as their ability 
will suffer, Prov. xix. 14 ; 2 Cor. xii. 14 ; and that they be 
earnest with God in prayer, for a blessing upon their children's 
souls and bodies. Gen. xlviii. 15, 16. 

Neo. And what be the duties of servants towards their 
masters ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that servants have an inward, high, and reverent esteem of 
their masters, Eph. vi. 5 — 7 ; yea, and that they have in their 
hearts a reverent awe and fear of them, 1 Pet. ii. 18 ; and this 
reverence and fear they are to express by their outward reve- 
rent behaviour towards them, both in word and deed, as by 
giving them reverent titles, 2 Kings v. 23, 25, and by an 
humble, submissive countenance and carriage, either when 
their masters speak to them, or they speak to their masters, 
Gen. xxiv. 9 ; Acts x. 7 ; and by yielding of sincere, faithful, 
willing, painful, and single-hearted service to their masters in 
all they go about. Col. iii. 22 ; Tit. ii. 10 ; and by a meek and 
patient bearing of those checks, rebukes, and corrections which 
are given to them, or laid upon them by their masters, without 
grudging stomach, or sullen countenance, though the master 
do it without just cause, or exceed in the measure, 1 Pet. 
ii. 18, 20; and by being careful to maintain tlieir masters 
good name, in keeping secret those honest intents which he 



296 THE MARROW OF 

would not have disclosed ; and, as much as may be, to hide 
and cover their master's wants and infirmities, not blazing them 
abroad, 2 Sam. xv. 13 ; 2 Kings vi. 11. 

Neo. And what is the duty of masters towards their ser- 
vants ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that masters be careful to choose unto themselves religious 
servants, Psalm ci. 6 ; and that they do instruct them in reli- 
gion and the ways of godliness. Gen. xviii. 19 ; and that they 
be careful to bring them to the public exercises, Joshua xxiv. 15 ; 
and that they do daily pray with them and for them, Jer. 
X. 24 ; and that they do yield and give unto them meat, drink, 
and apparel fitting for them, Deut. xxiv. 14, 15 ; and that 
they see to them that they follow the works of their callings 
with diligence, Prov. xxxi. 27 ; and that they be careful to 
instruct them, and give them direction therein, Exod. xxxv. 34; 
and that they be careful to give them just reproof and correc- 
tion for their faults, Prov. xxix. 29 ; and xix. 29 ; and that 
they look carefully unto them when they are sick. Matt, 
viii. 5, 6. 

Neo. And what is the duty of wives towards their husbands ? 

Evan, Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that wives do carry in their hearts an inward opinion and 
esteem for their husbands, Eph. v. 33 ; the which they are to 
express in their speeches, by giving them reverent titles and 
terms, 1 Pet. iii. 6 ; and in their countenance and behaviour, 
by their modesty, shamefacedness, and sobriety, 1 Tim. ii. 9 ; 
and in being willing to yield themselves to be commanded, 
governed and directed by their husbands in all things honest 
and lawful. Gen. xxxi. 4, 16, 17 ; 2 Kings iv. 22 ; and they 
are also required to love their husbands. Tit. ii. 4, and to ex- 
press their love by their chastity and faithfulness to their hus- 
bands, both in body and mind. Tit. ii. 5 ; 1 Tim. iii. 11 ; and 
by their using the best means they can to keep their husbands' 
bodies in health, Gen. xxvii. 9. They are also required to be 
helpful to them in the government of the family, and to be 
provident for their estate, by exercising themselves in some 
profitable employment, Prov. xxxi. 13, 15, 19 ; and they are 
also required to stir up their husbands to good duties, and 
join with them in the performance of them, 2 Kings iv. 9, 10 ; 
and to pray for them, 1 Tim. ii. 12. 

Neo. And what is the duty of husbands towards their 
wives ? 



MODERN DIVINITY. 297 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment requires that 
husbands be careful to choose religious wives, 2 Cor. vi. 14 • 
and that they dwell with them as men of knowledge, 1 Pet! 
iii. 7 ; and that they cleave unto them with true love and af- 
fection of heart. Col. iii. 19 ; yea, and that they content them- 
selves only with the love of their own wives, and keep them- 
selves only to them both in mind and body, Prov. v. 19, 20 ; 
they are also to be careful to maintain their authority over 
them, Eph. v. 23; and to live cheerfully and familiarly with 
them, Prov. v. 19 ; and to be careful to provide all "things 
needful and fitting for their maintenance, 1 Tim. v. 8 ; and to 
teach, instruct, and admonish them, as touching the best things, 
1 Sam. i. 8 ; and to pray with them and for them, 1 Pet. iii. 7 ; 
and to endeavour to reform and amend what they see amiss in 
them, by seasonable and loving admonition and reproof. Gen. 
XXX. 2 ; and wisely and patiently to bear with their natural 
infirmities, Gal. vi. 2. 

Neo. And what is the duty of subjects towards their ma- 
gistrates ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that subjects do think and esteem reverently of their magis- 
trates, 2 Sam. X. 16, 17 ; and that they carry in their hearts a 
reverent awe and fear of them, Prov. xxiv. 21 ; the which they 
are to express by their outward reverent behaviour towards 
them, both in word and deed, 2 Sam. ix. 6, 8 ; and by an 
humble, ready, and willing submitting of themselves to their 
commands, either to do, or to suffer, 1 Pet. ii. 13 ; and by 
yielding a loyal and sound-hearted love to them, in not shrink- 
ing from them when they have need, but defending them with 
their goods, bodies, and lives, if occasion require, 2 Sam.xviii. 
8, and xxi. 27 ; also they are required to make their prayers 
unto God for them, 1 Tim. ii. 12. 

Neo. And what is the duty of magistrates towards their 
subjects ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that magistrates be careful to establish good laws in their king- 
doms, and good orders among their subjects, 2 Kings xviii. 4 ; 
Kom. xii. 17 ; and that they be careful to see them duly and 
impartially executed, Jer. xxxviii. 4, 6; Rom. xiii. 3, 4; 
and that they be careful to provide for the peace, safety, 
quietness, and outward welfare of their subjects, Kom. xiii. 4 ; 
1 Tim. ii. 2, and not to oppress them withtaxations and griev- 
ances, 1 Kings xii. 14. 



298 THE MARKOW OF 

Neo. And what duties are people to perform towards their 
minister ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that the people have their minister in reverent account and 
estimation, 1 Cor. iv. 1 ; and that they humbly and willingly 
yield themselves to be taught and directed in their spiritual 
affairs by him, Heb. xiii. 17 ; and that they pray for him, that 
the Lord would enable him to do his duty, Kom. xv. 30, 31 ; 
and that they do their best to defend him against the wrongs 
of wicked men, Rom. xvi. 4 ; and that they yield unto him 
double honour, that is, both singular love for their work's sake, 
and sufficient maintenance, both in regard of his person and 
calling, 1 Tim. v. 17, 18 ; Gal. iv. 15. 

Neo. And what is the duty of a minister towards the 
people ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that ministers do diligently and faithfully preach the pure 
word of God unto their people, both in season and out of 
season, 1 Cor. ix. 16 ; 2 Kings iv. 2 ; and that they do so 
truly and plainly expound the same, that the people may un- 
derstand it, and that they pour out their souls to God in 
prayer, for the spiritual good of the people, 1 Thess. i. 2 ; and 
they go before the people, as a pattern of imitation to them, 
in all holiness of conversation, Phil. iv. 9. 

Neo. And what is the duty of equals ? 

Evan. Why, the Lord in this commandment doth require, 
that equals regard the dignity and worth of each other, and 
carry themselves modestly one towards another, and in giving 
honour to one before another, Eph. v. 21 ; Rom. xii. 10. And 
thus having showed you the duties required in this command- 
ment, I pray you, Nomologista, tell me whether you think 
you have kept it perfectly or no. 

Nom. Sir, though I have not kept it perfectly, yet I am per- 
suaded I have gone very near it ; for when I was a child, I 
loved and reverenced my parents, and was obedient unto them ; 
and when I was a servant, I reverenced and feared my master, 
and did him faithful service; and since I became a man, I 
have, I hope, carried myself well towards my wife, and to- 
wards my servants ; yea, and done my duty both to magis- 
trates and ministers. 

Evan. Aye, but I must tell you, the Lord doth not only 
require you to do them, but also that you do them in obe- 
dience unto him ; that is, in conscience to God's command- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 299 

ment, or for his sake, even because he requires it. Therefore 
although you did your duty to your parents, when you were a 
child, and to your master when you were a servant, yet if you 
did it either for the praise of men, or for fear of their correc- 
tions, or to procure a greater portion, or greater wages, and not 
because the Lord says, Eph. vi. 4, " Children, obey your pa- 
rents in the Lord ;" and because he says to servants, " What- 
soever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto 
men," you have not in so doing kept this commandment ; and 
though you have loved your wife, and every way carried your- 
self well towards her, yet if it have been either because she is 
come of rich parents, or because she is beautiful, or because 
she brought you a good portion, or because she some way 
serves and pleases you after the flesh, and not because the Lord 
says, Eph. v. 25, " Husbands, love your wives ;" you have not 
therein kept this commandment : and though you have car- 
ried yourself ever so well towards your servants, yet if it have 
been that they might praise you, or to make them follow your 
business more diligently and faithfully, and not because the 
Lord says, " Masters, give unto your servants that which is 
just and equal," you have not therein kept this command- 
ment : and though you have done your duty ever so well to- 
wards your magistrate, yet if it has been for fear of his wrath, 
and not for conscience' sake, viz : because the Lord says, 
" Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers," you have 
not therein kept this commandment : and though you have 
given your minister his due maintenance, and invited him 
often to your table, and carried yourself ever so well towards 
him, yet if it have been that he or others might think you a 
good Christian, and a kind man, and not because the Lord says, 
Gal. vi. 6, "Let him that is taught in the word, communicate 
unto him that teacheth, in all good things," you have not there- 
in kept this commandment. 

Neo. Well, sir, I cannot tell what my neighbour Nomolo- 
gista hath done, but for mine own part, I am sure, I have 
come far short of doing my duty in any relation I have had 
to others ; for when I was a child, I remember that I was 
many times stubborn and disobedient to my parents, and vexed 
if 1 might not have my will, and slighted their admonitions, 
and was impatient at their corrections, and sometimes despised 
and contemned them in my heart, because of some infirmity, 
especially when they grew old ; neither did I pray for them, 
as it seems I ought to have done ; and the truth is, if I did 



300 THE MARROW OF 

yield any obedience to them at all, it was for fear of tlieir cor- 
rections, or some such, bye respects, and not for conscience to- 
wards God. And when I was a servant, I did not think so 
reverently, nor esteem so highly of my master and mistress as 
I should have done, but was apt to slight and despise them, 
and did not yield such humble, reverent, and cheerful obe- 
dience as I should have done ; neither did I patiently and con- 
tentedly bear their checks and rebukes, but had divers times 
risings and swellings in my heart against them ; neither was I 
so careful to maintain their good name and credit as I ought 
to have been ; neither did I pray unto the Lord for them as I 
ought to have done ; and the very truth is, all the obedience 
and subjection which I yielded unto them, was for fear of their 
reproofs and corrections, or for the praise of men, rather than 
in conscience to the Lord's commandment. 

And when I entered into the married estate, I was not care- 
ful to choose a religious wife ; no, I aimed at beauty more 
than piety ; and I have not dwelt with my wife as a man of 
knowledge ; no, I have expressed much ignorance and folly in 
my carriage towards her ; neither have I loved her so as a 
husband ought to love his wife, for though it be true I have 
had much fond affection towards her, yet I have had but little 
true affection, as it hath been evident in that I have been 
easily provoked to anger and wrath against her, and have not 
carried myself patiently towards her ; neither have I been 
careful to maintain mine authority over her, but have lost it 
by my childish and indiscreet carriage towards her ; neither 
have I lived so cheerfully and delightfully with her as I ought 
to have done, but very heavily, discontentedly, and uncom- 
fortably have I carried myself towards her ; neither have I 
been careful to instruct and admonish her as I ought ; and 
though I have now and then reproved her, yet for the most 
part it has been in a passion, and not with the spirit of meek- 
ness, pity, and compassion ; neither have I prayed for her either 
so often or so fervently as I ought ; and whatsoever I have 
done, that has been well done, I have been moved thereunto, in 
former times especially, rather by something in her, or done 
by her, than by the commandment of God. And since I be- 
came a father and a master, I have neither done my duty to 
my children nor servants as I ought, for I have not had such 
care, nor taken such pains for their eternal good, as I have done 
for their temporal. I have had more care, and taken more pains 
to provide food and raiment for them, than I have to admonish, 



MODEEN DIVINITY. 301 

instruct, teach, and catecliize them ; and if I have reproved 
or corrected them, it has been rather because they have some 
way offended me, than because they have offended God ; and 
truly, I have neither prayed for them so often, nor so fervently 
as I ought. In a word, whatsoever I have done by way of 
discharging my duty to them, I fear me, it has been rather out 
of natural affection, or to avoid the blame, and gain the good 
opinion of men, than out of conscience to the Lord's will and 
commandment. 

And if I have at any time carried myself well, or done my 
duty either to magistrate or minister, it has rather been for 
fear or praise of men, than for conscience' sake towards God ; 
so far have I been from keeping this commandment perfectly : 
the Lord be merciful unto me ! 

Evan. Assure yourself, neighbour Neophytus, this is not your 
case alone, but the case of every man that has stood in all 
these relations to others, as it seems you have done, as I am 
confident any man that truly knows his heart will confess, yea, 
and any woman that is well acquainted with her own heart, I 
am persuaded, will confess, that she has not had such a rev- 
erent esteem and opinion of her husband as she ought, nor so 
willingly yielded herself to be commanded, governed, and di- 
rected by him as she ought, nor loved him so truly as she 
ought ; nor been so helpful to him any way as she ought, 
nor prayed either so oft or so fervently for him as she ought; 
and I fear me, most women do all that they do rather for fear 
of their husband's frowns, or to gain his favour, than for con- 
science to the Lord's will and command. 

And where is the magistrate that is so careful to establish in 
his dominions such good and wholesome laws as he ought, or 
to see them executed or put in practice as he ought, or that is 
so careful to uphold and maintain the truth of religion as he 
ought, or that is so careful to provide for the peace, safety, and 
welfare of his people as he ought ? Or where is the magistrate 
that does not do what he does for some other cause, or some 
other end, rather than because God commands them, or to the 
end he may please him ? 

And where is the minister that does his duty so in his place 
as he ought? I am sure, for mine own part, I have neither so 
diligently nor faithfully preached the pure word of God as I 
ought ; nor so fully nor truly expounded it and applied it to 
my hearers as I ought ; nor so poured out my soul to God for 
them in prayer as I ought ; neither have I gone before them as 
26 



302 THE MAEROW OF 

a pattern of imitation in holiness of life and conversation, as 
I ought : the Lord be merciful to me ! 

Neo. Well, sir, now I entreat you to proceed to speak of the 
sixth commandment as you have done of the rest. 

COMMANDMENT VI. 

Evan. Well, then, I pray you consider, that in the sixth 
commandment there is a negative part expressed in these 
words : " Thou shalt do no murder." That is, thou shalt nei- 
ther in heart, tongue, nor hand, impeach or hurt either the 
life of thine own soul or body, or the life of any other man's 
soul or body ; and an affirmative part included in these 
words : " But thou shalt every way, by all good means, seek 
to preserve them both." 

Neo. I pray you, sir, speak of these things in order, and first 
tell us what is forbidden in this commandment, as tending to 
the murdering of our own souls. 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of the murdering of our 
own souls, in this commandment is forbidden all sinning 
against God, Fro v. vi. 2 ; and so also is the careless neglect- 
ing and wilful rejecting of the means that God has ordained to 
salvation, Heb. ii. 3. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in this commandment, as tend- 
ing to the murdering of others' souls ? 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of murdering the souls 
of others, in this commandment is forbidden all giving occa- 
sion to others to sin against God, either by provoking of them, 
1 Kings xxi. 25, or by counselling of them, 2 Sam. xvi. 21, or 
by evil example, Kom. xiv. 15. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in this commandment, as tend- 
ing to the murdering of our own bodies ? 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of murdering our own 
bodies, in this commandment is forbidden excessive worldly 
sorrow, 1 Cor. vii. 10 ; Prov. xvii. 22 ; and so also is the ne- 
glect of meat, drink, apparel, recreation, physic, or any such 
refreshments, Eccl. v. 19 ; vi. 2 ; and so also is excessive eat- 
ing and drinking, Prov. xxiii. 29, 30 ; Hosea vii. 5 ; and so 
also is laying violent hands upon ourselves, 1 Sam. iii. 14 ; 
Acts xvi. 28. 

Neo. Well, sir, now I pray you, tell us what is forbidden in 
this commandment as tending to the murdering of others' 
bodies ; and, first, what is forbidden in respect of the heart ? 

Evan, That we may not be guilty of murdering others with 



MODERN- DIVINITY. 803 

our hearts, in this commandment is forbidden all hasty, rash 
and unjust anger, Matt. v. 22 ; and so also is malice or hatred', 
Lev. xix. 18 ; 1 John iii. 15 ; and so also is envy. Psalm 
xxxvii. 1 ; Prov. xxiv. 1 ; and so also is desire of revenge. 
Lev. xix. 18. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in respect of the tongue ? 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of murdering others with 
our tongues, in this commandment are forbidden all bitter and 
provoking terms, Eph. iv. 81 ; and so also are all wrangling 
and contentious speeches, Prov. xv. 1 ; and so also is crying 
and unseemly lifting up of the voice, Eph. iv. 31 ; and so also 
is railing or scolding, Prov. xvii. 19 ; 1 Peter iii. 19 ; and so 
also are all reviling and threatening speeches, Matt. v. 22 ; and 
so also are all mocking, scoffing, and deriding speeches, 2 
Kings ii. 23 ; John xix. 3. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in respect of the whole body, 
and more especially of the hand ? 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of murdering others with 
our hands, in respect of the other parts of the body, in this 
commandment is forbidden all disdainful, proud, and scornful 
carriage, Gen. iv. 5 ; Prov. vi. 17 ; and so also are all provoking 
gestures, as nodding of the head, gnashing with the teeth, and 
the like, Matt, xxvii. 89 ; Acts vii. 45 ; and so also is all fro- 
ward and churlish behaviour, 1 Sam. xxv. 17 ; and so also is 
brawling and quarrelling. Tit. iii. 2. And more especially in 
respect of the hand is forbidden striking and wounding, Exod. 
xxi. 18, 22 ; and so also is all taking away of life, otherwise 
than in case of public justice, just war, and necessary defence, 
Exod. xxi. 12 ; Gen. ix. 6. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the affirmative part of this 
commandment, and first tell us what is required of us in re- 
spect of the life of our own souls. 

Evan. In respect of the preservation of the life of our own 
souls is required a careful avoiding of all sorts of sin, Prov. 
xi. 19 ; and so also is a careful use of all means of grace, and 
spiritual life in our souls, 1 Peter ii. 2. 

Neo. And what is required of us in respect of the preserva- 
tion of the life of others' souls ? 

Evan. In respect of the preservation of the life of the souls 
of others, is required, that according to our place and calling, 
and as present occasion is offered, we teach and instruct others 
to know God and his will. Gen. xviii. 19 ; Deut. vi. 7 ; and so 
also that we do our best to comfort others that are in distress 



804 THE MARKOW OF 

of conscience, 1 Thess. v. 14 ; and that we pray for the wel- 
fare and comfort of others' souls, Gen. xliii. 29 ; and that we 
give others good examples by our Christian-like walking, Matt. 
V. 16. 

Neo. And what is required of us in respect of the preserva- 
tion of the life of our own bodies ? 

Evan. In respect of the preservation of the life of our own 
bodies, is required in this commandment, that we be careful 
to procure unto ourselves the use of wholesome food, clothing, 
and lodging, and physic, when there is occasion, 1 Tim. v. 23; 
Eccl. X. 17 ; 2 Kings xx. 7 ; and also that we use honest and 
lawful mirth, rejoicing in an holy manner, Prov. xvii. 22 ; 
Eccl. iii. 4. 

Neo. And what is required of "us in respect of the preserva- 
tion of the life of the bodies of others ? 

Evan. In respect of the preservation of the life of the bodies 
of others, in this commandment is required a kind and loving 
disposition, with tenderness of heart towards them, Eph. iv. 
31, 32 : and so also is a patient bearing of wrongs and inju- 
ries, Col. iii. 12, 13 ; and so also is the taking of all things in 
the best sense, 1 Cor. xiii. 5, 7 ; and so also is the avoiding of 
all occasions of strife, and parting with our own right some- 
times for peace' sake, Gen. xiii. 8, 9 ; and so also are all such 
looks and gestures of the body as do express meekness and 
kindness, Gen. xxxiii. 10 ; and so also is the relieving the 
poor and needy, Job xxxi. 16 ; and so also is the visiting of 
the sick. Matt. xxv. 36. And now, neighbour Nomologista, I 
pray you tell me, whether you think you keep this command- 
ment perfectly or no. 

Nom. No, indeed, sir, I do not think I keep it perfectly, nor 
any man else, as you have expounded it. 

Evan. Assure yourself, neighbour Nomologista, that I 
have expounded it according to the mind and will of God 
revealed in his word, for you see I have proved all by Scrip- 
ture : I told you at the beginning, that the law is spiritual and 
binds the very heart and soul to obedience ; and that under 
one vice expressly forbidden, all of the same kind, with all 
occasions and means leading thereunto, are likewise forbid- 
den ; and according to these rules have I expounded it. 
Wherefore, I pray you, consider, that so many sins as you 
have committed, and so many times as you have carelessly 
neglected, and wilfully rejected the means of salvation, so 
many wounds you have given your own soul. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 805 

And so many times as you have given occasion to others 
to sin, so many wounds you have given to their souls. 

And so many fits of worldly sorrow as you have had 
and so many times as you have neglected the moderate use either 
of meat, drink, apparel, recreation, or physic, when need 
hath required, so many wounds have you given your own 
body. 

And so many times as you have been either unadvisedly 
angry with any, or have borne any malice or hatred to- 
wards any, or have secretly in your heart wished evil unto any, 
or borne envy in your heart towards any, or desired to be 
revenged upon any, then have you been guilty of murdering 
them in your heart. And if you have given others any 
wrangling and contentious speeches, or any reviling and 
threatening speeches, or have carried yourself frowardly and 
churlishly towards others, and have not borne injuries and 
wrongs patiently, and expressed pity and compassion towards 
others, then have you been guilty of murdering them with 
your tongue. And if you have quarrelled with any man, or 
stricken or wounded any man, then have you murdered them 
with your hand, though you have not taken away their lives. 
And thus have I endeavoured to satisfy your desires concern- 
ing the sixth commandment. 

Neo. I beseech you, sir, proceed to speak of the seventh 
commandment as you have done of the rest. 

COMMANDMENT VII. 

Evan. Well, then, I pray you, consider that in the seventh 
commandment there is a negative part expressed in these 
words, " Thou shalt not commit adultery ;" that is, thou 
shalt not think, will, speak, or do anything whereby thine 
own chastity or the chastity of others, may be hurt or 
hindered. And an affirmative part included in these words, 
" But thou shalt every way, and by all good means, preserve 
and keep the same." 

Neo, I pray you, sir, begin with the negative part, and first 
tell us what is that inward uncleanness that is forbidden in 
this commandment. 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of the inward unclean- 
ness of the heart, in this commandment are forbidden all filthy 
imaginations, unchaste thoughts, and inward desires and mo- 
tions of the heart to uncleanness, Matt. v. 28; Col. iii. 5; 
26* 



806 THE MAREOW OF 

with all causes and occasions of stirring np and nourishing of 
these in the heart. 

Neo. And what are the causes and occasions of stirring up 
and • nourishing these things in the heart which we are to 
avoid ? 

Evan. That we may not stir up and nourish inward un- 
cleanness in our hearts, is forbidden in this commandment 
gluttony, or excess in eating and pampering of the belly 
with meats, Jer. v. 8 ; and so also is drunkenness, or excess 
in drinking, Prov. xxiii. 80, 31, 33 ; and so also is idleness, 
2 Sam. xi. 12 ; and so also is the wearing of lascivious, 
garish, and new fangled attire, Prov. vii. 10 ; 1 Tim. ii. 9 ; 
and so also is keeping company with lascivious, wanton, 
and fleshly persons, Gen. xxxix. 10 ; and so also is immodest, 
unchaste, and filthy speaking, Eph. iv. 29 ; and so also 
is idle and curious looking of men on women, or women on 
men. Gen. vi. 2 ; xxxix. 7; and so also is the beholding of love 
matters, and light behaviour of men and women represented 
in stage plays, Ezek. xxiii. 14 ; Eph. v. 3, 4 ; and so also is 
immoderate and wanton dancing of men and women together. 
Job xxi. 11, 12 ; Mark vi. 21, 22 ; and so also is wanton 
kissing and embracing, with all unchaste touching and dalli- 
ance, Prov. vii. 13. 

Neo. And what is that outward actual uncleanness which is 
forbidden in this commandment ? 

Evan. The actual uncleanness forbidden in this command- 
ment is fornication, which is a fleshly defilement of the body, 
committed between man and woman, being both of them 
single and unmarried persons, 1 Cor. x. 8 ; and so also is 
adultery, which is a defilement of the body, committed be- 
tween man and woman, being either one or both of them 
married persons, or at least contracted, 1 Cor. vi. 9, 18 ; 
Hos. xiii. 4. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the affirmative part, and 
tell us what the Lord requires in this commandment. 

Evan. The Lord in this commandment requires purity of 
heart, 1 Thess. iv. 5 ; and he also requires speeches savour- 
ing of sobriety and chastity. Col. iv. 6 ; Gen. iv. 1 ; and he 
also requires that we keep our eyes from beholding vanity 
and lustful objects. Psalm cxix. 37 ; Job xxxi. 1 ; and he 
also requires that we be temperate in our diet, in our sleep, 
and in our recreations, Luke xxi. 34; and he also requires 
that we possess our vessels in holiness and honour, 1 Thess. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 807 

iv. 9 ; and if we have not the gift of chastity, he requires that 
we take the benefit of holy marriage, 1 Cor. vii. 29 ; and that 
the man and wife do in that estate render due benevolence each 
towards the other, 1 Cor. vii. 5. Thus have I also endeavoured 
to satisfy your desires concerning the seventh commandment ; 
and now, neighbour Nomologista, I pray you tell me whether 
you think you keep it perfectly or no. 

Nom. Sir, I thank the Lord I am free from actual unclean- 
ness, so that I am neither fornicator nor adulterer. 

Evan. Well, but though you be free from the outward act, 
yet if you have had in your heart filthy imaginations, unchaste 
thoughts, or inward desires, or motions of the heart to unclean- 
ness, you have notwithstanding transgressed this command- 
ment ; or if you have been guilty of gluttony, or drunkenness, 
or idleness, or delight to keep company with lascivious and 
wanton persons, or have with your tongue uttered any unchaste 
or corrupt communication, or have been a frequenter of stage- 
plays, or have used immoderate dancing with women, or have 
used wanton dalliance with kissing and embracing, then have 
you broken this commandment. 

Neo. I beseech you, sir, proceed to speak of the eighth com- 
mandment, as you have done of the rest. 

COMMANDMENT VIII. 

Evan. Well, then, I pray you, consider, that in the eighth 
commandment there is a negative part expressed in these 
words, " Thou shalt not steal ;" that is, thou shalt by no unlaw- 
ful way or means hurt or hinder the wealth and outward estate 
either of thyself or others : and an afiirmative part included in 
these words, " But thou shalt by all good means preserve and 
further them both." 

Neo. I pray you, sir, begin with the negative part, and first 
tell us what is forbidden in this commandment, as a hurt or 
hinderance of our own outward estate. 

Evan. That we may not hurt or hinder our own outward 
estate, in this commandment are forbidden idleness, sloth, and 
inordinate walking, Prov. xviii. 9; 2 Thess. iii.ll; and so 
also are unthriftiness and carelessness, either in spending 
our goods, or in ordering our affairs and businesses, Proverbs 
xxi. 17 ; 1 Tim. v. 8 ; and so also is unadvised suretyship, 
Prov. xi. 15. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in -this commandment, as tend- 
ing to the hurt or hinderance of our neighbour's estate .'' 



308 THE MARROW OF 

Evan. That we may not hurt or hinder our neighbour's 
outward estate, in this commandment is forbidden covet- 
ousness and discontentedness with our estate, Heb. xiii. 5 ; 
and so also is enviousness at the prosperity of others, Prov. 
xxiv. 1 ; and so also are resolutions or hastening to be rich, 
as it were, whether the Lord afforded means or not, 1 Tim. 
vi. 9 ; Prov. xxviii. 20 ; and so also is borrowing and not paying 
again, we being able. Psalm xxxvii. 21 ; and so also is lend- 
ing upon usury, Exod. xxii. 25 ; and so also is the not restoring 
of things borrowed. Psalm xxxvii. 21 ; and so also is cruelty 
in requiring all our debts, without compassion or mercy, 
Isa. Iviii. 3 ; and so also is the praising of any commodity 
we sell, contrary to our own knowledge, or the debasing 
of anything we buy, against our own conscience, Isa. v. 20; 
Prov. XX. 14 ; and so also is the hoarding up, or withholding 
the selling of corn and other necessary commodities when we 
may spare them, and others have need of them, Prov. xi. 26 ; 
and so also is the retaining of hireling's wages, James v. 4; 
and so also is uncharitable inclosure, Isa. v. 8 ; and so also is 
the selling of any commodity by false weights or false 
measures. Lev. xix. 35: and so also is the concealing of 
things found, and withholding them from the right owners 
when they are known ; and so also is robbery, or the lay- 
ing of violent and strong hands on any part of the wealth 
that belongs unto another, Zech. iv. 3, 4; and so also is 
pilfering and secret carrying away of the wealth that belongs 
to another, Joshua vii. 21 ; and so also is the consent- 
ing to the taking away the goods of another. Psalm xc. 18 ; 
and so also is the receiving or harbouring of stolen goods, 
Prov. xxix. 24. 

Neo. Well, now, sir, I pray you proceed to the affirmative 
part of this commandment, and tell us what the Lord therein 
requires. 

Uvan. In this commandment is required contentedness of 
mind with that part and portion of wealth and outward 
good things which God, in his providence, has allotted unto us, 
Heb. xiii. 5 ; 1 Tim. vi. 6 — 8 ; and so also in resting by 
faith upon the promise of God, and depending upon his pro- 
vidence, without distrustful care. Matt. vi. 20, 26 ; and so 
also is a moderate desire of such things as are convenient 
and necessary for us. Matt. vi. 21 ; Prov. xxx. 8 ; and so also 
is a moderate care to provide those things which are needful 
for us, Gen. xxx. 30 ; 1 Tim. v. 8 ; and so also is an honest 



MODERN DIVINITY. 3Q9 

calling, Gen. iv. 2 ; and so also is diligence, painfulness, and 
faithful labouring therein, Gen. iii. 19 ; and so also is fru4lity 
or thriftiness, Prov. xxvii. 23, 24 ; John vi. 12 ; and so also is 
borrowing for need and good ends, what we are able to repay, 
and making payment with thanks and cheerfulness, Exod'. 
xxii. 14: ; and so also is lending freely without compounding 
for gain, Deut. xv. 8 ; Luke vi. 35 ; and so also is giving, or 
communicating outward things unto others, according to^our 
ability and their necessity, Luke xi. 41 ; and so also is the 
using of truth, simplicity, and plainness in buying and selling, 
in hiring and letting, Lev. xxv. 14; Deut. xxv. 13—15; and 
so also is the restoring of things found, Deut. xxii. 2, 3 ; and 
so also is the restoring of things committed to our trust, Ezek. 
xviii. 7. And thus have I endeavoured to satisfy your desire 
concerning the eighth commandment; and now, neio-hbour 
Noniologista, I pray you, tell me whether you think you keep 
it perfectly or not. 

Nom. I can say this truly, that I never in all my life took 
away, or consented to the taking away, of so much as a penny- 
worth of any other man's goods. 

Evayi. Though you did not, yet if there ever have been in 
your heart any discontentedness with your own estate, or any 
envious thoughts towards others in regard of their prosperity 
in the world, or any resolution to be rich, otherwise than by 
the moderate use of lawful means, or if ever you borrowed 
and paid not again, to the utmost of your ability, or if ever 
you lent upon usury, or if ever you did cruelly require any 
debt above the ability of your debtor, or if ever you praised 
anything you had to sell above the known worth of it, or if 
ever you did undervalue anything you were to buy, contrary 
to your own thoughts of it, or if ever you hoarded up corn in 
the time of dearth, or if ever you retained the hireling's wages 
in your hands, to his loss or hinderance, or if ever you did sell 
any commodity by false weights or measures, or if ever you 
did conceal anything found from the right owner, when you 
knew him ; then have you been guilty of theft, and so have 
been a transgressor of this commandment. 

And though you never have done any of these things, and 
it is strange if you have not, yet if ever you were guilty of 
idleness, sloth, or any way unwarrantably neglected your call- 
ing, or if ever you did unthriftily mispend any of your own 
goods, or ever were negligent and careless in ordering your 
own affairs and business, or if ever you sustained any loss by 



810 THE MARROW OP 

your unadvised suretyship, or if ever you borrowed upon 
usury, except in case of extreme necessity, then have you been 
guilty of robbing yourself, and so have been a transgressor of 
this commandment. 

Neo. Now, I pray you, sir, proceed to speak of the ninth 
commandment, as you have done of the rest. 

COMMANDMENT IX. 

Evan. Well, then, I pray you consider, that in the ninth 
commandment there is a negative part expressed in these 
words : " Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neigh- 
bour ;" that is, thou shalt not think or speak anything con- 
trary to truth, or that may tend to the hurt or hinderance 
either of thine own or thy neighbour's good name. And an 
affirmative part included in these words : " But thou shalt by 
all good means seek to maintain them both, according to truth 
and a good conscience." 

Neo. Well, sir, I pray you, begin with the negative part ; 
and first tell us what is forbidden in this commandment, in 
respect of our own good name. 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of bearing false witness 
against ourselves, either by overvaluing or undervaluing our- 
selves, in this commandment is forbidden too high a conceit 
or esteem of ourselves, Luke xviii. 9 — 11 ; and so also is too 
mean a conceit, in underweening the good things that are in 
ourselves, Exod. iv. 10, 13 ; and so also is the procuring of 
ourselves an evil name, by walking indiscreetly and offen- 
sively, Rom. ii. 24 ; and so also is the unjust accusing of our- 
selves, when we, in a way of proud humility, say, " We have 
no grace, no wit, no wealth," &c. Prov. xiii. 7 ; and so also is 
the excusing of our faults by way of lying, Lev. xix. 11. 

Neo. And what is forbidden in this commandment, in re- 
spect to our neighbour's good name ? 

Evan. That we may not be guilty of bearing false witness 
against any other man, in this commandment is forbidden con- 
temning or thinking basely of others, 2 Sam. vi. 16; and so 
also is wrongful suspicion, or evil surmisings, 2 Sam. x. 8 ; and 
so also is rash, uncharitable, unjust judging and condemning of 
others, Matt. vii. 1 ; and so also is foolish admiring of others. 
Acts xii. 22 ; and so also is the unjust reviving the memory 
of our neighbour's crimes, which were in tract of time forgot- 
ten, Prov. xvii. 9 ; and so also is the forbearing to speak in 
the cause and for the credit of our neighbours, Prov. xxxi. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 811 

8, 9: and so also are all flattering speeches, Job xxxii. 21, 22: 
and so also is tale-bearing, backbiting, and slanderous speeches, 
Lev/xix. 16; Prov. xx. 19 ; and so also is listening to tale- 
bearers, Pro v. xxvi. 20 ; and XXV. 28 ; and so also is falsely 
charging some ill upon another before some magistrate, or ia 
some open court, Amos vii. 10 ; Acts xxv. 2. 

Neo. I pray you, sir, proceed to the afHrmative part of this 
commandment, and first tell us what the Lord requires of us 
for the maintenance of our own good name. 

Evan. For the maintenance of our own good name, the Lord 
in this commandment requires a right judgment of ourselves, 
2 Cor. xiii. 5 ; with a love to, and care of our own good name, 
Prov. xxii. 1. 

Neo. And what does the Lord in this commandment require 
of us for the maintenance of our neighbour's good name ? 

Evan. For the maintenance of our neighbour's good 
name, in this commandment is required a charitable opinion 
and estimation of others, 1 Cor. xiii. 7 ; and so also is a 
desire of, and rejoicing in the good name of others, Rom. 
i. 8 ; Gal. i. 24 ; and so also is sorrowing and grieving for 
their infirmities. Psalm cxix. 136 ; and so also is the covering 
of others' infirmities in love, Prov. xvii. 9 ; 1 Pet. iv. 8 ; and 
so also is the hoping and judging the best of others, 1 Cor. 
xiii. 5 — 7 ; and so is the admonishing of others before we be- 
wray their faults, Prov. xxv. 9 ; and so also is speaking of the 
truth from our heart simply and plainly, upon any just occa- 
sion. Psalm XV. 2 ; Zech. viii. 16 ; and so also is the giving of 
sound and seasonable reproofs for known faults, in love and 
with wisdom. Lev. xix. 17; and so also is the praising and 
commending of those that do well. Rev. ii. 23 ; and so also is 
the defending of the good name of others, if need so require. 
And thus have I also endeavoured to satisfy your desires con- 
cerning the ninth commandment : and now, neighbour Nomo- 
logista, I pray you, tell me whether you think you keep it per- 
fectly or not. 

Nom. The truth is, sir, I did conceive that nothing tended 
to the breaking of this commandment, but falsely charging 
some ill upon another before some magistrate, or in some 
open court of justice: and that, thank God, I am not 
guilty of. 

Evan. Though you have not been guilty of that, yet, if you 
have contemned or thought too basely of any person, or have 
had wrongful suspicions, or evil surmisings concerning them, 
or have rashly and unjustly judged and condemned them, or 



312 THE MARROW OF 

if you have foolisHy admired them, or unjustly revived the 
memory of any forgotten crime, or have given them any flat- 
tering speeches, or have been a tale-bearer, or a backbiter, or 
a slanderer, or a listener to tale-bearers, you have borne false 
witness against your neighbour, and so have been guilty of 
the breach of this commandment. 

Or if you have not had a charitable opinion of others, or 
have not desired and rejoiced in the good name of others, or 
have not sorrowed and grieved for their sinful infirmities, or 
have not covered them in love, or have not hoped and judged 
the best of them, or have not admonished them before you 
had discovered their faults to others, or have not given to 
others sound and seasonable reproof, or have not praised them 
that do well, then have you also been guilty of false witness- 
bearing against your neighbour, and so have transgressed this 
commandment. And though you never have done any of 
these things, and it is strange if you have not, yet if you have 
had too high a conceit of yourself, or have after a proud hum- 
ble manner unjustly accused yourself, or have procured your- 
self an evil name, by walking indiscreetly and offensively, or 
have excused any fault by way of lying, then have you borne 
false witness against yourself, and thereby have transgressed 
this commandment. 

Neo. I beseech you, sir, proceed to speak of the last com- 
mandment as you have done of the rest. 

COMMANDMENT X. 

Evan. Well, then, I pray you consider, that in the tenth 
commandment there is a negative part expressed in these 
words, "Thou shalt not covet," &c. : that is, thou shalt not 
inwardly think on, nor long after, that which belongs to 
another, though it be without consent of will, or purpose of 
heart to seek after it ; and an affirmative part included in 
these words, "But thou shalt be well contented with thine 
own outward condition, and heartily desire the good of thy 
neighbours." 

Neo. Well, sir, I pray you, begin with the negative part; 
and first tell us what the Lord forbids in this command- 
ment. 

Evan. I pray you take notice, and consider, that this tenth 
commandment was given to be a rule and level, according to 
the which we must take and measure our inward obedience to 
all the other commandments contained in the second table. of 



MODERN DIVINITY. 313 

God's law. For the Lawgiver having, in the rest of the 
commandments, dealt with those sins especially which stand 
in deeds, and are done of purpose, or with an advised consent 
of will, although there is no doubt but that the law of re- 
straining concupiscence is implied and included in all the for- 
mer commandments; now, last of all, in this last com- 
mandment deals with those sins which are called only- 
concupiscences, and do contain all inward stirring and conceit 
in the understanding and affections against every command- 
ment of the law, and are, as it were, rivers boiling out of the 
fountain of that original sin ; for to covet, in this place, signi- 
fies to have a motion of the heart without any settled consent 
of will. Briefly, then, in this commandment is forbidden, not 
only the evil act and evil thought settled, and with full and 
deliberate consent of will, as in the former commandments, but 
here also is forbidden the very first motions and inclinations 
to every evil that is forbidden in any of the former command- 
ments, as it is evident, Rom. vii. 7, and xiii. 9 ; for it is not 
said in this commandment. Thou shalt not consent to lust, but 
" Thou shalt not lust." It does not only command the binding 
of lust, but it also forbids the being of lust ; which being so, 
who sees not that in this commandment is contained the per- 
fect obedience to the whole law ? for how comes it to pass, that 
we sin against every commandment, but because this corrupt 
concupiscence is in us, without which we should of our own ac- 
cord, with our whole mind and body, be apt to do only good 
without any thought or desire at all to the contrary ? And 
this is all I have to say touching the negative part of this com- 
mandment. 

Neo. Well, then, sir, I pray you to proceed to the afiirma- 
tive, and tell us what the Lord requires in this commandment. 

Evan. Why, original justice or righteousness is required in 
this commandment, which is a disposition and an inclination 
and a desire to perform unto God, and to our neighbour, for 
God's sake, all the duties which are contained both in the first 
and second table of the law ; whence it does evidently appear, 
that it is not sufficient, though we forbear the evil, and do the 
good which is contained in every commandment, except we 
do it readily and willingly, and for the Lord's sake. As for 
example, to give you a few instances, it is not sufficient though 
we abstain from making images, or worshipping God by an 
image ; no, though we perform all the parts of his true wor- 
ship, as praying, reading, hearing, receiving the sacraments, 
27 



314 THE MAEROW OF 

and tlie like, if we do it unwillingly or in obedience to any 
law or commandment of man, and not for the Lord's sake. 
Neither is it sufficient though we abstain from the works of 
our callings on the Lord's day, and perform never so many 
religious exercises, if it be unwillingly, and for form and cus- 
tom's sake, or in mere obedience to any superior, and not for 
the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient though a child show 
never so much honour, love, and respect to his parents, if he 
do it by constraint and unwillingly, or to gain the praise of 
men, and not for the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient 
though a servant do his duty, and carry himself never so well, 
if it be for fear of correction, or for his own profit and gain, 
and not for the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient though a 
wife carry herself never so dutifully and respectfully towards 
her husband, both in word and deed, if it be unwillingly, for 
fear of his frowns, or to gain the applause of them that behold 
it, and not for the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient though 
a husband show much love and respect to his wife, if it be be- 
cause she is amiable or profitable, or to gain the praise of men, 
and not for the Lord's sake. In a word, it is not sufficient, 
though any man or woman do all their duties, in all their re- 
lations, if they do them merely for their own sake, and not for 
the Lord's sake. 

Neither is it sufficient though a man abstain from kill- 
ing, yea, and from striking, if it be for fear of the law, and 
not for the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient though he bri- 
dle his anger, and abstain from expressing any wrath, if 
it be because he would be counted a patient man, and not 
for the Lord's sake. Neither is it sufficient though a man 
visit the sick, clothe the naked, feed the hungry, or in never 
so many ways seek to preserve the life of his neighbour, 
if it be for the praise of men, and not for the Lord's sake. 
Neither is it sufficient though a man abstain from commit- 
ting adultery, if it be for fear of the shame or punishment 
that will follow, and not for the Lord's sake. Nor though we 
also abstain from idleness, gluttony, and drunkenness, if it be 
for our own gain's sake, and not for the Lord's sake. Neither 
is it sufficient though we abstain from stealing, and labour 
diligently in our callings, if it be for the fear of shame or pun- 
ishment, or for the praise of men. Neither is it sufficient 
though we have abstained from false witness-bearing, and have 
spoken the truth, if it have been for fear of shame, or merely 
to do our neighbour a courtesy, and not because the Lord re- 
quires it. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 3J^5 

Tlius might I have instanced in divers other particnhirs 
wherein, though we have done that which is required, and 
avoided that which is forbidden, yet if it have been for our 
own ends, in any of the particulars before mentioned ; yea, or 
if it have been merely or chiefly to escape hell and to obtain 
heaven, and not for the love we bear to God, and for the de- 
sire we have to please him, we have therein transgressed the 
Lord's commandments. And now, neighbour Nomologista, I 
pray you consider, whether you have gone near to the keeping 
of all the commandments perfectly or no. 

Nom. But, sir, are you sure that the Lord requires that 
every man should keep all the ten commandments according 
as you have now expounded them? 

THE USE OF THE LAW. 

Evan. Yea, indeed he does ; and if you make any question 
of it, I pray you, consider further, that one asking our Sa- 
viour, which is the " great commandment in the law ?" he an- 
swered, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy 
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This," 
says he, " is the first and great commandment ; and the second 
is like unto it. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself," 
Matt. xxii. 37—39. 

Whereupon, says a famous spiritual expositor, " God will 
have the whole heart ;" all the powers of our souls must be 
bent towards him, he will have himself to be acknowledged 
and reckoned as our sovereign and supreme good ; our love to 
him must be perfect and absolute: he requires, that there be 
not found in us the least thought, inclination, or appetite of 
anything which may displease him ; and that we direct all 
our actions to this very end, that he alone may be glorified by 
us ; and that for the love we bear unto God, we must do well 
unto our neighbour, according to the commandments of God. 
Consider, also, I pray you, that it is said, Deut. xxvii. 26 ; 
Gal. iii. 10, " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things which are written in the book of the law to do them." 
Now, if you do consider these things well, you shall perceive 
that the Lord requires that every man do keep all the ten 
commandments perfectly, according as I have expounded 
them, and concludes all those under the curse that do not so 
keep them. 

Nom. Surely, sir, you did mistake in saying that the Lord 



316 THE MARROW OF 

requires tbat every man do keep all the ten commandments 
perfectly ; for I suppose you would have said, the Lord re- 
quires that every man do endeavour to keep them perfectly. 

Evan. No, neighbour Nomologista, I did not mistake, for 
I say it again, that the Lord requires of every man perfect 
obedience to all the ten commandments, and concludes all 
those under the curse that do not yield it ; for it is not said, 
Cursed is every man that does not endeavour to continue in 
all things, but " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things," &c. 

Nom. But, sir, do you think that any man continues in all 
things, as you have expounded them ? 

Evan. No, no ; it is impossible that any man should. 

Nom. And, sir, what is it to be under the curse ? 

Evan. To be under the curse, as Luther and Perkins do 
well agree, is to be under sin, the wrath of God, and everlast- 
ing death. 

Nom. But, sir, I pray you, how can this stand with the jus- 
tice of God, to require man to do that which is impos- 
sible, and yet to conclude him under the curse for not 
doing it ? 

Evan. You shall perceive that it does well stand with the 
justice of God, to deal so with man, if you do consider, that 
this law of God, or these ten commandments, which we have 
now expounded, are, as Ursinus's Catechism truly says, " A 
doctrine agreeing with the eternal and immortal wisdom and 
justice that is in God ;" wherein, says Calvin, " God hath so 
painted out his own nature, that it doth in a manner express 
the very image of God." And we read, Gen. i. 27, that man 
at the first was created in the image or likeness of God ; 
whence it must needs follow that this law was written in his 
heart, that is to say, God did engrave in man's heart such 
wisdom and knowledge of his will and works, and such in- 
tegrity in his soul, and such a fitness in all the powers thereof, 
that his mind was able to conceive, and his heart was able to 
desire, and his body was able to put in execution, anything 
that was acceptable to God ; so that in very deed he was able 
to keep all the ten commandments perfectly. 

And, therefore, though God do require of man impossible 
things, yet is he not unjust, neither does he injure us in so 
doing, because he commanded them when they were possible, 
and though we have now lost our ability of performance, 
yet it being by our voluntary falling from the state of inno- 



MODERN DIVINITY. 317 

cence in whicli we were at first created, God has not lost his 
right of requiring that of us which he once gave us. 

Norn, But, sir, you know it was our first parents only that 
did fall away from God in eating the forbidden fruit, and none 
of their posterity ; how then can it be truly said, that we have 
lost that power through our own default ? 

Evan. For answer to this, I pray you consider, that Adam, 
by God's appointment, was not to stand or fall as a single per- 
son only, but as a common public person, representing all man- 
kind which were to come of him ; and therefore, as in case if 
he had been obedient, and not eaten the forbidden fruit, he 
had retained and kept that power which he had by creation, as 
well for all mankind as for himself; even so by his disobe- 
dience in eating that forbidden fruit, he was disrobed of God's 
image, and so lost that power, as well for all mankind as for 
himself. 

Nom. Why then, sir, it should seem that all mankind are 
under sin, wrath, and eternal death! 

Evan. Yea, indeed by nature they are so, "For we know," 
says the apostle, ''that whatsoever the law saith, it saith to 
them that are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped, 
and all the world may become guilty before God," Kom. 
iii. 19 ; and again, says he, "We have proved both Jews and 
Gentiles, that they are all under sin," Eom. iii. 9. And in 
another place he says, " We were by nature children of wrath 
as well as others," Eph. ii. 3 ; and, lastly, he says, " So death 
passed upon all men, for that all have sinned," Rom. v. 12. 

Nom. But, sir, I pray you, tell me whether you think that 
any regenerate man keeps the commandments perfectly, ac- 
cording as you have expounded them. 

Evan. No, not the most sanctified man in the world. 

Nom. Why then, sir, it should seem, that not only natural 
men, but regenerate men also, are under the curse of the law. 
For if every one that keepeth not the law perfectly be concluded 
under the curse, and if regenerate men do not keep the law 
perfectly, then they also must needs be under the curse. 

Evan. The conclusion of your argument is not true; for if 
by regenerate men you mean true believers, then they have 
fulfilled the law perfectly in Christ, or rather Christ has per- 
fectly fulfilled the law in them, and was made a curse for them, 
and so has redeemed them from the curse of the law, as you 
may see. Gal. iii. 13. 

Nom. Well, sir, now do I understand you, and have ever 
been of your judgment in that point, for I have ever concluded 
27* 



318 THE MARROW OF 

this, that either a man himself, or Christ for him, must keep 
the law perfectly, or else God will not accept of him, and 
therefore have I endeavoured to do the best I could to keep 
the law perfectly, and wherein I have failed and come short, 
I have believed that Christ has done it for me. 

Evan. The apostle says. Gal. iii. 10, " So many as are of 
the works of the law, are under the curse." And truly, neigh- 
bour Nomologista, if I may speak it without offence, I fear 
me you are still of the works of the law, and therefore still 
under the curse. 

Nom. Why, sir, I pray you, what is it to be of the works of 
the law ? 

Evan. To be of the works of the law, is for a man to look 
for, or hope to be justified or accepted in the sight of God, for 
his own obedience to the law. 

Nom. But surely, sir, I never did so ; for though by reason 
of my being ignorant of what is required and forbidden in 
every commandment, I had a conceit that I came very near 
the perfect fulfilling of the law, yet I never thought I did do 
all things that are contained therein ; and therefore I never 
looked for, nor hoped that God would accept me for mine 
own obedience, without Christ's being joined with it. 

Evan. Then it seems that you did conceive, that your obe- 
dience and Christ's obedience must be joined together, and so 
God would accept you for that. 

Nom. Yea, indeed, sir, there has been my hope, and indeed 
there is still my hope. 

Evan. Aye, but neighbour Nomologista, as I told my 
neighbour Neophytus and others not long since, so I tell you 
now, that as the justice of God requires a perfect obedience, 
so does it require that this perfect obedience be a personal 
obedience, that is, it must be the obedience of one person 
only. The obedience of two must not be put together to 
make up a perfect obedience : and indeed, to say as the thing 
is, God will have none to have a hand in the justification 
and salvation of any man, but Christ only; for, says the 
apostle Peter, Acts iv. 12, "Neither is there salvation in 
any other, for there is none other name under heaven given 
among men whereby we may be saved." Believe it then, I 
beseech you, that Christ Jesus will either be a whole Saviour, 
or no Saviour ; he will either save you alone, or not save you 
at all. 

Nom. But, sir, if man's obedience to the law do not help to 
procure his justification and acceptance with God, then why 



MODERN DIVINITY. 819 

did God give the law to the Israelites upon Mount Sinai, and 
why is it read and expounded by you that are ministers'? I 
would gladly know of what use it is. 

Evan. The apostle says, Gal. iii. 19, "that the law wag 
added because of transgression." That is, as Luther expounds 
it, "That transgressions might increase and be more known, 
and seen ;" or as Perkins expounds it, "For the revealing of 
sin, and the punishment thereof; for by the law comes the 
knowledge of sin," as the same apostle says, liom. iii. 20 ; and 
therefore when the children of Israel conceived that they were 
righteous, and could keep all God's commandments perfectly, 
as it is manifested by their saying, Exod. xix. 8, " All that the 
Lord commandeth we will do, and be obedient," the Lord gave 
them this law, to the intent they might see how far short they 
came of yielding that obedience which is therein required, and 
so, consequently, how sinful they were. And just so did our 
Saviour also deal with the young expounder of the law. Matt. 
xix. 16, who, it seems, was sick of the same disease, "Good 
Master," says he, " what shall I do that I may inherit eternal 
life?" "He does not," says Calvin, "simply ask, which way, 
or by what means he should come to eternal life, but what good 
he should do to get it." Whereby it appears, that he was a 
proud justiciary, one that swelled in fleshly opinion that he 
could keep the law, and be saved by it ; therefore he is wor- 
thily sent to the law to work himself weary, and to see his need 
to come to Christ for remedy. 

Now then, if you would know of what use the law is, why 
first let me tell you, it is of special use to all such as have a 
conceit that they themselves can do anything for the procu- 
ring of their own justification and acceptation in the sight of 
God; to let them see, as in a glass, that in that case they can do 
nothing. And, therefore, seeing that you yourself have such 
a conceit, I beseech you, labour to make that use of it, that 
so you may be hereby quite driven out of yourself unto Jesus 
Christ. 

Nom. Believe me, sir, I should be glad I could make such a 
good use of it, and, therefore, I pray you, give me some direc- 
tions how I may do it. 

Evan. Why, first of all, I would desire you to consider, that 
in regard that all mankind were at first created in such an 
estate as I have declared unto you, the law and justice of God 
requires that the man who undertakes, by his obedience, to 
procure his justification and acceptation in the sight of God, 



820 THE MARROW OF 

either in whole, or in part, be as completely furnished with 
the habit of righteousness and true holiness, and as free from 
all corruption of nature, as Adam was in the state of innocen- 
cj, that so there may not be the least corruption mingled with 
any of those good actions which he does, nor the least motion 
of heart or inclination of will towards any of those evil ac- 
tions which he does not do. 

Secondly^ I would desire you to consider, that neither you 
nor any man else, whilst you live upon the earth, shall be so 
furnished with perfect righteousness and true holiness, nor so 
free from all corruptions of nature, as Adam was in the state 
of innocency ; so that no good action which you do shall be 
free from having some corruption mingled with it : nor any 
evil action which you do not do, free from some motion of 
heart or inclination of will towards it ; and that therefore you 
can do nothing towards the procuring of your justification and 
acceptation in the sight of God ; the which the prophet David 
well considering, cries out, Psalm cxliii. 2, "Enter not into 
judgment with thy servant, O Lord ! for in thy sight shall no 
man living be justified." Yea, and this made the apostle cry 
out, " Oh wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from 
the body of this death !" Rom. vii. 24. Yea, and this made 
him desire to be found in Christ, not having his own righteous- 
ness which is of the law, but that which is through the faith 
of Christ, Philip, iii. 9. 

Nom. But, sir, I am persuaded there be some good actions 
which I do, that are fre$ from having any corruption at all 
mixed with them ; and some evil actions which I do not do, 
towards the which I have no motion of heart, or inclination of 
will at all. 

Evan. Surely, neighbour Nomologista, you do not truly 
know yourself, for I am confident, that any man who truly 
knows himself, sees such secret corruptions of heart in every 
duty he performs, as causes him unfeignedly to confess, that 
whatever good action he does, it is but a polluted stream of a 
more corrupt fountain. And whatsoever you or any man else 
do conceive of yourselves, it is most certain, that whatsoever 
sin is forbidden in the word, or has been practised in the world, 
that sin every man carries in his bosom, for all have equally 
sinned in Adam, and therefore original lust is equally in 
all. 

Nom. Sir, I can hardly be persuaded to this. 

Evan. Well, neighbour Nomologista, I cannot so well tell 
how it is with you, but for mine own part, I tell you truly, I 



MODERN DIVINITY. 321 

find my knowledge corrupted and defiled with ignorance and 
blindness, and my faith corrupted and defiled with doubtimr 
and distrust, and my love to God very much corrupted and 
defiled with sinful self-love and love to the world ; and my joy 
in God much corrupted and defiled with carnal joy ; and my 
godly sorrow very much corrupted and defiled with worldly 
sorrow. 

And I find my prayers, my hearing, my reading, my receiv- 
ing the sacrament, and such like duties, very much corrupted 
and defiled with dulness, drowsiness, sleepiness, wandering, 
and worldly thoughts, and the like. 

And I find my sanctifying of the Lord's name very much 
corrupted and defiled, by thinking and speaking lightly and 
irreverently of his titles ; and by thinking, if not by speaking, 
grudgingly against some acts of his providence. 

And I find my sanctifying of the Lord's day very much 
corrupted and defiled, by sleeping too long in the morning, 
and by worldly thoughts and words, if not by worldly 
works. 

And I find that all the duties that I have performed, either 
towards my superiors or inferiors, have been corrupted and 
defiled, either with too much indulgence, or with too much 
severity, or with base fears, or base hopes, or some self-end 
and by-respect. 

And I find that all my duties that I have performed, either 
for the preservation of mine own or other's life, chastity, 
goods, or good name, have been very much corrupted and de- 
filed, either with a desire of mine own praise, own profit here, 
or to escape hell, and to obtain heaven hereafter ; so that I 
see no good action which I have ever done free from having 
some corruption mixed with it. 

And as for motion of heart, and inclination of will towards 
that evil which I have not done, it is also manifest, for though 
I have not been guilty of idolatry, either in making or wor- 
shipping of images, yet have I not been free from carnal ima- 
ginations of God in the time of his worship nor from will- 
worship. 

And though I have not been so guilty of profaning the name 
of the Lord after such a gross manner as some others have 
been, yet have I not been free from an inclination of lieart, 
and disposition of will thereunto ; for I have both tliouglit 
and spoken irreverently both of his titles, attributes, word, and 
works, yea, and many times do so to this day. 

And though I do not now so grossly profane the Lord's day, 



322 THE MARROW OF 

as it may be others have done, and do still, yet have I for- 
merly done it grossly, yea, and do still, find an inward dispo- 
sition of heart, and inclination of will, both to omit those du- 
ties which tend to the sanctifying of it, and to do those worldly 
actions which tend to the profanation of it. 

And though when I was a child and young, I did not so 
grossly dishonour and disobey my parents and other superiors, 
as some others did, yet I had an inclination of heart and dis- 
position of will thereunto, as it was manifest by my stubborn- 
ness, and by not yielding of willing obedience to their com- 
mands nor submitting patiently to their reproofs and correc- 
tions. 

And though it may be, I have done more of my duty to 
my inferiors than some others have done, yet have I found an 
inclination of heart, and a disposition of will, many times to 
omit those duties which I have performed, so that I have as it 
were, been fain to constrain myself to do that which I have 
done. 

And though I have not been guilty of the gross act of mur- 
der, yet have I had, and have still an inclination of heart and 
disposition of will thereunto, in that I have been, and am still, 
many times subject to rash, unadvised, and excessive anger; 
yea, I have been and still am divers times wrathful and envious 
towards others that offend me. 

And though I never was guilty of the foul and gross act of 
fornication or adultery, yet have I had an inclination of heart, 
and disposition of will thereunto, in that I have not been free 
from filthy imaginations, unchaste thoughts, and inward motions 
and desire to uncleanness. 

And though I was never guilty of the gross act of stealing, 
yet have I had an inclination of heart, and a disposition of will 
thereunto, in that I have neither been free from discontented- 
ness with mine own estate, nor from covetous desire after that 
which belongs to another. 

And though I never did bear false witness against any man, 
yet have I had an inclination of heart and disposition of will 
thereunto, in that I have not been free from contemning, de- 
spising, and thinking too basely of others ; neither have I been 
free from evil surmisings, groundless suspicions, and rash judg- 
ing of others. 

And now, neighbour Nomologista, I pray you tell me whe- 
ther you do think that some of these corruptions are in you, 
which you hear are in me. 



MODERN DIVINITY. 323 

Norn. Yea, believe me, sir, I must needs confess that some 
of them are. 

Evan. Well, though you have but only one of them in you, 
yet I pray you consider, that you do hereby transgress one of 
the ten commandments ; and the apostle James says, that 
" Whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one 
point, he is guilty of all," James ii. 10. And call to mind, I 
also pray you, that a curse is denounced against all those that 
continue not in " all things which are written in the book of 
the law to do them." Mind it, I pray you, " that doth not 
continue in all things :" so that although you could for a 
time do all that the law requires, and avoid all that it forbids, 
and that never so exactly, yet if you do not continue so doing, 
but transgress the law once in all your life, and that only in 
one thought, you are thereby become subject to the curse, 
which, as you have heard, is eternal damnation in hell. 

Nay, let me tell you more, although you never yet had trans- 
gressed the law in all your life hitherto, not so much as in the 
least thought, nor ever should do whilst you live, yet should 
you thereby become far short of the perfect fulfilling of the 
law, and so consequently of your justification and acceptation 
in the sight of God. 

Nom. That is very strange to me, sir, for what can be re- 
quired more, or what can be done more, than yielding of per- 
fect and perpetual obedience ? 

Evan. That is true indeed ; there is no more required, 
neither can there be more done ; but yet you must understand, 
that the law does as well require passive obedience as active, 
suffering as well as doing; for our common bond entered into 
for us all, by God's benefits towards the first man, is by his 
disobedience become forfeited, both in respect of himself and 
all mankind ; and, therefore, ever since the fall of man, the 
law and justice of God does not only require the payment of 
the debt, but also of the forfeiture; there is not only required 
of him perfect doing, but also perfect suffering. " In the day 
that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die the death," says the 
Lord, Gen. ii. 17. Nay, let me tell you yet more ; in order of 
justice, the forfeiture ought to be paid before the debt; per- 
fect suffering should go before perfect doing, because all man- 
kind, by reason of that first and great transgression, are at 
odds and enmity with God ; they are all of them children of 
his wrath, and therefore God, as we may speak with holy re- 
verence, cannot be reconciled unto any man, before a full 



324 THE MARROW OP 

satisfaction be made to his justice by a perfect suffering, Col. 
i. 21 : perfect suffering, tben, is required for the reconciling 
of man unto God, Eph. ii. 3, and setting him in the same con- 
dition he was in before his fall, and perfect doing is required 
for the keeping of him in that condition. 

Nom. And, sir, is man as unable to pay the forfeiture as 
he is to pay the debt ? I mean, is he as unable to suffer per- 
fectly, as to do perfectly ? 

Evan. Yea, indeed, every whit as unable ; forasmuch as 
man's sin in eating of the forbidden fruit was committed 
against God, and God is infinite and eternal, and the offence 
is always multiplied according to the dignity of the person 
against whom it is committed : man's offence must needs be 
an infinite offence, and the punishment must needs be propor- 
tionable to the fault ; therefore an infinite and eternal punish- 
ment is required at man's hands, or else such a temporal 
punishment, as is equal and answerable to eternal. Now, 
eternal punishment man cannot sustain, because then he 
should never be delivered — he should ever be satisfying, and 
never have satisfied ; which satisfaction is such as is the 
punishment of the devils and damned men in hell, which never 
shall have an end. And for temporal punishment, which should 
be equivalent to eternal, that cannot be neither, because the 
power and vigour of no creature is such that it may sustain a 
finite and temporal punishment, equivalent to an infinite and 
eternal ; for sooner should the creature be wasted, consumed, 
and brought to nothing, than it could satisfy the justice of 
God by this means ; wherefore we may certainly conclude, that 
no man can satisfy the law and justice of God, either by ac- 
tive or by passive obedience, and so consequently no man 
shall be justified and accepted in the sight of God by his own 
doings or sufferings. 

Nom. Sir, I see it clearly, and am therein fully convinced, 
and I hope I shall make that use of it. But, sir, is there no 
other use to be made of the law than this ? 

Evan. Yea, neighbour Nomologista, you must not only 
labour thereby to see your own insufiiciency to procure your 
own justification and acceptation in the sight of God, though 
that indeed be the chief use that any unjustified person ought 
to endeavour to make of it, but you must also endeavour to 
make it a rule of direction to you in your life and conver- 
sation. 

Nom. But, sir, if I cannot by my obedience to the law do 



MODERN DIVINITY. 325 

aay tiling towards the procuring of mine own justification, 
and acceptation in the sight of God, or, which as I do con- 
ceive is all one, if I can do nothing towards the procuring of 
mine own eternal salvation, then methinks all that I do 
should be in vain, for I cannot see any good I shall get 
thereby. 

Evan. No, neighbour Nomologista, it shall not be in vain ; 
for though you cannot by your obedience to the Uiw, do any 
thing towards the procuring of your own justification or eternal 
salvation ; yea, and though you should never make such a use 
of it, as to be thereby driven out of yourself unto Jesus Christ 
for justification and eternal salvation, but shoukl be everkast- 
ingly condemned ; yet, this let me tell you, the more obedi- 
ence you yield unto the law, the more easy shall your con- 
demnation be ; for although no man, walk he ever so exactly 
and strictly according to the law, shall thereby either escape 
the torments of hell, or obtain the joys of heaven, yet the 
more exactly and strictly any man walks according to the law, 
the easier shall his torments be. Matt. xi. 22. So that although 
you by your obedience to the law cannot obtain the uneasiest 
place in heaven, yet may you thereby obtain the most easy 
place in hell : and therefore your obedience shall not be in 
vain. Nay, let me tell you more, although you by your obe- 
dience to the law can neither escape that hell, nor enjoy that 
heaven that is in the world to come, yet you may thereby 
escape that hell, and enjoy that heaven which is to be had in 
this present world ; for the Lord dealeth so equally and justly 
with all men, that every man shall be sure to receive his due 
at his hands ; so that as every man who is truly justified in 
the sight of God, by faith in Christ's blood, shall for that 
blood's sake be sure of the joys of heaven, though his life may 
even after his believing be in many respects unconformable to 
the law; yet the more unconformable his life is thereunto, the 
more crosses and afflictions he shall be sure to meet withal in 
this life, Psalm Ixxxix. 30—32. Even so, though no man 
that is not justified by faith in Christ's blood shall either 
escape the torments of hell, or attain the joys of heaven, be 
his life never so conformable to the law, yet the more con- 
formable his life is thereunto, the less of the miseries and the 
more of the blessings of this life he shall have ; for it is not to 
men unjustified, though I suppose not only to them that the 
Lord speaketh, Isa. i. 19, saying, "If ye be willing and obe- 
dient, ye shall eat the good things of the land." And does 
not the Lord in the fifth commandment promise the blessing 
28 



826 THE MARROW OF 

of long life to all inferiors that are obedient to their superiors? 
And may we not observe, and is it not found true by experi- 
ence, that those children who are most careful of doing their 
duties to their parents, are commonly more free both from 
their parents' corrections and the Lord's corrections ; and are 
likewise blessed with obedient children themselves, and do also 
taste of their parents' bounty and the Lord's bounty, as 
touching the blessings of this life, more than others that are 
disobedient ? And may we not observe, and is it not found 
true by experience, that those servants that are most faithful 
and diligent in their places are commonly more free either 
from the Lord's or their masters' corrections, and are likewise 
rewarded with such servants themselves, and with other tem- 
poral blessings both from their masters and from the Lord, 
than others that are not so ? And may we not observe, and is 
it not found true by experience, that those wives that are obe- 
dient and subject to their husbands, are commonly more free 
from their frowns, checks, and rebukes ; at least they are 
more blessed with peace of conscience and a good name 
amongst men, than others that are not so ? And may we not 
observe, that our mere honest men, who for the most part live 
without committing any gross sin against the law, are com- 
monly more exempted from the sword of the magistrate, and 
have many earthly blessings more in abundance than such as 
are gross sinners ? And the Scribes and Pharisees, who were 
strict observers of the law, in regard of the outward man, were 
no losers by it, "Yerily," says our Saviour, "I say unto you, 
they have their reward," Matt. vi. 2. So that still, you see, 
your obedience to the law shall not be in vain; wherefore, 
I pray you, do your best to keep the ten commandments as 
perfectly as you can. But above all, I beseech you, be careful 
to consider of that which has been said touching the special 
use of the law to you, that so through the powerful working 
of God's Spirit, it may become an effectual means to drive you 
out of yourself unto Jesus Christ. 

Oh, consider, in the first place, what a great number of duties 
are required and what a great number of sins are forbidden 
in every one of the ten commandments ! And in the second 
place, consider, how many of those duties you have omitted, 
and how many of those sins you have committed. And in the 
third place, consider, that there has been much corruption 
mixed with every good duty which you have done, so that you 
have sinned in doing that which in itself is good ; and that you 



MODERN DIVINITY. 827 

have had an inclination of heart and disposition of will to 
every sin you have not committed, and so have been guilty of 
all those sins which you have not done. And in tlie fourth 
place, consider, that the law denounceth a curse unto every 
one which continueth not in all things which are written in 
the book of the law to do them. And then, in the fifth place, 
make application of the curse unto yourself, by saying in your 
heart, if every one be cursed which continueth not in all 
things, then surely I am cursed that have continued in nothing. 
And then, in the sixth place, consider, that before you can 
be delivered from the curse, the law and justice of God re- 
quires that there be a perfect satisfaction made both by paying 
the debt and the forfeiture to the very utmost flirthing ; pe re- 
fect doing and perfect suffering are both of them required. 
And then, in the last place, consider, that you are so far from 
being able to make a perfect satisfaction, that you can do 
nothing at all towards it, and that therefore, as of yourself, 
you are in a most miserable and helpless condition. 

Nom. Well, sir, I do now plainly see that I have been de- 
ceived, for I verily thought that the only reason why the 
Lord gave the law, and why you that are ministers do show 
us what is required and forbidden in the law, had been, that 
all men might thereby come to see what the mind and will 
of the Lord is, and be exhorted, and persuaded to lead their 
lives thereafter. And I also verily thought that the more 
any man did strive and endeavour to reform his life and do 
thereafter, the more he procured the love and favour of God 
towards him, and the more God would bless him, and do him 
good, both in this world and in the world to come ; yea, and 
I also verily thought, that it had been in the man's power to 
have come very near the perfect fulfilling of the law, for 
I never read nor heard any minister show how impossible 
it is for any man to keep the law, nor ever make any mention 
of any such use of the law, as you have done this day. 

Evan. Surely, neighbour Nomologista, these have not only 
been your thoughts, but also the thoughts of many other men ; 
for it is natural for every man to think that he must and can 
procure God's favour and eternal happiness by his obedience 
to the law, at the least to think he can do something towards 
it ; for naturally men think that the law requires no more but 
the external act, and that therefore it is in man's power to 
keep it perfectly. Is it not an ordinary and common thing 
for men when they hear or read that there is more required 



828 THE MARROW OF 

and forbidden in the law than they were aware of, to think 
with themselves, Surely, I am not right, I have transgressed 
the law more than I had thought I had done, and therefore 
God is more angry with me than I had thought he had been ; 
and therefore to pacify his anger, and procure his favour to- 
wards me, I must repent, amend, and do better ; I must re- 
form my life according to the law, and so by my future obe- 
dience make amends for my former disobedience ? And if there- 
upon they do attain to any good measure of outward con- 
formity, then they think they come near the perfect fulfilling 
of the law ; and if it were not that the doctrine of the Church 
of England is, that no man can fulfil the law perfectly, and 
that none but Papists do say the contrary, they would both 
think and say they did, or hoped they should keep all the 
commandments perfectly. And upon occasion of this their 
outward reformation according to the law, they think, yea, 
and sometimes say, they are regenerate men and true converts, 
and that the beginning of this their reformation was the time 
of their new birth and conversion unto God. And if these 
men do confess themselves to be sinners, it is rather because 
they hear all others confess themselves so to be, than out of 
any true sight and knowledge, sense, or feeling they have of 
any inward heart-corruption. And if they do acknowledge, 
that a man is not to be justified by the works of the law, but 
by faith in Christ, it is rather because they have heard it so 
preached, or because they have read it so in the Bible, or some 
other book, than because of any imperfection which they see 
in their own works, or any need they see of the righteousness 
of Jesus Christ. And if they do see any imperfection in their 
own works, and any need of the righteousness of Jesus Christ, 
then they imagine that so long as their hearts are upright and 
sincere, and they do desire and endeavour to do their best to 
fulfil the Jaw, God will accept of what they do, and make up 
their imperfect obedience with Christ's perfect obedience, and 
so will justify and save them ; but all this while, their own 
works must have a hand in their justification and salvation, 
and so they are still of the works of the law, and therefore 
under the curse. The Lord be merciful both to you and them, 
and bring you under the blessing of Abraham ! 

Nora. Sir, I thank you for your good wishes towards me, 
and for your great pains which you have now taken with me 
and so I will for this time take my leave of you ; only, I could 
wish, if it might not be too much trouble to you, that you would 



MODERN DIVINITY. 329 

be pleased at your leisure, to give me in writing a copy of 
what you have this clay said concerning the law. 

Evan. Well, neighbour Nomologista, though I can hardly 
spare so much time, yet because you do desire it, and in hope 
you may receive good by it, I will, ere long, find some time to 
accomplish your desire. 

Neo. I pray you, neighbour Nomologista, tarry a little lon- 
ger, and I will go with you. 

Nom. No, I must needs be gone ; I can stay no longer. 

Evan. Then fare you well, neighbour Nomologista, and the 
Lord make you to see your sins I 

Nom. The Lord be with you, sir. 

Neo. Well, sir, now I hope you have fully convinced him 
that he comes far short of keeping all the commandments per- 
fectly : I hope he will no longer be so well conceited of his 
own righteousness as he has formerly been. But now, sir, I 
pray you tell me before I depart, whether you would have me 
to endeavour to make the same use of the law, which you have 
advised him to make. 

Evan. No, neighbour Neophytus, I look not upon you as an 
unbeliever, as I did upon him, but I look upon you as one who 
has already been by the law driven out of yourself unto Jesus 
Christ ; I look uy)on you as a true believer, and as a person 
already justified in the sight of God, by faith in Christ, and so 
as one who are neither to question your inheritance in heaven, 
nor fear your portion in hell. And therefore I will not per- 
suade you to labour to yield obedience to the law, by telling 
you, that the more obedient you are thereunto, the easier tor- 
ments you shall have in hell, as I did him ; neither would I 
have you to make application of the curse of the law to your- 
self, as I advised him to do ; for if you do truly and thoroughly 
believe, as God requires you, that Jesus Christ, 1 John iii. 28, 
the Son of God, and your Surety, has, by his active and pas- 
sive obedience, fully discharged and paid both the debt and 
the forfeiture which the law and justice of God obliged you to 
pay, then will not you yield obedience to the law, to pay that 
which you do truly believe is fully paid and discharged al- 
ready ; and if you do not yield obedience to the law to dis- 
charge that, then do you not yield obedience to the law, in 
hopes to be thereby made just, or justified in the sight of God ; 
and if you yield not obedience to the law, in hopes to be 
thereby made just, or justified in the sight of God, then are 
you not of the works of the law; and if you are not of the 

28* 



330 THE MARROW OF . 

works of the law, then are you not under the curse of the law ; 
and if you be not under the curse of the law, then must you 
not make application of the curse unto yourself And there- 
fore, whensoever you shall either hear or read these words, 
" Cursed is every one which continueth not in all things 
which are written in the book of the law to do them," and 
your conscience tells you that you have not, and do not con- 
tinue in all things, and that therefore you are accursed; then 
do you make so much use of the curse, as thereby to take oc- 
casion by faith to cleave more close unto Christ, and say, O 
law, thy curse is not to come into my conscience ! my con- 
science is freed from it! for though it is true I have not con- 
tinued " in all things which are written in the book of the law 
to do them," yet this my Surety, Jesus Christ, has continued in 
all things for me, so that although I am unable to pay either 
the debt or the forfeiture, yet he has paid them both for me, 
and so has discharged me from the curse ; and therefore I fear 
it not. 

Neo. But, sir, though I be a believer, and so be set free 
from the curse of the law, yet I suppose I ought to endeavour 
to do somewhat that is required, and to avoid whatsoever is 
forbidden in the law. 

Evan. Yea, neighbour Neophytus, that you ought indeed, 
for mind it, I pray you, thus stands the case ; so soon as any 
man does truly believe, and so is justified in the sight of God, 
then, as the holy Ghost, from the testimony of holy writ, does 
warrant us to conceive, Jesus Christ, or, which is all one, God 
in Christ, does deliver unto him whatsoever is required and 
forbidden in the ten commandments, saying. Col. ii. 14 ; Eph. 
ii. 15, "This hand-writing, even this law of commandments 
which was against thee, and contrary to thee, whilst it was in 
the hands of my Father, as he stood in relation to thee as a 
Judge, and was not cancelled, but had the curse or penalty 
annexed to it, Isa. xxxviii. 14, and so had power to convince, 
Heb. vii. 22, accuse, condemn, and bind thee over to punish- 
ment; I, who undertook for thee, and became thy Surety, 
have paid the principal debt, and have also answered the for- 
feiture which did lie against thee for the breach of that bond ; 
and my Father has delivered it into mine hands, and I have 
blotted out the curse or penalty, so that one letter or tittle re- 
mains not for thee to see ; yea, I have taken it out of thy 
way, and fastened it to my cross, yea, and torn it in pieces with 
the nails of my cross, so that it is altogether frustrate, and has 



MODERN DIVINITY. 881 

no force at all against thee. Yet notwithstanding the matter 
contained in this law, even those precepts and prohibitions 
which I have now delivered unto thee, being the mind and 
will of my Father, and the eternal and unchangeable rule of 
righteousness, and that which is in my heart. Psalm xl. 8 ; 
yea, and that which I have promised to write in the hearts of 
all those that are mine, Jer. xxxi. 33 ; yea, and that which I 
have promised to make them yield willing obedience unto, 
Psalm ex. 3 ; I and my Father do command it unto thee, as 
that rule of obedience whereby thou art to express thy love 
and thankfulness unto us for what we have done for thee. 
And therefore I will say no more unto thee but this, ' If thou 
love me, keep my commandments,' John xiv. 15. And thou 
art my friend, 'If thou do whatsoever I command thee,'" 
John XV. 14. 

Neo. But, sir, does God in Christ require me to yield per- 
fect obedience to all the ten commandments, according as you 
have this day expounded them ? 

Evan. I answer, yea, for though God in Christ do not re- 
quire of you, or any true believer, any obedience to the law 
at all by wa}'' of satisfaction to his justice, for that Christ has 
fully done already ; yet does he require, that every true be- 
liever do purpose, desire, and endeavour to do their best to 
keep all the ten commandments perfectly, according as I have 
this day expounded them; witness the saying of Christ him- 
self, Matt. V. 48, " Be ye therefore perfect as your Father which 
is in heaven is perfect." 

Neo. But, sir, do you think it possible, that either I, or any 
believer else, should keep the commandments perfectly, ac- 
cording as you have this day expounded them ? 

Evan. O no! both you, and I, and every believer else, 
have, and shall have cause to say with the apostle, Philip iii. 
12, "Not as though I had already attained, or were already 
perfect." 

Neo. But will God in Christ accept of obedience, if it be not 
perfect ? 

Evan. Yea, neighbour Neophytus, you being a justified per- 
son, and so it not being in the case of justification, but in the 
case of child-like obedience, I may, without fear of danger, 
say unto you, God will accept the will for the deed, and |' will 
spare you as a man spares his own son that serves him," Mai 
iii. 18. Yea, like as a father pities his children, so the Lord 
will pity you, " for he knoweth your frame, he remembereth 



832 THE MARROW OP 

that you are dust," Psalm ciii. 13, 14. Nay, he will not only 
spare you and pity you for what you do not, but he will also 
reward you for what you do. 

Neo. Say you so, sir ? then I beseech you tell me what thia 
reward will be. 

Evan. Why, if there be degrees of glory in heaven, as some 
both godly and learned, have conceived there is, then I tell 
youJ,hat the more obedient you are unto the law, the more 
shall be your glory in heaven ; but because degrees of glory 
are disputable, I cannot assure you of that. Howbeit, this you 
may assure yourself, that the more obedience you yield unto 
the ten commandments, the more you please your most gra- 
cious God and loving Father in Christ, 1 Sam. xv. 22 ; and 
the more your conscience witnesseth that you please God. the 
more quiet you shall feel it to be, and the more inward peace 
you shall have, according to that of the Psalmist, "Great 
peace have they that love thy law, and nothing shall offend 
them." For though faith in the blood of Christ has made your 
peace with God as a Judge, yet obedience must keep your 
peace with him as a Father ; yea, the more your conscience 
witnesseth that you do that which pleases God, the more en- 
couragement you will have, and the more confidently you will 
approach towards God in prayer. " Beloved," says the loving 
apostle, "if our hearts condemn us not, then have we boldness 
towards God in prayer," 1 John iii. 21 ; for though faith in 
the blood of Christ takes away that guilt which subjects you 
to the legal curse, yet obedience must take away that guilt 
which subjects you to a fatherly displeasure. Furthermore, 
you are to know, that the more obedience you yield unto the 
ten commandments, the more temporal blessings, outward 
prosperity, and comfort of this life, in the ordinary course of 
God's dealing, you shall have: " Oh !" says the Lord, "that 
my people had hearkened unto me, and Israel had walked in 
my ways ! he should soon have fed them with the finest of the 
wheat, and with honey out of the rock should I have satisfied 
thee." Besides, the more obedience you yield unto the ten 
commandments, the more glory you will bring to God, accord- 
ing to that of our Saviour, John xv. 8, " Herein is my Father 
glorified, that ye bear much fruit." To conclude, the more 
obedience you yield unto the ten commandments, the more 
good you will do unto others, according to that of the apostle, 
Tit. iii. 8, " This is a faithful saying, and these things I will 
that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in 



MODERN DIVINITY. 333- 

Christ might be careful to maintain good works ; these things 
are good and profitable unto men." 

Neo. But, sir, what if I should not purpose, desire, and en- 
deavour to yield obedience to all the ten commandments, as 
you say the Lord requires ; what then ? 

Evan. Why, then, although it is true you have no cause to 
fear that God will proceed against you, as a wrathful judge 
proceeds against a malefactor, yet have you cause to fear that 
he will proceed against you as a displeased father does against 
an offending child ; that is to say, although you have no°cause 
to fear that he will unjustify you, and unson you, and deprive 
you of your heavenly inheritance, and inflict the penalty of 
the law of works upon you, and so condemn you, for says the 
apostle, " There is no condemnation to them that are in Christ 
Jesus," Rom. viii. 1 ; yet have you cause to fear that he will 
bide his fatherly face, and withdraw the light of his counte- 
nance from you ; and that your conscience will be ever accusing 
and disquieting of you, which if it do, then will you draw 
back, and be afraid to ask anything of God in prayer ; for 
even as a child whose conscience tells him that he has angered 
and displeased his father, will be unwilling to come into his 
father's presence, especially to ask of him anything that he 
wants, even so it will be with you ; and besides, you shall be 
sure to be whipped and scourged with many bodily and tem- 
poral chastisements and corrections, according to that which 
is said concerning Jesus Christ and his seed, even true be- 
lievers, and justified persons, Psalm Ixxxix. 31 — 33, " If his 
children forsake my law, and walk not in my judgments ; if 
they break my statutes, and walk not in my commandments, 
then will I visit their transgressions with the rod, and their 
iniquities with stripes. Nevertheless, my loving kindness 
will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness 
to fail." 

Wherefore, neighbour Neophytus, to apply these things a 
little more closely to you, and so to conclude, let me exhort 
you, when you come home, call to mind and consider of every 
commandment according as you have heard them this day ex- 
pounded, and resolve to endeavour yourself to do thereafter; 
and always take notice how and wherein you fall and come 
short of doing what is required, and of avoiding what is for- 
bidden ; and especially be careful to do this when you are 
called to humble yourself before the Lord in fasting and 
prayer, and upon occasion of going to receive the sacrament 



334 THE MARROW OF 

of the Lord's Supper, and so shall you make a right use of 
the law. 

Neo. And, sir, why would you have me more especially to 
take notice of my sins, when I am called to humble myself 
before the Lord in fasting and prayer ? 

Evan. Because the more sinful you see yourself to be, the 
more humble will your heart be ; and the more humble your 
heart is, the more fit you will be to pray, and the more the 
Lord will regard your prayers : wherefore, when upon occa- 
sion of some heavy and sore affliction, either felt, or feared to 
come upon yourself, or some sore judgment and calamity either 
felt, or feared to come upon the nation or place where you 
live, the Lord calls you to humble yourself in fasting and 
prayer, then do you thereupon take occasion to meditate, and 
consider seriously what duties are required, and what sins are 
forbidden in every one of the ten commandments, and then 
consider how many of those duties you have omitted, and how 
many of those sins you have committed ; consider also the 
sinful manner of performing those duties you have performed, 
and the base and sinful ends which you have had in the per- 
formance of them ; consider also how many sinful corruptions 
there are in your heart, which break not forth in your life, 
and the disposition of heart which you have naturally to every 
sin which you do not commit ; and then consider, that although 
the sins which you do now commit are not a transgression of 
the law of works, because you are not now under the law, 
Rom. vi. 14; yet are they a transgression of the law of Christ, 
because you still are under that law, 1 Cor. ix. 31 ; and though 
they be not committed against God as standing in relation to 
you as a wrathful Judge, yet have they been committed against 
him as he stands in relation to you as a merciful loving Father ; 
and though they subject you not to the wrath of a Judge, nor 
to the penalty of the law of works, yet they subject you to the 
anger and displeasure of a loving Father, and to the penalty 
of the law of Christ. 

Whereupon, do you draw near to God by prayer, saying 
unto him after this manner : 

" O merciful and loving Father ! I do acknowledge that 
the sins which I did commit before I was a believer, were a 
transgression of the law of works, because I was then under 
that law; yea, and that they were committed against thee, 
as thou stoodest in relation to me as a judge, and that there- 
fore thou mightest most justly have inflicted the curse or 



MODERN DIVINITY. 335 

penalty of the law of works upon me, and so have cast 
me into hell ; but seeing that thou hast enabled me to be- 
lieve the gospel, viz : that thou hast been pleased to give thine 
own Son Jesus Christ to undertake for me, to become my 
Surety, to take my nature upon him, and to be made under 
the law, to redeem me from under the law, Gal. iv. 4, and 
iii. 13 ; Rom. v. 10 ; and to be made a curse for me, to 
redeem me from the curse, and to reconcile me unto thee 
by his death ; now I know it stands not with thy justice to 
proceed against me by virtue of the law of works, and so 
cast me into hell. Nevertheless, Father, I know that the sins 
which I have committed since I did believe have been a 
transgression of the law of Christ, because I am still under 
that law : yea, and I do acknowledge, that they have been 
committed against thee, even against thee, my most gracious, 
merciful, and loving Father in Jesus Christ, and that it is 
therefore meet thou shouldest express thy fatherly anger and 
displeasure towards me, for these sins which thy law has 
discovered unto me, in bringing this affliction upon me, or 
this judgment upon the place or nation wherein I live : how- 
beit, Father, I, knowing that thy fatherly anger towards thy 
children is never mixed with hatred, but always with love, 
and that in afflicting of them thou never intendedst any satis- 
faction to thine own justice, but their amendment, even the 
purging out of the remainder of those sinful corruptions 
which are still in them, and the conforming of them to thine 
own image ; I therefore come unto thee this day, to humble 
myself before thee, and to call upon thy name, not for 
any need, or power that I do conceive I have to satisfy thy 
justice, or to appease thy eternal wrath, and to free my soul 
from hell ; for that I do believe Christ has fully done for 
me already ; but I do it it in hopes thereby to pacify thy fa- 
therly anger and displeasure towards me, and to obtain the 
removal of this affliction or judgment which I feel or fear; 
wherefore I beseech thee to pardon and forgive these my 
sins, which have been the procuring cause thereof; yea, I 
pray thee not only to pardon them, but also to purge them, 
that so this may be all the fruit, even the taking away of 
sin, and making me partaker of thy holiness ; and then, 
Lord, remove this affliction and judgment when thy will and 
pleasure is." 

And thus have I showed you the reason why I would 
have you more especially to take notice of your sins, when 



836 * THE MARROW OP 

you come to humble yourself before the Lord in fasting and 
prayer. 

Neo. And, sir, why would you have me to take notice of 
my sins, upon occasion of my going to receive the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper ? 

Evan. Because the more sinful you see yourself to be, the 
more need you will see yourself to have of Christ ; and the 
more need you see yourself to have of Christ, the more will 
you prize him ; and the more you prize Christ, the more you 
will desire him ; and the more you do desire Christ, the more 
fit and worthy receiver you will be. 

Wherefore, when you are determined to receive the sacra- 
ment, then take occasion to examine yourself as the apostle 
exhorts you, behold the face of your soul in the glass of 
the law, lay your heart and life to that rule, as I directed you 
before; then think with yourself and commune with your 
own heart, saying in your heart after this manner, " Though 
I do believe that all these my sins are for Christ's sake 
freely and fully pardoned and forgiven, so as that I shall 
never be condemned for them, yet do I not so fully and 
comfortably believe it as I ought, but am sometimes apt 
to question it : and besides, though my sins have not do- 
minion over me, yet I feel them too prevalent in me, and 
I would fain have more power and strength against them; 
I would fain have my graces stronger and my corruptions 
weaker ; wherefore I, knowing that Christ in the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, seals up unto me the assurance of the 
pardon and forgiveness of all my sins ; yea, and knowing 
that the death and bloodshed of Jesus Christ, which is there 
represented, has in it both a pardoning and purging virtue; 
yea, and knowing that the more fully I do apprehend Christ 
by faith, the more strength of grace, and power against cor- 
ruptions I shall feel : — wherefore I will go to partake of that 
ordinance, in hope that I shall there meet with Jesus Christ, 
and apprehend him more fully by faith, and so obtain both 
more assurances of the pardon of my sins, and the more 
power and strength against them ;" which the Lord grant you 
for Christ's sake. And thus having also showed you the rea- 
son why I would have you more especially to take notice of 
your sins before you come to receive the sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, 1 will now take my leave of you, for my other 
occasions do call me away. 

Neo. Well, sir, I do acknowledge, that you have taken 



MODERN DIVINITY. 337 

great pains both with my neighbour and me this day, for 
the which I do give you many thanks. And yet I must en- 
treat you to do the like courtesy for me which you promised 
my neighbour Nomologista, and that is, at your leisure, to 
write me out a copy of the conference we have had this day. 

Evan. Well, neighbour Neophytus, I shall think of it, and 
it may be, accomplish your desire. And so the God of peace 
be with you. 

Neo. The Lord be with you, sir. 



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE LAW AND THE 
GOSPEL. 

There is little more in all this, viz : " The Marrow," to 
be attributed to me than the very gathering and composing 
of it. That which I aim at, and intend therein, is to show 
unto myself and others that shall read it, the difference 
betwixt the law and the gospel, — a point, as I conceive, 
very needful for us to be well instructed in, and that for 
these reasons : — 

First^ Because, if we be ignorant thereof, we shall be 
very apt to mix and mingle them together, and so to con- 
found the one with the other; which, as Lutber on the 
Galatians, p. 31, truly says, " doth more mischief than 
man's reason can conceive;" and therefore he doth advise 
all Christians, in the case of justification, to separate the 
law and the gospel as far asunder as heaven and earth are 
separated. 

Secondly^ Because if we know right how to distinguish 
betwixt them, the knowledge thereof will afford us no small 
light towards the true understanding of the Scripture, and 
will help us to reconcile all such places, both in the Old 
and New Testament, as seem to be repugnant; yea, and 
it will help us to judge aright of cases of conscience, and 
quiet our own conscience in time of trouble and distress; 
yea, and we shall thereby be enabled to try the truth and 
falsehood of all doctrines ; wherefore, for our better instruc- 
tion on this point, we are first of all to consider and take 
notice what the law is, and what the gospel is. 

Now, the law is a doctrine partly known by nature, teaching 

us that there is a God, and what God is, and what he requires 

us to do, binding all reasonable creatures to perfect obedience, 

both internal and external, promising the favour of God, and 

29 ■ . 



838 THE MARROW OF 

everlasting life to all those wlio yield perfect obedience there- 
unto, and denouncing the curse of God and everlasting 
damnation to all those who are not perfectly correspondent 
thereunto. 

But the gospel is a doctrine revealed from heaven by the 
Son of God, presently after the fall of mankind into sin and 
death, and afterwards manifested more clearly and fully to the 
patriarchs and prophets, to the evangelists and apostles, and 
by them spread abroad to others ; wherein freedom from sin, 
from the curse of the law, the wrath of God, death, and hell, is 
freely promised for Christ^s sake unto all who truly believe on 
his name. 

2dly^ We are to consider what the nature and office of the 
law is, and what the nature and office of the gospel is. 

Now, the nature and office of the law is to show unto us 
our sin, Kom. iii. 20, our condemnation, our death, Eom. 
ii. 1 ; vii. 10. But the nature and office of the gospel is to 
show unto us, that Christ has taken away our sin, John i. 29, 
and that he also is our redemption and life, Col. i. 14 ; iii. 4. 
So that the law is a word of wrath, Kom. iv. 14 ; but the 
GOSPEL is a word of peace, Eph. ii. 17. 

Mly, We are to consider where we may find the law writ- 
ten, and where we may find the gospel written. 

Now, we shall find this law and this gospel written and re- 
corded in the writings of the prophets, evangelists, and apostles, 
namely, in the books called the Old and New Testament, or 
the Scriptures. For, indeed, the law and the gospel are the 
chief general heads which comprehend all the doctrine of the 
Scriptures ; yet we are not to think that these two doctrines 
are to be distinguished by the books and leaves of the Scrip- 
tures, but by the diversity of God's Spirit speaking in them : 
we are not to take and understand whatsoever is contained in 
the compass of the Old Testament, to be only and merely the 
word and voice of the law; neither are we to think that what- 
soever is contained within the compass of the books called the 
New Testament, is only and merely the voice of the gospel ; 
for sometimes in the Old Testament, God does speak comfort, 
as he comforted Adam, with the voice of the gospel ; some- 
times also in the New Testament he does threaten and terrify, 
as when Christ terrified the Pharisees. In some places, again, 
Moses and the prophets do play the evangelists; insomuch that 
Hierom doubts whether he should call Isaiah a prophet or an 
evangelist. In some places, likewise, Christ and the apostles 
supply the part of Moses : Christ himself, until his death, was 



MODERN DIVINITY. 339 

Tinder tlie law, whicli law he came not to break, but to fulfil • 
so his sermons made to the Jews, for the most part, run all 
upon the perfect doctrine'and works of the law, showino- and 
teaching what we ought to do by the right law of justice, and 
what danger ensues in the non-performance of the same. ' All 
which places, though they be contained in the book of the 
New Testament, yet are they to be referred to the doctrine of 
the law, ever having included in them a privy exception of re- 
pentance and faith in Jesus Christ. As for example, where 
Christ thus preaches, " Blessed are the pure in heart, for they 
shall see God," Matt. v. 8. Again, " Except ye be converted, 
and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the king-' 
dom of heaven," Matt, xviii. 3. And again, " lie that doefb 
the will of my Father which is in heaven, shall enter into the 
kingdom of heaven," Matt. vii. 21. And again, the parable 
of the wicked servant, cast into prison for not forgivinf>- his 
fellow, Matt, xviii. 80 ; the casting of the rich glutton into\ell, 
Luke xvi. 23. And again, " He that denieth me before men, 
I will deny him before my Father which is in heaven," Luke 
xii. 9 ; with divers such other places, all which, I say, do ap- 
pertain to the doctrine of the law. 

Wherefore, in the fourth place, we are to take heed, when 
we read the Scriptures, we do not take the gospel for the law, 
nor the law for the gospel, but labour to discern and distin- 
guish the voice of the one from the voice of the other ; and 
if we would know when the law speaks, and when the gospel 
speaks, let us consider and take this for a note, that when in 
Scripture there is any moral work commanded to be done, 
either for eschewing of punishment, or upon promise of any 
reward, temporal or eternal — or else when any promise is made 
with the condition of any work to be done, which is com- 
manded in the law — there is to be understood the voice of the 
law. 

Contrariwise, where the promise of life and salvation is 
offered unto us freely, without any condition of any law, either 
natural, ceremonial, or moral, or any work done by us, all 
those places, whether we read them in the Old Testament, or 
in the New, are to be referred to the voice and doctrine of 
the gospel ; yea, and all those promises of Christ coming in 
the flesh, which we read in the Old Testament ; yea, and all 
those promises in the New Testament, which ofl'er Christ upon 
condition of our believing on his name, are properly called the 
voice of the gospel, because they have no condition of our 



340 THE MARROW OF 

mortifying annexed unto them, but only faith to apprehend 
and receive Jesus Christ ; as it is written, Kom. iii. 22, " For 
the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ 
unto all, and upon all that believe," &c. 

Briefly, then, if we would know when the law speaks, and 
when the gospel speaks, either in reading the word, or in 
hearing it preached ; and if we would skilfully distinguish 
the voice of the one from the voice of the other, we must con- 
sider : — 

LaiD. The law says, " Thou art a sinner, and therefore thou 
shalt be damned," Eom. vii. 2 ; 2 Thess. ii. 12. 

Gos. But the gospel says, No ; *' Christ Jesus came into the 
world to save sinners ;" and therefore, " believe on the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, 1 Tim. i. 15 ; Acts 
xvi. 31. 

Law. Again the law says, " Knowest thou not that the un- 
righteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God ; be not de- 
ceived," &c. 1 Cor. vi. 9. And therefore thou being a sinner, 
and not righteous, shalt not inherit the kingdom of God. 

Oos. But the gospel says, " God has made Christ to be sin 
for thee who knew no sin ; that thou mightest be made the 
righteousness of God in him, who is the Lord thy righteous- 
ness," Jer. xxiii. 6. 

Law. Again the law says, " Pay me that thou owest me, or 
else I will cast thee into prison," Matt, xviii. 28, 30. 

Gos. But the gospel says, " Christ gave himself a ransom 
for thee," 1 Tim. ii. 6; "and so is made redemption unto 
thee," 1 Cor. i. 30. 

Law. Again the law says, " Thou hast not continued in all 
that I require of thee, and therefore thou art accursed," Deut. 
xxvii. 6. 

6^05. But the gospel says, " Christ hath redeemed thee 
from the curse of the law, being made a curse for thee," Gal. 
iii. 13. 

Law. Again the law says, " Thou are become guilty before 
God, and therefore shalt not escape the judgment of God," 
Kom. iii. 19 ; ii. 3. 

Gos. But the gospel says, " The Father judgeth no man, but 
hath committed all judgment to the Son," John v. 12. 

And now, knowing rightly how to distinguish between the 
law and the gospel, we must, in the fifth place, take heed that 
we break not the orders between these two in applying the 
law where the gospel is to be applied, either to ourselves or 
to others; for albeit the law and gospel, in order of doc- 



MODERN DIVINITY. g^J 

trine, are many times to be joined together, yet in tbe case 
of justification, the law must be utterly separated from the 
gospel. 

^ Therefore, whensoever, or wheresoever, any doubt or ques- 
tion arises of salvation, or our justification before God, tlierc 
the law and all good works must be utterly excluded and stand 
apart, that grace may appear free, and that the promise and 
faith may stand alone : which faith alone, without law or 
works, brings thee in particular to thy justification and sal- 
vation, through the mere promise and free grace of God in 
Christ ; so that I say, in the action and office of justification 
both law and works are to be utterly excluded and exempted' 
as things which have nothing to do in that behalf The rea- 
son is this : for seeing that all our redemption springs out 
from the body of the Son of God crucified, then is there no- 
thing that can stand us in stead, but that only wherewith the 
body of Christ is apprehended. Now, forasmuch as neither 
the law nor works, but faith only, is the thing which appre- 
hendeth the body and passion of Christ, therefore faith only is 
that matter which justifies a man before God, through the 
strength of that object Jesus Christ, which it apprehends; like 
as the brazen serpent was the object only of the Israelites' 
looking, and not of their hands' working ; by the strength of 
which object, through the promise of God, immediately pro- 
ceeded health to the beholders : so the body of Christ being 
the object of our faith, strikes righteousness to our souls, not 
through working, but through believing. 

Wherefore, when any person or persons, do feel themselves 
oppressed or terrified with the burden of their sins, and feci 
themselves with the majesty of the law and judgment of God 
terrified and oppressed, outweighed and thrown down into ut- 
ter discomfort, almost to the pit of hell, as happens sometimes 
to God's own dear servants, who have soft and timorous con- 
sciences ; when such souls, I say, do read or hear any such place 
of Scripture which appertains to the law, let them, then, think 
and assure themselves that such places do not appertain or 
belong to them ; nay, let not such only who are thus deeply 
humbled and terrified do this, but also let every one that does 
but make any doubt or question of their own salvation, through 
the sight and sense of their sin, do the like. 

And to this end and purpose, let them consider and mark 
well the end why the law was given, which was not to bring U3 
to salvation, nor to make us good, and so to procure God's 

29* 



342 THE MARROW OF 

love and favour towards us : but ratlier to declare and convict 
our wickedness, and make us feel the danger thereof; to this 
end and purpose, that we seeing our condemnation, and being 
in ourselves confounded, may be driven thereby to have our 
refuge in the Son of God, in whom alone is to be found our 
remedy. And when this is wrought in us, then the law has 
accomplished its end in us ; and therefore it is now to give 
place unto Jesus Christ, who, as the apostle says, " is the end 
of the law," Eom. x. 3. Let every true convicted person, 
then, who fears the wrath of God, death, and hell, when they 
hear or read any such places of Scripture as do appertain to 
the law, not think the same to belong to them, no more than 
a mourning weed belongs to a marriage feast ; and therefore, 
removing utterly out of their minds all cogitations of the law, 
all fear of judgment and condemnation, let them only set be- 
fore their eyes the gospel, viz : the glad and joyful tidings of 
Christ, the sweet comforts of God's promises, free forgiveness 
of sins in Christ, grace, redemption, liberty, psalms, thanks, 
singing, a paradise of spiritual jocundity, and nothing else ; 
thinking thus within themselves, the law hath now done its 
office in me, and therefore must now give place to its better ; 
that is, it must needs give place to Jesus Christ, the Son of 
God, who is my Lord and Master, the fulfiller and accora- 
plisher of the law. 

Lastly^ As we must take heed and beware that we apply not 
the law where the gospel is to be applied, so must we also take 
heed and beware that we apply not the gospel where the law 
is to be applied. Let us not apply the gospel instead of the 
law; for, as before, the other was even as much as to put on 
a mourning-gown at a marriage feast, so this is but even the 
casting of pearls before swine, wherein is great abuse amongst 
many ; for commonly it is seen, that these proud, self-conceited, 
and unhumbled persons, these worldly epicures and secure 
mammonists, to whom the doctrine of the law does properly 
appertain, do yet notwithstanding put it away from them, and 
bless themselves with the sweet promises of the gospel, saying, 
" They hope they have as good a share in Christ as the best 
of them all, for God is merciful and the like." And contrari- 
wise, the other contrite and bruised hearts, to whom belongs 
not the law, but the joyful tidings of the gospel, for the most 
part receive and apply to themselves the terrible voice and 
sentence of the law. Whereby it comes to pass, that many do 
rejoice when they should mourn ; and on the other side, many 



MODERN DIVINITY. 343 

do fear and mourn when tliey should rejoice. Wherefore, to 
conclude, in private use of life, let every person discreetly dis- 
cern between the law and the gospel, and apply to himself that 
which belongs to him. Let the man or the woman, wlio did 
never yet to any purpose (especially in the time of health and 
prosperity) think of, or consider their latter end, that did never 
yet fear the wrath of God, nor death, nor devil, nor hell, but 
have lived, and do still live a jocund and merry life ; let them 
apply the curse of the law to themselves, for to them it be- 
longs: yea, and let all your civil honest men and women, who, 
it may be, do sometimes think of their latter end, and have 
had some kind of fear of the wrath of God, death, and hell, 
in their hearts, and yet have salved up the sore, with a pLaster 
made of their own civil righteousness, with a salve compounded 
of their outward conformity to the duties contained in the 
law, their freedom from gross sins, and their upright and just 
dealing with men ; let these hearken to the voice of the law, 
when it says, " Cursed is every one that continueth not in all 
things which are written in the book of the law to do them ;" 
but let all self-denying, fearful, trembling souls, apply the gra- 
cious and sweet promises of God in Christ unto themselves, and 
rejoice because their names are written in the Book of Life. 



APPENDIX 



The Occasion op the " Marrow " Controversy, stated by the late Rev. 
John Brown, of Haddington. 

While the Church of Scotland was clear and exact in her standards, and 
many of her preachers truly evangelical, a flood of. legal doctrine filled many 
pulpits about the time of the Revolution. 

The Arminian errors of Professor Simpson were also prevalent after 
this time ; but the Assembly used him with great tenderness. However, 
they were far from being equally kind to such as earnestly endeavoured 
a clear illustration of the doctrines of God's free grace reigning through 
the righteousness of Christ. Mr. Hamilton of Airth having published a 
catechetical treatise concerning the covenant of works and grace, and the 
sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper, in a more evangelical 
strain than some wished, the Assembly, 1710, prohibited all ministers or 
members of this church to print, or disperse in writ, any catechism, with- 
out the allowance of the Presbytery of the bounds, or the Commission. 
The Presbytery of Auchterarder having begun to require candidates for 
licence, to acknowledge it unsound to teach that men must forsake their 
si7is in order to come to Christ, the Assembly, 1717, on the same day they 
had dealt so gently with Professor Simpson, declared their abhorrence of 
that proposition as unsound and most detestable — as if men ought only to 
come to Christ, the alone Saviour from sins, after they have got rid of 
them by repentance. Mr. James Hog, one of the holiest ministers in 
the kingdom, having published or recommended a celebrated and edifying 
tract of the Crorawellian age, called The Marrow of Modern Divinity, the 
Assembly, 1720, fell upon it with great fury, as if it had been replete with 
Autinomian errors, though it is believed many of these zealots never read 
it, at least had never perused it, in connection with the Second Part of it, 
which is wholly taken up in the manifestation of the obligation, meaning, 
and advantage of observing the law of God. They condemned the offer- 
ing of Christ, as a Saviour to all men, or to sinners as such, and the doc- 
trine of believers' full deliverance from under the law as a broken cove- 
nant of works. They asserted men's holiness to be a federal or condi- 
tional mean of their obtaining eternal happiness. They condemned 
these almost express declarations of Scripture, that believers are not 
under the law, — that they do not commit sin, — that the Lord sees no sin 
in them, and cannot be angry with them, as Antinomian paradoxes, — and 
condemned the distinction of the moral law as a covenant of works, and as 
a binding rule of duty in the hand of Christ. In order to explain these 
expressions, Messrs. James Hog, Thomas Boston, Ebenezer and Ralph 
(344) 



APPENDIX. 845 

Erskines, Gabriel Watson, and seven others, remonstrated to the next 
Assembly against these decisions as injurious to the doctrine of God's 
grace. And in their answers to the Commission's Twelve Queries, they 
ilkistrated these doctrines with no small clearness and evidence. rerhai)8 
influenced by this, as well as by the wide spread detestation of their acts 
(1720) on that point, the Assembly, 1722, reconsidered the same, and 
made an act explaining and confirming them. This was less gross and 
erroneous. Nevertheless, the twelve representers protested against it as 
injurious to truth; but this protest was not allowed to be marked. The 
Moderator, by the Assembly's appointment, rebuked them for their re- 
flections on the Assembly, 1720, in their representation, and admonished 
them to beware of the like in all time coming ; against which they 
protested. 



Queries agreed unto by the Commission op the General Assembly, 

AND PUT to those MINISTERS WHO GAVE IN A REPRESENTATION' 

AND Petition against the 5th and 8th Acts of Assembly 1720, 
WITH the Answers given by these Ministers to the said Queries.* 

Adhering to and holding, as here repeated, our subscribed Answer 
given in to the Reverend Commission, when by them called to receive 
these Queries, we come to adventure, under the conduct of the faithful 
and true Witness, who has promised the Spirit of truth to lead his people 
into truth, to make answer to the said Queries. To which, before we 
proceed, we crave leave to represent, that the title thereto prefixed, viz : 
*' Queries to be put to Mr. James Hog, and other Ministers, who gave in 
a Representation in Favours of the INIarrow, to the General Assembly, 
1721," as well as that prefixed to the Commission's overture anent this 
affair, has a native tendency to divert and bemist the reader, to expose 
us, and to turn the matter oS" its proper hinge, by giving a wrong colour 
to our Representation, as if the chief design of it was to plead, not for 
the precious truths of the gospel, which we conceive to be wounded by 
the condemnatory act, but for " The Marrow of Modern Divinity,"' the 
which, though we value for a good and useful book, and doubt not but 
the Church of God may be much edified by it, as we ourselves have been, 
yet came it never into our minds to hold it, or any other private writ- 
ing, faultless, nor to put it on a level with our approved standards of 
doctrine. 

Query. I. — Whether are there any precepts in the gospel that were not actually 
given before the gospel was revealed ? 

Answer. — The passages in our representation, marked out to us for the 
grounds of this query, are these :— " The gospel doctrine, known only by 

* " A masterly production," says the judicious Mr. Eraser, of Kennoway, 
" which has undergone many impressions, and which discusses the points at 
issue with a perspicuity and energy that has commanded the estconi and admi- 
ration of Mr. James Hervey, and many others who had no immediate concern 
in the controversy." 



846 APPENDIX. 

a new revelation after the fall. Of the same dismal tendency we apprehend to 
be the declaring of that distinction of the law, as it is the law of works, and as it 
is the law of Christ, as the author applies it, to be altogether groundless. The 
erroneous doctrine of justification, for something wrought in, or done by the 
sinner, as his righteousness, or keeping the new and gospel law." Now, leaving 
it to others to judge if these passages gave any just occasion to this question, 
we answer, — 

1st, In the gospel, taken strictly, and as contradistinct from the law, 
for a doctrine of grace, or good news from heaven, or help in God 
through Jesus Christ, to lost self-destroying creatures of Adam's race, 
or the glad tidings of a Saviour, with life and salvation in him to the 
chief of sinners, there are no precepts ; all these, the command to believe, 
and repent, not excepted, belonging to, and flowing from the law, which 
fastens the new duty on us, the same moment the gospel reveals the new 
object. 

That in the gospel, taken strictly, there are no precepts, to us seems 
evident from the holy Scriptures. In the first revelation of it, made in 
these words, — " The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the 
serpent," we find no precept, but a promise containing glad tidings of a 
Saviour, with grace, mercy, life, and salvation in him, to lost sinners of 
Adam's family. And the gospel preached unto Abraham, namely, 
** In thee," i. e., in thy seed, which is in Christ, " shall all nations be 
blessed," is of the same nature. The good tidings of great joy to all 
people of a Saviour born in the city of David, who is Christ the Lord, 
brought and proclaimed from heaven by the angels, we take to have been 
the gospel, strictly and properly so called ; yet is there no precept in 
these tidings. We find, likewise, the gospel of peace and glad tidings 
of good things are in Scripture convertible terms ; and the word of the 
gospel, which Peter spoke to the Gentiles, that they might believe, was 
no other than peace by Jesus Christ, crucified, risen, and exalted to be 
Judge of quick and dead, with remission of sins through his name, to be re- 
ceived by every one believing in him. Much more might be added on this 
head, which, that we be not tedious, we pass. Of the same mind, as to this 
point, we find the body of reformed divines, as to instance in a few, Calvin, 
Chamier, Pemble, Wendelin, Alting, the professors of Leyden, Witsius, Maes- 
trick, Maresius, Troughton, Essenius. 

That all precepts, (those of faith and repentance not excepted,) belong 
to, and are of the law, is no less evident to us ; for the law of creation, or 
of the ten commandments, which was given to Adam in paradise, in the 
form of a covenant of works, requiring us to believe whatever God should 
reveal or promise, and to obey whatever he should command ; all pre- 
cepts whatsoever must be virtually and really included in it. So that 
there never was, nor can be, an instance of duty owing by the creature 
to God, not commanded in the moral law, if not directly and expressly, 
yet indirectly, and by consequence. The same first commandment, for 
instance, which requires us to take the Lord for our God, to acknow- 
ledge his essential verity, and sovereign authority ; to love, fear, and 
trust in Jehovah, after what manner soever he shall be pleased to reveal 
himself to us, and likewise to grieve and mourn for his dishonour or 
displeasure, requires believing in Jehovah, our righteousness, as soon as 
ever he is revealed to us as such, and sorrowing after a godly sort for 
the transgression of his holy law, whether by one's self or by others. It 
is true, Adam was not actually obliged to believe in a Saviour, till, 
being lost and undone, a Saviour was revealed to him ; but the same 



APPENDIX. 347 

commandment that bound him to trust and depend on, and to believe 
the promises of God Creator, no doubt obliged him to Ijclieve in Uod 
Redeemer, when revealed. Nor was Adam obliged to sorrow for sin 
ere it was committed. But this same law that bound him to have a 
sense of the evil of sin in its nature and effects, to hate, loathe, and flee 
from sin, and to resolve against it, and for all holy obedience, and to 
have a due apprehension of the goodness of God, obliged him also to 
mourn for it, whenever it should fall out. And we cannot see how the 
contrary doctrine is consistent with the perfection of the law ; for if the law 
be a complete rule of all moral, internal and spiritual, as well as external 
and ritual obedience, it must require fiiith and repentance, as well as 
it does all other good works. And that it does indeed require them, wo 
can have no doubt of, when we consider, that without them all other 
religious performances are, in God's account, as good as nothing ; and 
that sin being, as the Scripture and our own standard tell ur,, any want 
of conformity to, or transgression of the law of God, unbelief and im- 
penitency must be so too. And if they be so, then must faith and re- 
pentance be obedience and conformity of the same law, which the former 
are a transgression of, or an inconformity unfx) ; unbelief particularly be- 
ing a departing from the living God, is, for certain, forbidden in the first 
commandment, therefore faith must needs be required in the same com- 
mandment, according to a known rule. But what need we more, after our 
Lord has told us, that faith is one of the weightier matters of the law ? and 
that it is not a second table duty which is there meant, is evident to us, by 
comparing the parallel place in Luke, where, in place of faith, we have tho 
love of God. As for repentance, in case of sin against God, it becomes 
naturally a duty ; and though neither the covenant of works nor of grace 
admitted of it, as any expiation of sin, or federal condition giving right to 
life, it is a duty included in every commandment, on the supposal of a 
transgression. 

What moves us to be the more concerned for this point of doctrine is, 
that if the law does not bind sinners to believe and repent, then we see not 
how faith and repentance, considered as works, are excluded from our 
justification before God, since in that case they are not works of the 
law, under which character all works are in Scripture excluded from the 
use of justifying in the sight of God. And we can call to mind that, ou 
the contrary doctrine, Arminius laid the foundation of his rotteu prin- 
ciples, touching sufiicient grace, or rather natural power. " Adam," says 
he, " had not power to believe in Jesus Christ, because he needed him not ; 
nor was he bound to believe, because the law required it not. Therefore, 
since Adam by his fall did not lose it, God is bound to give every mau 
power to believe in Jesus Christ." And Socinians, Arminians, Papists, 
and Baxterians, by holding the gospel to be a new, proper, preceptive 
law, with sanction, and thereby turning it into a real, though milder 
covenant of works, have confounded the law and the gospel, and brought 
works into the matter and cause of a sinner's justification before God. 
And, we reckon, we are the rather called to be on our guard here, that 
the clause in our representation, making mention of the new, or gospel- 
law, is marked out to us, as one of the grounds of this query, which we 
own to be somewhat alarming. Besides all this, the teaching that faith 
and repentance are gospel commandments, may yet again ojicn the door 
to Antinomianism, as it sometimes did already, if Ave may believe Mr. 
Cross, who says, "History tells us that it sprung from such a mistake, 
that faith and repentance were taught and commanded by the gospel 



048 APPENDIX. 

only, and that as they contained all necessary to salvation, so the law was 
needless." 

On this head also, namely, that all precepts belong to the law, we 
might likewise adduce a cloud of witnesses beyond exception, such as 
Perable, Esseuius, Anth, Burgess, Rutherford, Owen, Witsius, Dickson, 
Fergusson, Troughton, Larger Catechism on the duties required, and 
sins forbidden in the first commandment. But, without insisting further, we 
answer, — 

2dly, In the gospel, taken largely for the whole doctrine of Christ and 
the apostles, contained in the New Testament, or for a system of all the 
promises, precepts, threatenings, doctrines, histories, that any way con- 
cern man's recovery and salvation, in which respect, not only all the 
ten commandments, but the doctrine of the covenant of works belong to 
it, but in this sense, the doctrine is not contradistinct from the law ; — 
in the gospel, taken thus at large, we say, there are doubtless many 
precepts that were not actually given (that is, particularly and expressly 
promulgated or required) before the gospel was revealed. Love to our 
enemies, to instance in a few of many, mercy to the miserable, bearing 
of the cross, hope and joy in tribulations, in prospect of their having a 
desired issue, love, thankfulness, prayer, and obedience to a God Redeem- 
er, zealous witnessing against sin, and for truth, in case of defection from 
the faith or holiness of the gospel, confessing our faults to and forgiving 
one another. All the ceremonial precepts under the Old Testament, 
together with the institutions of Christ under the New, faith in Jesus 
Christ, repentance unto life, with many more, to say nothing of personal 
and particular precepts, were not actually given before the gospel was 
revealed ; all which are nevertheless reducible to the law of the ten com- 
mandments, many of them being plain duties of the law of nature, 
though they had no due and proper objects, nor occasions of being exer- 
cised in an innocent state. It is true, there are many of them we had 
never heard of, without the gospel had been revealed ; yet are they not, 
therefore, in any proper sense, precepts of the gospel, but of the law, 
which is exceeding broad, extending to new objects, occasions, and cir- 
cumstances. The law says one thing to the person unmarried, and 
another thing to the same person when married ; one thing to him as a 
child, another thing to him as a parent, &c., yet is it the same law still. 
The law of God being perfect, and like unto its Author, must reach to every 
condition of the creature ; but if for every new duty or new object of 
faith there behoved to be a new law, how strangely must laws be multi- 
plied ! The law itself (even as in the case of a man) may meet with any 
changes, and yet remain the same as to its essence. Now, as to faith 
and repentance, though ability to exercise them, and acceptance of them, 
be by the gospel, yet it is evident they must be regulated by the same 
law, the transgression of which made them necessary. The essence of 
repentance, it is plain, lies in repeating and renewing, with a suitable frame of 
spirit, the duties omitted, or in observing the law one had violated. For 
as the divine perfections are the rule and pattern of God's image in man, 
as well in his regeneration as in his creation, so the holy law of God is the 
rule of our repentance, as well as of our primitive obedience. And why faith, 
when it has God Mediator, or God Redeemer, for its object, may not be 
from the same law as when it had God Creator, or God Preserver for its ob- 
jects, we cannot see. 



APPENDIX. 349 

Query JI.—Is not the believer now bound, by the authority of the 
Creator, to personal obedience to the moral law, 'though not vi order to 
justification 7 

^7w.— What is given us for the ground of this query, is the following 
clause of our representation, viz :— " Since believers are" not under it, to 
be thereby justified or condemned, we cannot comprehend how it con- 
tinues any longer a covenant of works to them, or as such to have a com- 
manding power over them, that covenant form of it being done away in 
Christ with respect to believers." This clause of the representation being 
so much one, even in words, with our Confession, we could never have 
expected the Reverend Commission would have moved a query upon 
it ; but since they have been pleased to think otherwise, we answer 
affirmatively : — 

The believer, since he ceases not to be a creature by being made a new 
creature, is, and must ever be bound to personal obedience to the law of 
the ten^ commandments, by the authority of Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, his Creator. But this authority is, as to him, issued by and from 
the Lord Jesus Christ, at whose mouth he receives the law, being as well 
his Lord God Creator, as his Lord God Redeemer, and having all the 
fulness of the Godhead dwelling in him ; nor can nor will the sinful 
creature ever apply himself to obedience acceptable to God, or com- 
fortable to himself, without the Creator's authority come to him in that 
channel. 

We are clear and full of the same mind with our Confession, that the 
moral law of the ten commandments does for ever bind all, as well justi- 
fied persons as others, to the obedience thereof, not only in regard of the 
matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the 
Creator who gave it, and that Christ does not in the gospel any way dis- 
solve, but much strengthen this obligation ; for how can it lose anything 
of its original authority, by being conveyed to the believer in such a 
sweet and blessed channel as the hand of Christ, since both he himself is 
the supreme God and Creator, and since the authority, majesty, and 
sovereignty of the Father is in his Son, he being the same in substance, 
equal in power and glory? "Beware of Him," says the Lord unto Israel, 
concerning Christ the angel of the covenant. " and obey his voice, pro- 
voke him not : for my name is in him." That is, as we understand it, 
my authority, sovereignty, and other adorable excellencies, yea the whole ful- 
ness of the Godhead is in him, and in him only will I be served and obeyed. 
And then it follows, " But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that 
I speak." The name of the Father is so in him ; he is so of the same nature 
with his Father, that his voice is the Father's voice : " If thou obey his voice, 
and do all that I speak." 

We desire to think and speak honourably of Ilim. whose name is 
« Wonderful, Counsello*r, the Mighty God, the Everlasting Father, and 
the Prince of Peace." And it cannot but exceedingly grate our ears, 
and grieve our spirits, to find such doctrines or positions vented in this 
Church, especially at a time when the Arian heresy is so prevalent in our 
neighbour nations, as have an obvious tendency to dark<M) and disparage 
his divine glory and authority, as that, if a believer ought not to receive 
the law of the ten commandments at the hand of God. as he is Creator 
out of Christ, then he is not under its obligation, as it was delivered by 
God the Creator, but is loosed from all obedience to it. as it was enacted 
by the authority of the Lord Creator ; and that it is iiijin-ious to the in- 
finite majesty of the Sovereign Lord Creatoi-, and to the honour of liia 
30 



850 APPENDIX. 

holy law, to restrict the believer to receive the ten commandments only 
at the hand of Christ. What can be more injurious to the infinite 
majesty of the sovereign Lord Kedeemer ; by whom all things were 
created that are in heaven and in earth, visible and invisible, whether 
they be thrones or dominions, principalities or powers, than to speak as 
if the Creator's authority was not in him, or as if the receiving the Crea- 
tor's law from Christ did loose men from obedience to it, as enacted by 
the authority of the Father ? Wo unto us, if this doctrine be the truth, 
for so should we be brought back to consuming fire indeed ; for, out of 
Christ, " He that made us will have no mercy upon us ; nor will he that 
formed us show us any favour." We humbly conceive, the Father does 
not reckon himself glorified, but contemned by Christians offering obe- 
dience to him as Creator out of Christ. Nor does the offering to deal 
with him after this sort, or to teach others so, discover a due regard to 
the mystery of Christ revealed in the gospel ; for it is the will of the 
Father, the Sovereign Lord Creator, that all men should honour the Son, 
even as they honour himself ; and that at, or in the name of Jesus every 
knee should bow ; and that every tongue should confess Jesus Christ is 
Lord, to the glory of God the Father, who having in these last days 
spoken unto us by his Son, by whom also he made the worlds, and with 
an audible voice from heaven has said, " This is my beloved Son in whom I am 
well pleased hear ye him." Were it not we would be thought tedious, Perkins, 
Durham, Owen, and others, might have been heard on this head. But we pro- 
ceed to — 

Query ill. — Doth the annexing of a promise of life, and a threatening of death 
to a precept, make it a covenant of works ? 

We answer, as in our representation, That the promise of life, and 
threatening of death, superadded to the law of the Creator, made it a 
covenant of works to our first parents, proposed ; and their own consent, 
which sinless creatures could not refuse, made it a covenant of works ac- 
cepted. " A law," says the judicious Durham, " doth necessarily imply no 
more than, first, to direct ; secondly, to command, enforcing that obe- 
dience by authority. A covenant doth further necessarily imply pro- 
mises made upon some conditions, or threatenings added if such a con- 
dition be not performed. Now, says he, this law may be considered 
without the consideration of a covenant ; for it was free to God to have 
added or not to have added promises ; and the threatenings, upon sup- 
position the law had been kept, might never have taken effect." From 
whence it is plain, in the judgment of this great divine, the law of nature 
was turned into a covenant by the addition of a promise of life and threa- 
tening of death. Of the same mind is Burgess and the London ministers, 
Vindiciae Legis, page 61. " There are only two things which go to the 
essence of a law, and that is — 1st, direction ; 2d, obligation. First, direc- 
tion : therefore a law is a rule : hence the law of God is compared to 
light. Second, obligation ; for therein lieth the essence of sin that it 
breaketh this law, which supposes the obligatory force of it. In the next 
place, there are two consequents of the law, which are ad bene esse, that 
the law may be the better obeyed ; and this indeed turneth the law into 
a covenant. First the sanction of it by way of promise ; that is a mere 
free thing : God, by reason of that dominion which he had over man, 
might have commanded his obedience, and yet never made a promise of 
eternal life unto him. And, secondly, as for the other consequent act of 
the law, to curse and punish, this is but an accidental act, not necessary 



APPENDIX. 35X 

to a law, for it comes in upon supposition of transj^rcssion. A law is a 
complete law, obliging, though it do not actually curse; as in the con- 
firmed ang-els it never laid any more than obligatory and mandatory acU 
upon them; for that they were under a law is plain, because otherwise 
they could not have sinned, for where there is no law, there is no trans- 
gression." 

Though there is no ground from our representation to add more on 
this head, yet we may say, that a promise of life made to a precept of 
doing, — that is, in consideration or upon condition of one's doing, be the 
doing more or less, it is all one, the divine will in the precept being tiie 
rule in this case, is a covenant of works. And as to believers in tFlirist, 
though in the gospel, largely taken, we own there are promises of life, 
and threatenings of death, as well as precepts ; and that godliness hath 
the_ promise, not only of